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Insula OR insular Cortex OR posterior Insula

Veronica Guadagni, Ford Burles, Michele Ferrara, Giuseppe Iaria
The human ability to vicariously share someone else's emotions (i.e., emotional empathy) relies on an extended neural network including regions in the anterior cingulate and insular cortex. Here, we tested the hypothesis that good sleep quality is associated with increased activation in the brain areas underlying emotional empathy. To this aim, we assessed subjective sleep quality in a large sample of healthy young volunteers, and asked participants to complete a computerized emotional empathy task. Then, we asked 16 participants to complete the same task while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Lingling Chen, Xueliang Qi, Jiyong Zheng
Objective: To investigate acute sleep deprivation (SD)-related regional brain activity changes and their relationships with behavioral performances. Methods: Twenty-two female subjects underwent an MRI scan and an attention network test at rested wakefulness (RW) status and after 24 h SD. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) was used to investigate SD-related regional brain activity changes. We used the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to evaluate the ability of the ALFF differences in regional brain areas to distinguish the SD status from the RW status...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Emily R Stern, Rebbia Shahab, Stephanie J Grimaldi, Evan Leibu, James W Murrough, Lazar Fleysher, Michael K Parides, Barbara J Coffey, Katherine E Burdick, Wayne K Goodman
Several psychiatric disorders involve abnormalities of interoception and associated neural circuitry centered on the insula. The development of interventions modulating interoceptive circuits could lead to novel treatment approaches for these disorders. The 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron is a good candidate for the modulation of interoceptive circuits, as 5-HT3 receptors are located abundantly on sensory pathways and ondansetron has shown some clinical utility in disorders characterized by sensory and interoceptive abnormalities...
August 8, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Amanda Bischoff-Grethe, Christina E Wierenga, Laura A Berner, Alan N Simmons, Ursula Bailer, Martin P Paulus, Walter H Kaye
Interoception, or the sensing and integration of bodily state signals, has been implicated in anorexia nervosa (AN), given that the hallmark symptoms involve food restriction and body image disturbance. Here we focus on brain response to the anticipation and experience of affective interoceptive stimuli. Women remitted from AN (RAN; N = 18) and healthy comparison women (CW; N = 26) underwent a pleasant affective touch paradigm consisting of gentle strokes with a soft brush administered to the forearm or palm during functional neuroimaging...
August 16, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Lu Qian, Yao Wang, KangKang Chu, Yun Li, ChaoYong Xiao, Ting Xiao, Xiang Xiao, Ting Qiu, YunHua Xiao, Hui Fang, XiaoYan Ke
Little is currently known about the longitudinal developmental patterns of hubs in the whole-brain white matter (WM) structural networks among toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and deterministic tractography to map the WM structural networks in 37 ASD toddlers and 27 age-, gender- and developmental quotient-matched controls with developmental delay (DD) toddlers aged 2-3 years old at baseline (Time 1) and at 2-year follow-up (Time 2). Furthermore, graph-theoretical methods were applied to investigate alterations in the network hubs in these patients at the two time points...
August 16, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Xiaopeng Song, Bhaswati Roy, Gregg C Fonarow, Mary A Woo, Rajesh Kumar
Heart failure (HF) patients show inability to regulate autonomic functions in response to autonomic challenges. The autonomic deficits may stem from brain tissue injury in central autonomic regulatory areas, resulting from ischemic and hypoxic processes accompanying the condition. However, the direct evaluation of correlations between brain structural injury and functional timing and magnitude of neural signal patterns within affected areas, which may lead to impaired autonomic outflow, is unclear. In this study, we evaluate neural responses to the Valsalva maneuver with blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging in 29 HF patients and 35 control subjects and brain structural changes using diffusion tensor imaging-based mean diffusivity in a subsample of 19 HF and 24 control subjects...
