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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515993/neurological-soft-signs-and-grey-matter-abnormalities-in-individuals-with-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#1
Li Kong, Huiru Cui, Tianhong Zhang, Ya Wang, Jia Huang, Yikang Zhu, Yingying Tang, Christina J Herold, Johannes Schröder, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan, Jijun Wang
Neurological soft signs (NSSs), conventionally defined as subtle neurological abnormalities, are frequently found in individuals with schizophrenia. Many neuroimaging studies have also reported that NSSs are associated with grey matter changes in patients with schizophrenia at different stages of the illness. However, these findings may be confounded by the effect of antipsychotic medications, chronicity, and duration of untreated psychosis. Examining NSSs in individuals with ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis may help to identify the neuroanatomical substrates of NSSs related to the illness itself and to avoid these potential confounding effects...
December 4, 2018: PsyCh Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514816/structural-and-effective-brain-connectivity-underlying-biological-motion-detection
#2
Arseny A Sokolov, Peter Zeidman, Michael Erb, Philippe Ryvlin, Karl J Friston, Marina A Pavlova
The perception of actions underwrites a wide range of socio-cognitive functions. Previous neuroimaging and lesion studies identified several components of the brain network for visual biological motion (BM) processing, but interactions among these components and their relationship to behavior remain little understood. Here, using a recently developed integrative analysis of structural and effective connectivity derived from high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we assess the cerebro-cerebellar network for processing of camouflaged point-light BM...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513044/dynamic-threat-processing
#3
Christian Meyer, Srikanth Padmala, Luiz Pessoa
During real-life situations, multiple factors interact dynamically to determine threat level. In the current fMRI study involving healthy adult human volunteers, we investigated interactions between proximity, direction (approach vs. retreat), and speed during a dynamic threat-of-shock paradigm. As a measure of threat-evoked physiological arousal, skin conductance responses were recorded during fMRI scanning. Whereas some brain regions tracked individual threat-related factors, others were also sensitive to combinations of these variables...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511120/feeling-of-presence-in-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-is-related-to-reduced-left-frontoparietal-metabolism
#4
Nicolas Nicastro, Antoine F Eger, Frederic Assal, Valentina Garibotto
Feeling of presence (FOP) refers to the vivid sensation of a person's presence near oneself and is common in Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Based on previous observations on epileptic subjects, we hypothesized that DLB subjects with FOP would harbour 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET hypometabolism in left parietal areas. 25 subjects (mean age 71.9 ± 6.7, disease duration at scan 1.7 ± 1.5 years) were included in the study, of whom nine (36%) experienced FOP. No significant between-group difference was observed regarding dopamine transporters striatal uptake (p = 0...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511119/gray-matter-hypertrophy-in-primary-insomnia-a-surface-based-morphometric-study
#5
Siyi Yu, Fen Feng, Qi Zhang, Zhifu Shen, Zhengyan Wang, Youping Hu, Liang Gong
Studies have explored brain structural abnormalities in patients with primary insomnia (PI). However, most of them are based on volumetric measures, in a specific region of interest, and have small sample sizes. Here, we investigated changes in cortical morphology (thickness and volume) in PI using an advanced surface-based morphometric method. Sixty-seven patients with PI and 55 matched healthy controls were recruited for this study and underwent a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. The reconstructed cortical surface was processed by Freesurfer 6...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511115/emotional-especially-negative-microblogs-are-more-popular-on-the-web-evidence-from-an-fmri-study
#6
Huijun Zhang, Chen Qu
Microblogs are one of the main social networking channels by which information is spread. Millions of users repost information from microblogs and share embedded emotion at the same time. The present study employed a mimicked interface of microblog (sina Weibo) and recruited university students to investigate users' propensity to repost microblogs of positive, negative or neutral valence, and studied the neural correlates with reposting microblogs of different emotional valence. Ninety pieces of microblog messages, consisting of 30 positive, 30 negative and 30 neutral were read by 28 participants (14 males and 14 females)...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508745/functional-neural-mechanisms-of-sensory-phenomena-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Carina Brown, Rebbia Shahab, Katherine Collins, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick, Emily R Stern
Sensory phenomena (SP) are aversive or uncomfortable sensations that accompany and/or drive repetitive behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although SP are associated with significant distress and may respond less well to standard treatments than harm-related obsessions, little is known about their underlying neurobiology. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain functioning related to severity of SP during a "body-focused" videos task designed to elicit activation in sensorimotor brain regions...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507760/neurometabolite-changes-in-patients-with-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-using-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-pilot-study
