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Rachel A Bergstrom
Science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) continue to work to increase the diversity of the fields, yet there are still significant historical and societal hurdles to be overcome before we reach full representation throughout STEM. The concept of science identity has become a point of interest in this process; it has been suggested that development of one's identity as a scientist is critical to persistence in the field. Metaphors that are rooted in bodily experience can provide a starting point to understand abstract concepts, including science identity and how we as STEM educators respond to increasing diversity within our fields...
March 1, 2019: Advances in Physiology Education
Ol'ha O Brovarets', Kostiantyn S Tsiupa, Andrii Dinets, Dmytro M Hovorun
In this paper using quantum-mechanical (QM) calculations in combination with Bader's quantum theory of "Atoms in Molecules" (QTAIM) in the continuum with ε = 1, we have theoretically demonstrated for the first time that revealed recently highly-energetic conformers of the classical A·T DNA base pairs - Watson-Crick [A·T(wWC )], reverse Watson-Crick [A·T(wrWC )], Hoogsteen [A·T(wH )] and reverse Hoogsteen [A·T(wrH )] - act as intermediates of the intrapair mutagenic tautomerization of the T nucleobase owing to the novel tautomerisation pathways: A·T(wWC )↔A·T* (w⊥ WC ); A·T(wrWC )↔A· <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Zhiyong Huang, Guangyong Tian, Saibo Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Yu Zhang, Yuhua Jia, Fenghua Zhou
Cholesterol metabolism becomes imbalanced during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) has recently been found to affect lipid deposition and inflammation in atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to study the effects and molecular mechanism of Polydatin on atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout (ApoE <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> <mml:mo>∕</mml:mo> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> ) mice...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Chi-Yang Chiu, Fang Yuan, Bing-Song Zhang, Ao Yuan, Xin Li, Hong-Bin Fang, Kenneth Lange, Daniel E Weeks, Alexander F Wilson, Joan E Bailey-Wilson, Anthony M Musolf, Dwight Stambolian, M'Hamed Lajmi Lakhal-Chaieb, Richard J Cook, Francis J McMahon, Christopher I Amos, Momiao Xiong, Ruzong Fan
We develop linear mixed models (LMMs) and functional linear mixed models (FLMMs) for gene-based tests of association between a quantitative trait and genetic variants on pedigrees. The effects of a major gene are modeled as a fixed effect, the contributions of polygenes are modeled as a random effect, and the correlations of pedigree members are modeled via inbreeding/kinship coefficients. <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mi>F</mml:mi> </mml:math> -statistics and χ 2 likelihood ratio test (LRT) statistics based on the LMMs and FLMMs are constructed to test for association...
December 9, 2018: Genetic Epidemiology
Giancarlo Mercado, Elise Trumbull
Beginning immigrant teachers may experience cross-cultural conflicts because their home cultures may differ in important ways from U.S. school culture. In California, mentors are assigned to work with new teachers, many born in other countries, to solve a range of problems-often attributable to cross-cultural conflicts between the culture of the school and the cultures of these teachers. Mentors are veteran teachers, but even those who receive special training as mentors are not educated in theories explaining how culture influences child-rearing and schooling practices...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
William H Nailon, Daniel Welsh, Kim McDonald, Donna Burns, Julie Forsyth, Gillian Cooke, Francisco Cutanda, Linda J Carruthers, Duncan B McLaren, Josep Puxeu Vaqué, Terence Kehoe, Sankar Andiappa
BACKGROUND: Independent verification of the dose delivered by complex radiotherapy can be performed by electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry. This paper presents 5-yr EPID in vivo dosimetry (IVD) data obtained using the Dosimetry Check (DC) software on a large cohort including breast, lung, prostate, and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The difference between in vivo dose measurements obtained by DC and point doses calculated by the Eclipse treatment planning system was obtained on 3795 radiotherapy patients treated with volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) (n = 842) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) (n = 2953) at 6, 10, and 15 MV...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Benjamin Houdu, Charline Lasnon, Idlir Licaj, Guy Thomas, Pascal Do, Anne-Valerie Guizard, Cédric Desmonts, Nicolas Aide
An error occurred in the labelling of Fig. 3, where math symbols for SUV thresholds were inverted in panel b when the EARL threshold was applied to the PSF dataset and vice versa. This figure should read as follows: Fig. 3: Prognostic value of tumour SUVmax.
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Federico Nemmi, Margot A Schel, Torkel Klingberg
The adult brain contains cortical areas thought to be specialized for the analysis of numbers (the putative number form area, NFA) and letters (the visual word form area, VWFA). Although functional development of the VWFA has been investigated, it is largely unknown when and how the NFA becomes specialized and connected to the rest of the brain. One hypothesis is that NFA and VWFA derive their special functions through differential connectivity, but the development of this differential connectivity has not been shown...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Karin Kucian, Ursina McCaskey, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura, Michael von Aster
Adequate mathematical competencies are currently indispensable in professional and social life. However, mathematics is often associated with stress and frustration and the confrontation with tasks that require mathematical knowledge triggers anxiety in many children. We examined if there is a relationship between math anxiety and changes in brain structure in children with and without developmental dyscalculia. Our findings showed that math anxiety is related to altered brain structure. In particular, the right amygdala volume was reduced in individuals with higher math anxiety...