September 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Sien Hu, Jaime S Ide, Herta H Chao, Brittney Castagna, Kimberly A Fischer, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Inhibitory control or the ability to refrain from incorrect responses is a critical executive function known to diminish during aging. Imaging studies have elucidated cerebral changes that may underlie the age-related deficits. However, it remains unclear whether the structural and functional changes occur in the same brain regions and whether reduced gray matter volumes (GMV) mediate decreased activation during inhibition. Here, in a sample of 149 participants, we addressed the issues using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Jie Yang, Mengru Zhang, Hongshik Ahn, Qing Zhang, Tony B Jin, Ien A Li, Matthew Nemesure, Nandita Joshi, Haoran Jiang, Jeffrey M Miller, Robert Todd Ogden, Eva Petkova, Matthew S Milak, Mary Elizabeth Sublette, Gregory M Sullivan, Madhukar H Trivedi, Myrna Weissman, Patrick J McGrath, Maurizio Fava, Benji T Kurian, Diego A Pizzagalli, Crystal M Cooper, Melvin McInnis, Maria A Oquendo, Joseph John Mann, Ramin V Parsey, Christine DeLorenzo
This study aimed to identify biomarkers of major depressive disorder (MDD), by relating neuroimage-derived measures to binary (MDD/control), ordinal (severe MDD/mild MDD/control), or continuous (depression severity) outcomes. To address MDD heterogeneity, factors (severity of psychic depression, motivation, anxiety, psychosis, and sleep disturbance) were also used as outcomes. A multisite, multimodal imaging (diffusion MRI [dMRI] and structural MRI [sMRI]) cohort (52 controls and 147 MDD patients) and several modeling techniques-penalized logistic regression, random forest, and support vector machine (SVM)-were used...
August 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Pengfei Han, Nicole Winkler, Cornelia Hummel, Antje Hähner, Johannes Gerber, Thomas Hummel
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a major public health problem may lead to olfactory dysfunction. However, little is known about brain responses to odors in TBI olfactory loss patients. Nineteen healthy controls and forty TBI olfactory dysfunctional patients (19 with hyposmia and 21 with anosmia) underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan when two odors (peach and coffee) were presented intranasally using a computerized olfactometer. Olfactory performance was measured using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Thania Balducci, Jorge J González-Olvera, Diego Angeles-Valdez, Isabel Espinoza-Luna, Eduardo A Garza-Villarreal
Background: Borderline personality disorder is present in 19% of cocaine dependence cases; however, this dual pathology is poorly understood. We wished to characterize the dual pathology and find its functional connectivity correlates to better understand it. Methods: We recruited 69 participants divided into 4 groups: dual pathology ( n = 20), cocaine dependence without borderline personality disorder ( n = 19), borderline personality without cocaine dependence ( n = 10) and healthy controls ( n = 20). We used self-reported instruments to measure impulsivity and emotional dysregulation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yayuan Geng, Weihua Zhao, Feng Zhou, Xiaole Ma, Shuxia Yao, Rene Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker, Keith M Kendrick
Accumulating evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) can enhance empathy although it is unclear which specific behavioral and neural aspects are influenced, and whether the effects are modulated by culture, sex, and trait autism. Based on previous findings in Caucasian men, we hypothesized that a single intranasal dose of OXT would specifically enhance emotional empathy (EE) via modulatory effects on the amygdala in an Asian (Chinese) population and explored the modulatory role of sex and trait autism on the effects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christian Núñez, Christian Stephan-Otto, Judith Usall, Miquel Bioque, Antonio Lobo, Ana González-Pinto, Laura Pina-Camacho, Eduard Vieta, Josefina Castro-Fornieles, Roberto Rodriguez-Jimenez, Anna Butjosa, Joost Janssen, Bibiana Cabrera, Mara Parellada, Miquel Bernardo
Although there is recent evidence that cells from the peripheral immune system can gain access to the central nervous system in certain conditions such as multiple sclerosis, their role has not been assessed in psychosis. Here, we aimed to explore whether blood cell count was associated with brain volume and/or clinical symptomatology. A total of 218 participants (137 first-episode psychosis patients [FEP] and 81 healthy controls [HC]) were included in the study. For each participant, a T1 structural image was acquired, from which brain tissue volumes were calculated...
August 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Naren P Rao, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Kalyani Bangalore Gangadhar, Rashmi Arasappa, Shivarama Varambally, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Bangalore N Ganagadhar
OM chanting is an ancient technique of Indian meditation. OM chanting is associated with an experience of relaxation, changes in autonomic balance and deactivation of limbic brain regions. While functional localization is important, how brain regions interact with each other has been shown to underlie various brain functions. Therefore, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that there is reduced communication between deactivated regions during OM chanting. In order to do so, we employed multivariate autoregressive model (MVAR) based Granger causality to obtain directional connectivity between deactivated regions...
August 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Nader Rajaei, Naoya Aoki, Haruka K Takahashi, Tetsu Miyaoka, Takanori Kochiyama, Masahiro Ohka, Norihiro Sadato, Ryo Kitada
Humans are adept at perceiving textures through touch. Previous neuroimaging studies have identified a distributed network of brain regions involved in the tactile perception of texture. However, it remains unclear how nodes in this network contribute to the tactile awareness of texture. To examine the hypothesis that such awareness involves the interaction of the primary somatosensory cortex with higher order cortices, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study utilizing the velvet hand illusion, in which an illusory velvet-like surface is perceived between the hands...