#8
Ye-Ha Jung, Hyeonjin Kim, So Yeon Jeon, Jeong Min Kwon, Yong Chul Kim, Won Joon Lee, Dasom Lee, Jun-Young Lee, Jee Youn Moon, Do-Hyung Kang
The aim of this study was to investigate distinct neurometabolites in the right and left thalamus and insula of patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) compared with healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), myo-inositol (ml), glutamine (Gln), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), glutathione (GSH), and alanine (Ala) relative to total creatine (tCr) levels, including creatine and phosphocreatine, were determined in the right and left thalamus and insula in 12 patients with CRPS compared with 11 healthy controls using magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
November 29, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506616/the-metabolic-basis-of-psychosis-in-bipolar-disorder-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#9
Giorgio Marotta, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Alessandro Pigoni, Gianmario Mandolini, Valentina Ciappolino, Lucio Oldani, Domenico Madonna, Marika Grottaroli, Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Paolo Brambilla
OBJECTIVES: Psychotic symptoms are a common feature in bipolar disorder (BD), especially during manic phases, and are associated with a more severe course of illness. However, not all bipolar subjects experience psychosis during the course of their illness, and this difference often guides assessment and pharmacological treatment. The aim of the present study is to elucidate, for the first time, the FDG uptake dysfunctions associated with psychosis in BD patients with and without a history of past psychotic symptoms, through a positron emission tomography (PET) approach...
December 1, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504951/herpes-simplex-encephalitis-and-pseudotumour-cerebri-due-to-%C3%A4-sotretinoin
#10
Asuman Orhan Varoglu, Asude Aksoy
Isotretinoin can have significant adverse reactions on multiple systems. We report a unique case of pseudotumour cerebri and herpes encephalitis resulting due to isotretinoin. A 19-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic, presenting with headache, nausea, vomiting and fever since three days. She had used isotretinoin for the last two months. The patient's neurological examination revealed the presence of neck stiffnes and a body temperature of 39,0◦C. MRI showed high signal localized to the temporal lobe and insula on the right and widened cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity on either side of the optic nerve...
December 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503997/pattern-classification-differentiates-decision-of-intertemporal-choices-using-multi-voxel-pattern-analysis
#11
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Shunmin Zhang, Tingyong Feng
In daily life, individuals frequently make trade-offs between the small-but-immediate benefits and large-but-delayed profits. This type of decision is known as intertemporal choice. Previous studies have uncovered the neurobiological mechanism of the intertemporal choice, but it still remains unclear how the patterns of brain activity predict the decisions of intertemporal choices. To fill this gap, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in conjunction with the machine learning technique of multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), to ascertain the predictive capability of the neuronal pattern for classifying individuals' intertemporal decisions across two independent samples...
November 10, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503920/the-posterior-insular-opercular-cortex-an-access-to-the-brain-networks-of-thermosensory-and-nociceptive-processes
#12
REVIEW
R Peyron, C Fauchon
In spite of systematic investigations, the existence of a specific cortex that could encode for the intensities of somatosensory stimuli, including within nociceptive ranges, is still a matter of debate. The present consensus is that pain is expressed in a distributed network made of thalamus, SII, insula, ACC, and, less consistently, SI. Here we argument that there must be an entrance to this network. The common denominator to every functional imaging study is that the subjects can distinguish between noxious and non-noxious stimuli, or between two different intensities of noxious stimuli...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502544/neural-correlates-of-visual-attention-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#13
Amna Zehra, Elsa Lindgren, Corinde E Wiers, Clara Freeman, Gregg Miller, Veronica Ramirez, Ehsan Shokri-Kojori, Gene-Jack Wang, Lori Talagala, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Numerous studies have documented cognitive impairments in multiple domains in patients with an alcohol use disorder (AUD), including perceptuomotor, executive, and visuospatial functions. Although the neural underpinnings of cognitive deficits in AUD have been studied extensively, the neural basis of attention deficits in AUD remains relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated neural responses to a visual attention task (VAT) in 19 recently abstinent patients with AUD and 23 healthy control participants (HC) using functional MRI (fMRI)...
November 24, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501919/mirth-and-laughter-induced-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-posterior-insula
#14
Hao Yan, Chang Liu, Tao Yu, Kaijia Yu, CuiPing Xu, Xueyuan Wang, Duanyu Ni, Yongjie Li
Laughter induced in the insula is uncommon. In this case-report we present a description of a patient with drug-resistant focal epilepsy for whom laughter with mirth was elicited when the posterior insula (PI) was stimulated by intracranial electrodes. We attempted to analyze the progression of laughter in the insula and suggest a possible pathway for the expression of laughter.
