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Insula OR insular Cortex OR posterior Insula

Seth M Levine, Anja Wackerle, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V Schwarzbach
Humans experience emotions every day. Traditionally, psychology has described emotions through discrete labels (e.g. happy, afraid) or standardized affective dimensions (e.g. valence, arousal), and neuroscience has more recently sought the neurobiological basis of emotions via functional neuroimaging. However, by treating emotions similarly among everyone, we neglect that emotions are individualized; thus the overall relational structure of an individual's emotion information may be vital in understanding how the brain represents emotions...
October 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Tanvi Bhatt, Prakruti Patel, Shamali Dusane, Sophie R DelDonno, Scott A Langenecker
Background: Behavioral evidence for cortical involvement in reactive balance control in response to environmental perturbation is established, however, the neural correlates are not known. This study aimed to examine the neural mechanisms involved in reactive balance control for recovery from slip-like perturbations using mental imagery and to evaluate the difference in activation patterns between imagined and observed slipping. Methods: Ten healthy young participants after an exposure to regular walking and slip-perturbation trial on a treadmill, performed mental imagery and observation tasks in the MR scanner...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Adriana L Ruiz-Rizzo, Christian Sorg, Natan Napiórkowski, Julia Neitzel, Aurore Menegaux, Hermann J Müller, Signe Vangkilde, Kathrin Finke
The neural factors that account for the visual processing speed reduction in aging are incompletely understood. Based on previous reports of age-related decreases in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) within the cingulo-opercular network and its relevance for processing speed, we hypothesized that these decreases are associated with age-related reductions in visual processing speed. We used a whole-report task and modeling based on Bundesen's "theory of visual attention" to parameterize visual processing speed in 91 healthy participants aged from 20 to 77 years...
September 21, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Shi Tang, Lu Lu, Lianqing Zhang, Xinyu Hu, Xuan Bu, Hailong Li, Xiaoxiao Hu, Yingxue Gao, Zirui Zeng, Qiyong Gong, Xiaoqi Huang
BACKGROUND: Although dysfunction of amygdala-related circuits is centrally implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD), little is known about how this dysfunction differs between adult and adolescent MDD patients. METHODS: Voxel-wise meta-analyses of abnormal amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) were conducted in adult and adolescent groups separately, followed by a quantitative meta-analytic comparison of the two groups. FINDINGS: Nineteen studies that included 665 MDD patients (392 adults and 273 adolescents) and 546 controls (341 adults and 205 adolescents) were identified in the current study...
October 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Alice Teghil, Maddalena Boccia, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Antonella Di Vita, Carlo de Lena, Cecilia Guariglia
A dynamic interplay exists between Internally-Based (IBT) and Externally-Cued (ECT) time processing. While IBT processes support the self-generation of context-independent temporal representations, ECT mechanisms allow constructing temporal representations primarily derived from the structure of the sensory environment. We performed an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on 177 fMRI experiments, from 79 articles, to identify brain areas involved in timing; two individual ALEs tested the hypothesis of a neural segregation between IBT and ECT...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Hans-Christian J Fritz, Nicola Ray, Martin Dyrba, Christian Sorg, Stefan Teipel, Michel J Grothe
The cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF), comprising different groups of cortically projecting cholinergic neurons, plays a crucial role in higher cognitive processes and has been implicated in diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. A distinct corticotopic organization of CBF projections has been revealed in animal studies, but little is known about their organization in the human brain. We explored regional differences in functional connectivity (FC) profiles within the human CBF by applying a clustering approach to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data of healthy adult individuals (N = 85; 19-85 years)...
October 11, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Thomas E Kraynak, Anna L Marsland, Peter J Gianaros
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review discusses brain circuits that are engaged by negative emotions and possibly linked to cardiovascular disease risk. It describes recent human brain imaging studies that relate activity in these brain circuits to emotional processes, peripheral physiology, preclinical pathophysiology, as well as clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Negative emotions and the regulation of negative emotions reliably engage several brain regions that cross-sectional and longitudinal brain imaging studies have associated with CVD risk markers and outcomes...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
P Watson, G van Wingen, S de Wit
"Slips of action" occur in everyday life when we momentarily lose sight of a goal (for example, when in a rush or distracted). Associative models propose that these habitual responses can be activated via a direct stimulus-response (S-R) mechanism, regardless of the current hedonic value of the outcome. The slips-of-action task (SOAT) has been extensively used in both healthy and pathological populations to measure habit tendencies, the likelihood of making erroneous responses for devalued outcomes...
July 2018: ENeuro
Yosuke Saga, Christian C Ruff, Tremblay Léon
The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in motivation and goal-directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that limbic territories of BG not only support reward seeking (appetitive approach) but also the encoding of aversive conditioned stimuli (CS) and the production of aversive-related behaviors (avoidance or escape). This study aimed to identify inside two BG nuclei, the Striatum and Pallidum, the territories involved in aversive behaviors and to compare the effects of stimulating these territories to those resulting from stimulation of the anterior Insula (aIns), a region that is well known to be involved in aversive encoding and associated behaviors...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Paul Faulkner, Dara G Ghahremani, Rachel F Tyndale, Neil E Paterson, Chelsea Cox, Nathaniel Ginder, Gerhard Hellemann, Edythe D London
Smoking-induced relief of craving and withdrawal promotes continued cigarette use. Understanding how relief is produced and the role of nicotine in this process may facilitate development of new smoking-cessation therapies. As the US Food and Drug Administration considers setting a standard for reduced nicotine content in cigarettes to improve public health, knowledge of how nicotine contributes to relief also can inform policy. We assessed effects of nicotine using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and behavioral assessments of craving and negative affect...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
Fabien Almairac, Hugues Duffau, Guillaume Herbet
OBJECTIVE: To assess the homotopic structural plasticity in case of unilateral damage of the insula. METHODS: To detect changes in gray matter volumes of the contralesional insula from structural MRIs, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 84 patients with a diffuse low-grade glioma invading the left insula (insL group; n = 47) or the right insula (insR group; n = 37). RESULTS: The region of interest-based VBM analysis highlighted a large cluster of voxels with gray matter volume increase in the contralesional insula in both patient groups (k = 2,214 voxels for insL and k = 879 voxels for insR, p < 0...