August 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Xiuli Wang, Fangfang Tian, Song Wang, Bochao Cheng, Lihua Qiu, Manxi He, Hongming Wang, Mingjun Duan, Jing Dai, Zhiyun Jia
Psychotic bipolar disorder (P-BD) is a specific subset that presents greater risk of relapse and worse outcomes than nonpsychotic bipolar disorder (NP-BD). To explore the neuroanatomical bases of psychotic dimension in bipolar disorder (BD), a systematic review was carried out based on the gray matter volume (GMV) among P-BD and NP-BD patients and healthy controls (HC). Further, we conducted a meta-analysis of GMV differences between P-BD patients and HC using a whole-brain imaging approach. Our review revealed that P-BD patients exhibited smaller GMVs mainly in the prefronto-temporal and cingulate cortices, the precentral gyrus, and insula relative to HC both qualitatively and quantitatively...
August 10, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
C Schmahl, I Niedtfeld, S C Herpertz
BACKGROUND: There are now several scientifically evaluated psychotherapeutic methods for borderline personality disorder (BPD), all of which aim to improve the ability to regulate emotions. In recent years, there have been first studies on the neuronal correlates of the mechanisms of emotion regulation and of changes caused by psychotherapeutic interventions. METHODS: This article reviews the data on functional and structural imaging studies that examine facets of disturbed emotion regulation before and after psychotherapy...
August 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Jennifer A Ogren, Raghav Tripathi, Paul M Macey, Rajesh Kumar, John M Stern, Dawn S Eliashiv, Luke A Allen, Beate Diehl, Jerome Engel, M R Sandhya Rani, Samden D Lhatoo, Ronald M Harper
Objective: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are accompanied by cardiovascular and respiratory sequelae that threaten survival. The frequency of these seizures is a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), a leading cause of untimely death in epilepsy. The circumstances accompanying such fatal events suggest a cardiovascular or respiratory failure induced by unknown neural processes rather than an inherent cardiac or lung deficiency. Certain cortical regions, especially the insular, cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices, are key structures that integrate sensory input and influence diencephalic and brainstem regions regulating blood pressure, cardiac rhythm, and respiration; output from those cortical regions compromised by epilepsy-associated injury may lead to cardiorespiratory dysregulation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Nan-Nan Wang, Jin Sang, Xiao-Qun Wang, Ying-Xiu Li, Zong-Jun Du
A novel Gram-stain-negative, whitish-yellow, rod-shaped, non-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase-positive and catalase-positive bacterium, designated PX7T , was isolated from coastal sediment of Xiaoshi Island, Weihai, China (37° 31' 36″ N, 122° 00' 58″ E). Strain PX7T grew optimally at 30 °C, at pH 7.0-7.5 and in the presence of 3.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain PX7T formed a robust clade with members of the genus Primorskyibacter and was closely related to Primorskyibacter sedentarius, Primorskyibacter aestuariivivens and Primorskyibacter insulae with 96...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Annette Baumgartner, Lars Frings, Florian Schiller, Oliver Stich, Michael Mix, Karl Egger, Gisa Schluh, Sebastian Rauer, Philipp T Meyer
OBJECTIVES: Although interferon-beta is an established drug for relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), its impact on neuronal activity is not well understood. METHODS: We investigated 15 patients with RRMS by [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to assess cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc ) before interferon-beta therapy. Further, we performed clinical and neuropsychological investigations. In nine patients, these investigations were repeated after six months of therapy...
August 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Miao Zhong, Wanqun Yang, Biao Huang, Wenjie Jiang, Xiong Zhang, Xiaojin Liu, Lijuan Wang, Junjing Wang, Ling Zhao, Yuhu Zhang, Yingjun Liu, Jiabao Lin, Ruiwang Huang
Levodopa therapy is widely recognized as an effective treatment for PD patients, however, it is rare of the study looking at effects of levodopa therapy on the whole-brain network. This study was to evaluate the effects of levodopa on whole-brain degree centrality (DC) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) in PD patients. We recruited 26 PD patients and acquired their resting-state fMRI data before ('OFF' state) and after ('ON' state) taking a dose of 400 mg levodopa. Through constructing the voxel-based brain functional network, we calculated distant and local DC and seed-based FC...
August 8, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
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