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501515/asymmetric-insular-connectomics-revealed-by-diffusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-analysis-of-healthy-brain-development
#15
Jacob Levman, Zihang Fang, Katarina Zumwalt, Lana Vasung, Patrick MacDonald, Ashley Ruyan Lim, Emi Takahashi
The insula has been implicated in playing important roles in various brain functions including consciousness, homeostasis, perception, self-awareness, language processing, and interpersonal experience. Abnormalities of the insula have been observed in patients suffering from addiction, deteriorating language function, anorexia, and emotional dysregulation. We analyzed typical development of insular connections in a large-scale pediatric population using 642 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Interpreting the large quantities of acquired data is one of the major challenges in connectomics...
December 1, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501456/the-lonely-brain-evidence-from-studying-patients-with-penetrating-brain-injury
#16
Irene Cristofori, Sanya Pal, Wanting Zhong, Barry Gordon, Frank Krueger, Jordan Grafman
Loneliness is perceived as social isolation and exclusion. The neural substrate of loneliness has been investigated with functional neuroimaging; however, lesion-based studies and their associated outcomes are needed to infer causal involvement between brain regions and function. Here, we applied voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses to investigate the causal role of brain lesions on self-report of loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a unique sample from the Vietnam Head Injury Study, including veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI) (n = 132) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 35)...
December 3, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500594/experience-with-102-frameless-stereotactic-biopsies-using-the-neuromate%C3%A2-robotic-device
#17
Hamzah Yasin, Hans-Joachim Hoff, Ingmar Blümcke, Matthias Simon
OBJECTIVE: Stereotactic biopsy is a standard procedure in neurosurgery. In addition to or even replacing frame-based stereotaxy some centers also utilize frameless imaging-based techniques and more recently robotic systems. Here we report a retrospective analysis of our experience with 102 consecutive biopsies performed in our institution using the neuromate® robotic device. METHODS: Between March 2013 and April 2018, 102 robot-assisted frameless biopsies were performed in 100 consecutive patients (median age/ range: 66/ 7-86 yrs...
November 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500402/functional-connectivity-of-pag-with-core-limbic-system-and-laryngeal-cortico-motor-structures-during-human-phonation
#18
Jessica Galgano, Spiro Pantazatos, Kachina Allen, Ted Yanagihara, Joy Hirsch
Previous studies in animals and humans suggest the periaqueductal grey region (PAG) is a final integration station between the brain and laryngeal musculature during phonation. To date, a limited number of functional magnetic neuroimaging (fMRI) studies have examined the functional connectivity of the PAG during volitional human phonation. An event-related, stimulus-induced, volitional movement paradigm was used to examine neural activity during sustained vocalization in neurologically healthy adults and was compared to controlled exhalation through the nose...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498441/abnormal-gray-matter-structural-networks-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#19
Le-Kang Yin, Jia-Jun Zheng, Jia-Qi Tian, Xiao-Zhu Hao, Chan-Chan Li, Jian-Ding Ye, Yu-Xuan Zhang, Hong Yu, Yan-Mei Yang
Purpose : Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is known as a treatable form of dementia. Network analysis is emerging as a useful method to study neurological disorder diseases. No study has examined changes of structural brain networks of iNPH patients. We aimed to investigate alterations in the gray matter (GM) structural network of iNPH patients compared with normal elderly volunteers. Materials and Methods : Structural networks were reconstructed using covariance between regional GM volumes extracted from three-dimensional T1-weighted images of 29 possible iNPH patients and 30 demographically similar normal-control (NC) participants and compared with each other...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497842/effects-of-social-exclusion-and-physical-pain-in-chronic-opioid-maintenance-treatment-fmri-correlates
#20
Patrick Bach, Ulrich Frischknecht, Melanie Bungert, Damian Karl, Christian Vollmert, Sabine Vollstädt-Klein, Stefanie Lis, Falk Kiefer, Derik Hermann
Opioids interact with systems processing pain and social stimuli. Both systems are crucial for responding to strains of everyday life and both are linked to relapse risk in opioid-dependent patients. The investigation of those systems seems essential to better understand opioid addiction as a whole. 17 patients on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and 21 healthy individuals underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) social ball-tossing (Cyberball) paradigm simulating social inclusion and exclusion...
November 27, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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