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Robyn Westmacott, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Gabrielle deVeber, Daune MacGregor, Mahendranath Moharir, Nomazulu Dlamini, Tricia S Williams
Childhood arterial ischemic stroke often involves basal ganglia and thalamus but little is known about neuropsychological outcomes in this group. We examined intellectual ability, academics, attention, executive function, and psychological diagnoses in children and adolescents (6-20 years of age) with childhood stroke involving the basal ganglia (n = 32) or thalamus (n = 12). Intellectual ability was age-appropriate but working memory was significantly lower than expected. Compared to the normative mean, the stroke group exhibited significantly weaker performance in reading comprehension, math fluency, attention, and greater challenges with executive function...
October 15, 2018: Developmental Neuropsychology
Sarah E Martiny, Jana Nikitin
Research has shown that social identity threat can have a broad variety of negative consequences. However, not much is known about the consequences of social identity threat on interpersonal relationships. In the present research, we hypothesize that experiencing social identity threat decreases people's social approach motivation toward other people related to the stereotyped domain. Specifically, we manipulated social identity threat by activating negative stereotypes about women in math. As math is an important aspect of the academic self-concept, female university students who are confronted with a negative math stereotype should experience threat toward their identity as university students...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Applied
Gregor Körzdörfer, Yun Jiang, Peter Speier, Jianing Pang, Dan Ma, Josef Pfeuffer, Bernhard Hensel, Vikas Gulani, Mark Griswold, Mathias Nittka
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate the magnetic resonance field fingerprinting method that simultaneously generates T1 , T2 , B0 , and <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mi>B</mml:mi> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>1</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> <mml:mo>+</mml:mo> </mml:msubsup> </mml:math> maps from a single continuous measurement. METHODS: An encoding pattern was designed to integrate true fast imaging with steady-state precession (TrueFISP), fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP), and fast low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence segments with varying flip angles, radio frequency (RF) phases, TEs, and gradient moments in a continuous acquisition...
October 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Tze-Huan Lei, James D Cotter, Zachary J Schlader, Stephen R Stannard, Blake G Perry, Matthew J Barnes, Toby Mündel
KEY POINTS: One in two female athletes chronically take a combined, mono-phasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Previous thermoregulatory investigations having theorised that an endogenous rhythm of the menstrual cycle still occurs with OCP usage. Forthcoming large international sporting events will expose female athletes to hot environments differing in their thermal profile, yet few data exist on how trained women will respond from both a thermoregulatory and performance standpoint. We demonstrated here that a small endogenous rhythm of the menstrual cycle still affects Tcore, and that chronic OCP use attenuates the sweating response but behavioural thermoregulation is maintained...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Xia Yao, Haiyang Si, Tao Cheng, Min Jia, Qi Chen, YongChao Tian, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Chaoyan Chen, Jiayu Cai, Rongrong Gao
To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailoring varieties to adapt to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to acquire the dynamic changes of the crop's phenotype under field conditions. Canopy leaf biomass (CLB) per ground area is one of the key crop phenotypic parameters in plant breeding. The most promising technique for effectively monitoring CLB is the hyperspectral vegetation index (VI). However, VI-based empirical models are limited by their poor stability and extrapolation difficulties when used to assess complex dynamic environments with different varieties, growth stages, and sites...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ming Kuo, Matthew H E M Browning, Sonya Sachdeva, Kangjae Lee, Lynne Westphal
In the United States, schools serving urban, low-income students are among the lowest-performing academically. Previous research in relatively well-off populations has linked vegetation in schoolyards and surrounding neighborhoods to better school performance even after controlling for important confounding factors, raising the tantalizing possibility that greening might boost academic achievement. This study extended previous cross-sectional research on the "greenness"-academic achievement link to a public school district in which nine out of ten children were eligible for free lunch...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Víctor Cerezuela-Espejo, Javier Courel-Ibáñez, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Alejandro Martínez-Cava, Jesús G Pallarés
The aims of this study were (1) to establish the best fit between ventilatory and lactate exercise performance parameters in running and (2) to explore novel alternatives to estimate the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) in well-trained runners. Twenty-two trained male athletes ( <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mover> <mml:mrow> <mml:mtext>V</mml:mtext> </mml:mrow> <mml:mo>˙</mml:mo> </mml:mover> </mml:math> O2max 60.2 ± 4...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Annika Susann Wienke, Canan Basar-Eroglu, Christina Schmiedt-Fehr, Birgit Mathes
Adolescents are easily distracted by novel items than adults. Maturation of the frontal cortex and its integration into widely distributed brain networks may result in diminishing distractibility with the transition into young adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate maturational changes of brain activity during novelty processing. We hypothesized that during adolescence, timing and task-relevant modulation of frontal cortex network activity elicited by novelty processing improves, concurrently with increasing cognitive control abilities...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Markus Faustmann, Jens Markus Melenk
The local behavior of the lowest order boundary element method on quasi-uniform meshes for Symm's integral equation and the stabilized hyper-singular integral equation on polygonal/polyhedral Lipschitz domains is analyzed. We prove local a priori estimates in <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mi>L</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msup> </mml:math> for Symm's integral equation and in <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3...