December 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Nature
R LaRanger, Anis Karimpour-Fard, Christopher Costa, David Mathes, Woodring E Wright, Tae Chong
Keloids are benign fibroproliferative skin tumors which can cause disfigurement and disability. While they frequently recur after excision or medical management and can affect 6-16% of African Americans, there is no gold standard therapy. Keloids are challenging to study because there are no animal or in vitro models of this disorder. This makes it very difficult to validate data from treated tissue samples or cells and develop targeted therapies for this disease. In this study, we demonstrate that intralesional 5-FU injection after keloid excision prevents recurrence for 2 years with no reported adverse events...
November 26, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yueying Li, Yuntao Liu, Xia Yan, Qing Liu, Yong-Hua Zhao, Da-Wei Wang
Cardio/cerebral-vascular diseases seriously threaten human health and are the leading cause of death. As such, there is great interest in identifying a potential mechanism that controls the development process of cardio/cerebral vascular diseases. Present studies demonstrate that inflammasomes play an important role in the process of ischemic cardio/cerebral vascular diseases (ICCVDs). Among the pathological process of ICCVDs, inflammasomes activated the sterile inflammatory response that accelerated the development of diseases and aggravated the acute lesion of tissue...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Xiao Li, Jiaywei Tsauo, Chong Geng, He Zhao, Xuelian Lei, Xiao Li
Na <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>+</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> /H <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>+</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> exchanger 1 (NHE1) plays a vital role in the oncogenesis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has been regarded as a promising target for the treatment of HCC...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
De-Wen Sun, Marcus Müller
Besides dictating the equilibrium phase diagram, the rugged free-energy landscape of AB block copolymers gives rise to a multitude of non-equilibrium phenomena. Self-consistent field theory (SCFT) can be employed to calculate the mean-field free energy, <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mi>F</mml:mi> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>[</mml:mo> <mml:mrow> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>ϕ</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>A</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>t</mml:mi> <mml:mi>a</mml:mi> <mml:mi>r</mml:mi> <mml:mi>g</mml:mi> <mml:mi>e</mml:mi> <mml:mi>t</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:msubsup> </mml:mrow> <mml:mo>]</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> , of a non-equilibrium unstable state that is characterized by a given spatial density distribution, <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
E M Isaac Moreira, B G A Brito, J Higino Damasceno, J N Teixeira Rabelo, G-Q Hai, L Cândido
The valence electron binding energies and the aromaticity of neutral and charged small boron clusters with three and four atoms are investigated using a combination of the fixed-node diffusion quantum Monte Carlo (FN-DMC) method, the density functional theory, and the Hartree-Fock approximation. The obtained electron binding energies such as the adiabatic detachment energy, vertical detachment energy, adiabatic ionization potential, and the vertical ionization potential are in excellent agreement with available experimental measurements...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
P Honvault, G Guillon, R Kochanov, V Tyuterev
The isotopic exchange reaction, 16 O + 18 O18 O → 16 O18 O + 18 O, involving excited ozone, <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>3</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>*</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msubsup> </mml:math> , as intermediate complex, was investigated by means of a time independent quantum mechanical approach using the TKTHS potential energy surface (PES) [V...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Maximilian Beyer, Frédéric Merkt
Ab initio calculations of the energy level structure of <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>H</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>+</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msubsup> </mml:math> that include relativistic and radiative corrections to nonrelativistic energies and the diagonal part of the hyperfine interaction have predicted the existence of four bound rovibrational levels [( v = 0, N = 0 - 2) and ( v = 1, N = 0)] of the first electronically excited ( <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Irina V Mirzaeva, Svetlana G Kozlova
We have studied the potential energy surface of <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>[</mml:mo> <mml:mrow> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>M</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:msub> <mml:mi>D</mml:mi> <mml:mi>A</mml:mi> <mml:mi>B</mml:mi> <mml:mi>C</mml:mi> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mo>]</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>4</mml:mn> <mml:mo>+</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> cations (M = Zn, Cd, and Hg), which are considered as a model for the DABCO linker in metal-organic frameworks, a new prospective class of materials...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Luca Brombal, Bruno Golosio, Fulvia Arfelli, Deborah Bonazza, Adriano Contillo, Pasquale Delogu, Sandro Donato, Giovanni Mettivier, Piernicola Oliva, Luigi Rigon, Angelo Taibi, Giuliana Tromba, Fabrizio Zanconati, Renata Longo
A program devoted to performing the first in vivo synchrotron radiation (SR) breast computed tomography (BCT) is ongoing at the Elettra facility. Using the high spatial coherence of SR, phase-contrast (PhC) imaging techniques can be used. The latest high-resolution BCT acquisitions of breast specimens, obtained with the propagation-based PhC approach, are herein presented as part of the SYRMA-3D collaboration effort toward the clinical exam. Images are acquired with a <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>60</mml:mn> <mml:mtext>-</mml:mtext> <mml:mi>μ</mml:mi> <mml:mi>m</mml:mi> <mml:mtext> </mml:mtext> <mml:mtext>pixel</mml:mtext> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> dead-time-free single-photon-counting CdTe detector...
July 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging
Chaitanya Kolluru, David Prabhu, Yazan Gharaibeh, Hiram Bezerra, Giulio Guagliumi, David Wilson
We develop neural-network-based methods for classifying plaque types in clinical intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) images of coronary arteries. A single IVOCT pullback can consist of <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>></mml:mo> <mml:mn>500</mml:mn> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> microscopic-resolution images, creating both a challenge for physician interpretation during an interventional procedure and an opportunity for automated analysis...
October 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
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