October 10, 2018: Neurology
Congcong Liu, Chao Jin, Zhijie Jian, Miaomiao Wang, Xianjun Li, Heng Liu, Qinli Sun, Lingxia Zeng, Jian Yang
PURPOSE: This study aims to provide a screening scoring method by assessing the age-related change of subcortical white matter (WM) myelination via T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). METHODS: This study retrospectively recruited 109 children aged 6-48 months without abnormalities on MRI. Based on Parazzini's study, we developed a modified T2WI-based method to assess subcortical WM myelination (frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital lobes, and insula) by scoring WM's signal changes...
October 9, 2018: Neuroradiology
Carolyn A Fredericks, Virginia E Sturm, Jesse A Brown, Alice Y Hua, Murat Bilgel, Dean F Wong, Susan M Resnick, William W Seeley
Introduction: Affective changes precede cognitive decline in mild Alzheimer's disease and may relate to increased connectivity in a "salience network" attuned to emotionally significant stimuli. The trajectory of affective changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease, and its relationship to this network, is unknown. Methods: One hundred one cognitively normal older adults received longitudinal assessments of affective symptoms, then amyloid-PET. We hypothesized amyloid-positive individuals would show enhanced emotional reactivity associated with salience network connectivity...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Timothy C Durazzo, Dieter J Meyerhoff, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging studies of cigarette smoking-related effects on human brain structure primarily focused on cortical volumes. Much less is known about the effects of smoking on cortical thickness. Smokers and Non-smokers were compared on regional cortical thickness. We predicted smokers would demonstrate greater age-related thinning localized to anterior frontal regions that serve as nodes for the executive, salience, and emotional regulation networks (ESER regions) and those demonstrating significant atrophy in early Alzheimer's Disease (AD regions)...
September 29, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Holly McCready, Milky Kohno, Michael Kolessar, Laura Dennis, Daniel Kriz, Hannah Luber, Renee Anderson, Michael Chang, Anna Sasaki, Kenneth Flora, Arthur Vandenbark, Suzanne H Mitchell, Jennifer M Loftis, William F Hoffman, Marilyn Huckans
Hepatitis C virus-infected (HCV+) adults evidence increased rates of psychiatric and cognitive difficulties. This is the first study to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine brain activation in untreated HCV+ adults. To determine whether, relative to non-infected controls (CTLs), HCV+ adults exhibit differences in brain activation during a delay discounting task (DDT), a measure of one's tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards-one aspect of impulsivity...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Iris Ikink, Jan B Engelmann, Wouter van den Bos, Karin Roelofs, Bernd Figner
We are often presented with choices that differ in their more immediate versus future consequences. Interestingly, in everyday-life, ambiguity about the exact timing of such consequences frequently occurs, yet it remains unknown whether and how time-ambiguity influences decisions and their underlying neural correlates. We developed a novel intertemporal fMRI choice task in which participants make choices between sooner-smaller (SS) versus later-larger (LL) monetary rewards with systematically varying levels of time-ambiguity...
October 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Lisa A Parr, Thomas Mitchell, Erin Hecht
In primates, resting state functional neuroimaging (rsfcMRI) has identified several large-scale, intrinsic brain networks, including the salience network (SN), which is involved in detecting stimulus salience. Intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) has been shown to modulate the salience and rewarding quality of social stimuli in mammals and numerous studies have shown that it can affect the functional connectivity between brain regions. Less is known, however, about how these effects unfold over time following IN-OT administration...
September 17, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Siyun Zhang, Jiangli Zhao, Zhiqiang Guo, Jeffery A Jones, Peng Liu, Hanjun Liu
Significant advances have been made in understanding the role of auditory feedback in sensorimotor integration for speech production. The neurogenetic basis of this feedback-based control process, however, remains largely unknown. Mutations of FOXP2 gene in humans are associated with severe deficits in speech motor behavior. The present study examined the associations between a FOXP2 common variant, rs6980093 (A/G), and the behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) responses to -50 and -200 cents pitch perturbations during vocal production in a sample of 133 Chinese adults...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Jing Guo, Mi Yang, Bharat B Biswal, Pu Yang, Wei Liao, Huafu Chen
Post-stroke aphasia (PSA), which refers to the loss or impairment of language, is typically caused by left hemisphere lesions. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that the pathology of PSA may be related to abnormalities in functional integration. In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine functional connectivity density (FCD) in PSA. We compared short- and long-range FCD between individuals with PSA (n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 20)...
October 6, 2018: Brain Topography
Tom Hildebrandt, Kurt Schulz, Daniela Schiller, Ashley Heywood, Wayne Goodman, Robyn Sysko
Food avoidance in anorexia nervosa (AN) has been hypothesized to occur as a result of deficits in reversal learning and altered neuronal processing of food-cue relationships. Extant findings suggest that those with AN may rely on heightened recruitment of prefrontal regions during initial formation of food-cue learning and difficulty extinguishing these relationships may result from elevated insula activity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing behavioral and neuronal responses to food-cue acquisition and reversal between adolescents with AN and healthy controls...
September 27, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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