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Fluid intelligence

Richard W Hass
Divergent thinking has often been used as a proxy measure of creative thinking, but this practice lacks a foundation in modern cognitive psychological theory. This article addresses several issues with the classic divergent-thinking methodology and presents a new theoretical and methodological framework for cognitive divergent-thinking studies. A secondary analysis of a large dataset of divergent-thinking responses is presented. Latent semantic analysis was used to examine the potential changes in semantic distance between responses and the concept represented by the divergent-thinking prompt across successive response iterations...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Haiyan Wang, Jianxin Jiang, Zhengguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Rescue after a maritime disaster remains a great challenge in emergency medicine. OBJECTIVE: We performed an overview of rescue efforts among the victims in the sunken cruise ship Eastern Star in the 2015 Changjiang River marine disaster, as well as possible preventive measures in maritime transport situations. METHODS: The rescue records of 454 victims of the sunken ship were analyzed retrospectively. Their demographic data, rescue effects, accident inducement, and injury disposition were reviewed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Stephen A Sands, Brian T Harel, Mirko Savone, Kara Kelly, Veena Vijayanathan, Jennifer Greene Welch, Lynda Vrooman, Lewis B Silverman, Peter D Cole
PURPOSE: Neurocognitive impairment is frequently observed among acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors within the domains of intelligence, attention, processing speed, working memory, learning, and memory. However, few have investigated treatment-induced changes in neurocognitive function during the first months of treatment. Additionally, dysfunction during treatment may be preceded by changes in biomarkers measured within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Identification of acute declines in neurocognitive function, as well as predictive genotypes or biomarkers, could guide therapeutic trials of protective interventions...
October 10, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Mohammed M Aboelsoud, Osama Siddique, Alexander Morales, Young Seol, Mazen O Al-Qadi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of different crystal- loid solutions on clinical outcomes in critically-ill patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with AP admitted to the ICU using the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database. We investigated the effect of fluid type; lactated ringer's (LR) vs. isotonic saline (IS) on hospital mortality rates, and ICU length of stay (LOS)...
October 4, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Hui-Fei Zheng, Wen-Qiang Wang, Xin-Min Li, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker
A review of studies on the body fluid levels of neuroactive amino acids, including glutamate, glutamine, taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, tryptophan, D-serine, and others, in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is given. The results reported in the literature are generally inconclusive and contradictory, but there has been considerable variation among the previous studies in terms of factors such as age, gender, number of subjects, intelligence quotient, and psychoactive medication being taken...
September 29, 2016: Amino Acids
Lisa Cipolotti, Barbara Spanò, Colm Healy, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Edgar Chan, Mark White, Francesca Biondo, John Duncan, Tim Shallice, Marco Bozzali
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to make fundamental contributions to executive functions. However, the precise nature of these contributions is incompletely understood. We focused on a specific executive function, inhibition, the ability to suppress a pre-potent response. Functional imaging and animal studies have studied inhibition. However, there are only few lesion studies, typically reporting discrepant findings. For the first time, we conducted cognitive and neuroimaging investigations on patients with focal unilateral PFC lesions across two widely used inhibitory tasks requiring a verbal response: The Hayling Part 2 and Stroop Colour-Word Tests...
September 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Nathan F Dieckmann, Robin Gregory, Ellen Peters, Robert Hartman
In this article, we consider a novel criterion for evaluating representations of uncertainty ranges, namely, the extent to which a representation enhances motivated reasoning. In two studies, we show that perceptions of the distribution underlying ambiguous numerical ranges are affected by the motivations and worldviews of end users. This motivated reasoning effect remained after controlling for objective numeracy and fluid intelligence but was attenuated when the correct interpretation was made clear. We suggest that analysts and communicators explicitly consider the potential for motivated evaluation when evaluating uncertainty displays...
September 26, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Julia E Morgan, Steve S Lee, Sandra K Loo
OBJECTIVE: We tested mediation of birth weight and ADHD symptoms by multiple biologically plausible neurocognitive functions and evaluated familiality of observed indirect effects. METHOD: 647 youth from 284 multiplex families with ADHD completed the Arithmetic, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Multiple mediation tested WISC subtests as mediators of birth weight and multi-informant ADHD symptoms...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
Giovanni D'Antuono, Francesca Romana La Torre, Dario Marin, Gabriella Antonucci, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
We investigated the relationship between verbal and visuo-spatial measures of working memory, inhibition, fluid intelligence and the performance on the Tower of London (ToL) task in a large sample of 830 healthy participants aged between 18 and 71 years. We found that fluid intelligence and visuo-spatial working memory accounted for a significant variance in the ToL task, while performances on verbal working memory and on the Stroop Test were not predictive for performance on the ToL. The present results confirm that fluid intelligence has a fundamental role on planning tests, but also show that visuo-spatial working memory plays a crucial role in ToL performance...
September 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Lilia Hernández Del Castillo, Antonio Martínez Bermejo, José Antonio Portellano Pérez, Pilar Tirado Requero, Alexandra Garriz Luis, Ramón Velázquez Fragua
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. AIMS: In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children...