2018: Numerische Mathematik
David Macutkiewicz, Caroline Sunderland
Team sports, such as field hockey, incorporate high-intensity repeated sprints, interspersed with low-intensity running, which can result in acidosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on team sport running and skill performance. Eight elite female field hockey players (age 23 ± 5 years, body mass 62.6 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.66 ± 0.05 m) completed three Field Hockey Skill Tests (FHST) interspersed with four sets of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST)...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
David Rankin, Jeni Harden, Katharine Barnard, Louise Bath, Kathryn Noyes, John Stephen, Julia Lawton
BACKGROUND: When children with type 1 diabetes approach adolescence, they are encouraged to become more involved in diabetes self-management. This study explored the challenges pre-adolescent children encounter when self-managing diabetes and the factors which motivate and enable them to take on new diabetes-related tasks. A key objective was to inform the support offered to pre-adolescent children. METHODS: In-depth interviews using age-appropriate questioning with 24 children (aged 9-12 years) with type 1 diabetes...
October 13, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Simon P Neville, Albert Stolow, Michael S Schuurman
Cyclopropane, the smallest organic ring compound, exhibits complex spectroscopy and excited state dynamics. In Paper I, we reinterpret the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) electronic absorption spectrum of cyclopropane via ab initio computation. The first two bands in the VUV spectrum are simulated using wavepacket propagations employing the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartee method and a newly parameterized linear vibronic coupling Hamiltonian. The parameters of the model Hamiltonian are obtained directly from high level multireference configuration interaction calculations...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Changjian Xie, Xiaolei Zhu, David R Yarkony, Hua Guo
A machine learning method is proposed for representing the elements of diabatic potential energy matrices (PEMs) with high fidelity. This is an extension of the so-called permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) method for representing adiabatic potential energy surfaces. While for one-dimensional irreducible representations the diagonal elements of a diabatic PEM are invariant under exchange of identical nuclei in a molecular system, the off-diagonal elements require special symmetry consideration, particularly in the presence of a conical intersection...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Juan C Araque, Claudio J Margulis
Structural heterogeneity in Ionic Liquids (ILs) is to a large extent defined by nanoscale apolar pockets that act as spacers between strings of positive and negative charges that alternate. In contrast to this, recent work from our group and that of others appear to indicate that dynamic, energetic, and mechanical heterogeneities are governed by the charged part of the liquid. In this article, we study the dynamics of methane, a small apolar solute, in the family of ILs 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Agata Sabik, Piotr Mazur, Franciszek Gołek, Artur Trembulowicz, Grażyna Antczak
We have utilized scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction to determine the structural properties of two types of metal-phthalocyanines (MPcs), i.e., cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc) and hexadecafluorinated copper-phthalocyanine (F16 CuPc) on the Ag(100) surface. For coverage close to one monolayer, both systems form long-range ordered structures with square unit cells. The size and rotation of the unit cell with respect to the silver lattice depend on the chemical composition of MPc...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
S Sugaya, V M Kenkre
The process of transmission of infection in epidemics is analyzed by studying a pair of random walkers, the motion of each of which in two dimensions is confined spatially by the action of a quadratic potential centered at different locations for the two walks. The walkers are animals such as rodents in considerations of the Hantavirus epidemic, infected or susceptible. In this reaction-diffusion study, the reaction is the transmission of infection, and the confining potential represents the tendency of the animals to stay in the neighborhood of their home range centers...
October 12, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Amanda J L Watson, Anna Timperio, Helen Brown, Kylie D Hesketh
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of a 6-week pilot active break program (ACTI-BREAK) on academic achievement, classroom behaviour and physical activity. DESIGN: Pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. METHODS: 374 children in Year 3 and 4 (74% response) were recruited from six schools across Melbourne, Australia. Schools were randomised to the ACTI-BREAK intervention or usual teaching practice. The intervention involved teachers incorporating 3×5min active breaks into their classroom routine daily...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Moi Hoon Yap, Manu Goyal, Fatima M Osman, Robert Martí, Erika Denton, Arne Juette, Reyer Zwiggelaar
Multistage processing of automated breast ultrasound lesions recognition is dependent on the performance of prior stages. To improve the current state of the art, we propose the use of end-to-end deep learning approaches using fully convolutional networks (FCNs), namely FCN-AlexNet, FCN-32s, FCN-16s, and FCN-8s for semantic segmentation of breast lesions. We use pretrained models based on ImageNet and transfer learning to overcome the issue of data deficiency. We evaluate our results on two datasets, which consist of a total of 113 malignant and 356 benign lesions...
January 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging
Darren L Richardson, Michael J Duncan, Alfonso Jimenez, Victoria M Jones, Paul M Juris, Neil D Clarke
The aim of the present study was to determine if workload matched, high-velocity (HVE) and low-velocity (LVE) resistance exercise protocols, elicit differing acute physiological responses in older adults. Ten older adults completed three sets of eight exercises on six separate occasions (three HVE and three LVE sessions). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and blood lactate were measured pre- and post-exercise, heart rate was measured before exercise and following each set of each exercise. Finally, a rating of perceived exertion was measured following each set of each exercise...
September 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Stephanie Brown, Jon Quach, Peter J Anderson, Fiona Mensah, Gehan Roberts
OBJECTIVE: Prematurity affects children's functioning in domains such as cognitive skills and math skills. However, there is limited research examining math skills as gestational age (GA) increases weekly. We aimed at determining, in a population-based cohort of children aged 8 to 9 years, the association between the GA spectrum and math skills and working memory's (WM's) role in this relationship. METHODS: Children aged 8 to 9 years in 2014 (n = 1761), from 44 primary schools in a metropolitan city, were recruited through the Memory Maestros study in 2012...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
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