September 14, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Annike Bekius, Thomas E Cope, Manon Grube
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Amanda M Sjoblom, Elizabeth Eaton, Steven D Stagg
BACKGROUND: Zorzi et al. (2012, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 109, 11455) found evidence that extra-large letter spacing aids children with dyslexia, but the evidence for the coloured overlays is contradictory (e.g., Henderson et al., 2013, J. Res. Special Educ. Needs, 13, 57; Wilkins, 2002, Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt., 22, 448), and possible combined advantages have not been identified. AIMS: To investigate whether extra-large letter spacing or coloured overlays can alleviate reading problems in dyslexic adults...
September 14, 2016: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Zhuo Fang, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Jeremy Viczko, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep spindles-short, phasic, oscillatory bursts of activity that characterize non-rapid eye movement sleep-are one of the only electrophysiological oscillations identified as a biological marker of human intelligence (e.g., cognitive abilities commonly assessed using intelligence quotient tests). However, spindles are also important for sleep maintenance and are modulated by circadian factors. Thus, the possibility remains that the relationship between spindles and intelligence quotient may be an epiphenomenon of a putative relationship between good quality sleep and cognitive ability or perhaps modulated by circadian factors such as morningness-eveningness tendencies...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Victoria M Steelman, Tamara L Williams, Marilyn K Szekendi, Amy L Halverson, Suzanne M Dintzis, Stephen Pavkovic
Context .- Surgical specimen adverse events can lead to delays in treatment or diagnosis, misdiagnosis, reoperation, inappropriate treatment, and anxiety or serious patient harm. Objectives .- To describe the types and frequency of event reports associated with the management of surgical specimens, the contributing factors, and the level of harm associated with these events. Design .- A retrospective review was undertaken of surgical specimen adverse events and near misses voluntarily reported in the University HealthSystem Consortium Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database by more than 50 health care facilities during a 3-year period (2011-2013)...
September 9, 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Richard N Henson, Karen L Campbell, Simon W Davis, Jason R Taylor, Tina Emery, Sharon Erzinclioglu, Rogier A Kievit
Memory problems are among the most common complaints as people grow older. Using structural equation modeling of commensurate scores of anterograde memory from a large (N = 315), population-derived sample (, we provide evidence for three memory factors that are supported by distinct brain regions and show differential sensitivity to age. Associative memory and item memory are dramatically affected by age, even after adjusting for education level and fluid intelligence, whereas visual priming is not...
2016: Scientific Reports
Annamaria Di Fabio, Maureen E Kenny
Adopting a primary prevention perspective, this study examines competencies with the potential to enhance well-being and performance among future workers. More specifically, the contributions of ability-based and trait models of emotional intelligence (EI), assessed through well-established measures, to indices of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being were examined for a sample of 157 Italian high school students. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test was used to assess ability-based EI, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Inventory and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire were used to assess trait EI, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale were used to assess hedonic well-being, and the Meaningful Life Measure was used to assess eudaimonic well-being...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Nobuyuki Hanaki, Nicolas Jacquemet, Stéphane Luchini, Adam Zylbersztejn
Dominance solvability is one of the most straightforward solution concepts in game theory. It is based on two principles: dominance (according to which players always use their dominant strategy) and iterated dominance (according to which players always act as if others apply the principle of dominance). However, existing experimental evidence questions the empirical accuracy of dominance solvability. In this study, we study the relationships between the key facets of dominance solvability and two cognitive skills, cognitive reflection, and fluid intelligence...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Dominique M IJff, Tamar M van Veenendaal, Mariette H Debeij-van Hall, Jacobus F A Jansen, Anton J A de Louw, Marian H J M Majoie, Albert P Aldenkamp
INTRODUCTION: Although ethosuximide is one of the oldest antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), little information is available about the cognitive side effects of ethosuximide. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive profile of ethosuximide. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used an extensive neuropsychological test battery in patients with epilepsy aged 6-16 years who were treated with monotherapy ethosuximide. We evaluated the efficacy of the drug by seizure frequency (seizure free or not)...
October 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Joshua S Siegel, Anish Mitra, Timothy O Laumann, Benjamin A Seitzman, Marcus Raichle, Maurizio Corbetta, Abraham Z Snyder
A growing field of research explores links between behavioral measures and functional connectivity (FC) assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies suggest that measurement of these relationships may be corrupted by head motion artifact. Using data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we find that a surprising number of behavioral, demographic, and physiological measures (23 of 122), including fluid intelligence, reading ability, weight, and psychiatric diagnostic scales, correlate with head motion...
August 22, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Hadas ErEl, Nachshon Meiran
A 'mindset' is a configuration of processing resources that are made available for the task at hand as well as their suitable tuning for carrying it out. Of special interest, remote-relation abstract mindsets are introduced by activities sharing only general control processes with the task. To test the effect of a remote-relation mindset on performance on a Fluid Intelligence test (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM), we induced a mindset associated with little usage of executive processing by requiring participants to execute a well-defined classification rule 12 times, a manipulation known from previous work to drastically impair rule-generation performance and associated cognitive processes...
August 17, 2016: Psychological Research
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