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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918225/on-the-relationship-between-executive-functions-of-working-memory-and-components-derived-from-fluid-intelligence-measures
#1
Xuezhu Ren, Karl Schweizer, Tengfei Wang, Pei Chu, Qin Gong
The aim of the current study is to provide new insights into the relationship between executive functions and intelligence measures in considering the item-position effect observed in intelligence items. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) and Horn's LPS reasoning test were used to assess fluid intelligence which served as criterion in investigating the relationship between intelligence and executive functions. A battery of six experimental tasks measured the updating, shifting, and inhibition processes of executive functions...
September 14, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905355/revealing-hidden-talents-the-development-use-and-benefit-of-vesparch
#2
Julia R Badger, Jane Mellanby
BACKGROUND: School attainment tests and Cognitive Abilities Tests are used in the United Kingdom to set targets for educational outcome. Whilst these are good predictors, they depend not only on basic ability but also on learnt knowledge and skills, such as reading. METHOD AND AIMS: VESPARCH is an online group test of verbal and spatial reasoning, which we propose gives a measure that more closely approximates to basic ability - fluid intelligence. The verbal test contains highly familiar words, does not require the child to read them, is untimed, and provides detailed feedback on five practice questions for each part of the test...
September 14, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890917/attentional-disengagements-in-educational-contexts-a-diary-investigation-of-everyday-mind-wandering-and-distraction
#3
Nash Unsworth, Brittany D McMillan
The present study examined everyday attentional disengagements in educational contexts. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday mind-wandering and distraction in a diary over the course of a week. Participants reported mind-wandering and being distracted both in class and while studying and there were a number of different subtypes of attentional disengagements. Individual differences in cognitive abilities were related to some, but not all, everyday attentional disengagements and motivation and interest in classes were related to specific subtypes of disengagements...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889995/aging-and-working-memory-performance-electrophysiological-correlates-of-high-and-low-performing-elderly
#4
Alexander F Lubitz, Michael Niedeggen, Maximilian Feser
In this study we investigated age-related changes in WM capacity and their respective ERP correlates. We explicitly addressed the differentiation between high and low performing elderly to identify electrophysiological correlates of successful aging. Therefore, ERP and behavioral data was obtained from 45 young (mean = 22.73 years) and 35 older participants (mean = 68.49 years). Both groups performed a visual-spatial n-back task with two levels of difficulty. Additionally, related neuropsychological tests were administered...
September 7, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886467/the-relationship-between-fluid-intelligence-and-sustained-inattentional-blindness-in-7-to-14-year-old-children
#5
REVIEW
Hui Zhang, Congcong Yan, Xingli Zhang, Jiannong Shi, Beiling Zhu
Previous researches have shown that people with higher fluid intelligence are more likely to detect the unexpected stimuli. The current study systematically explored the relationship between fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness in children. In Experiment 1, we measured one hundred and seventy-nine 7-to-14-year-old children's fluid intelligence and sustained inattentional blindness. The results showed that fluid intelligence was negatively related to sustained inattentional blindness only in 7-to-8-year-old children...
September 5, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877653/why-do-older-adults-have-difficulty-with-semantic-fluency
#6
Jean K Gordon, Megan Young, Carly Garcia
Aging involves many cognitive declines, particularly in fluid intelligence, with relative maintenance of crystallized intelligence. This paradox is evident in the language domain: lexical retrieval becomes slower and less accurate, despite well preserved vocabularies. Verbal fluency assesses both crystallized and fluid aspects of language. Semantic fluency hypothetically reflects semantic knowledge, while letter fluency putatively reflects executive functioning, which would predict a greater impact of aging on the latter...
September 6, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876361/the-five-digits-test-in-the-assessment-of-older-adults-with-low-formal-education-construct-validity-and-reliability-in-a-brazilian-clinical-sample
#7
Jonas Jardim de Paula, Thaís Dell'Oro Oliveira, Emanuel Henrique Gonçalves Querino, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz
Introduction: In the assessment of older adults with very low formal education, typical tests of selective attention and inhibitory control are biased by reading abilities. In this sense, we aim to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Five Digits Test (FDT), a numerical Stroop paradigm, in older adults without cognitive disorders, with mild cognitive impairment, and with dementia. Methods: We assessed 211 Brazilian older adults with low formal education using the FDT and other cognitive measures...
August 31, 2017: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861014/emotion-understanding-social-competence-and-school-achievement-in-children-from-primary-school-in-portugal
#8
Maria da Glória Franco, Maria J Beja, Adelinda Candeias, Natalie Santos
This study analyzes the relationship between emotion understanding and school achievement in children of primary school, considering age, gender, fluid intelligence, mother's educational level and social competence. In this study participated 406 children of primary school. The instruments used were the Test of Emotion Comprehension, Colored Progressive Matrices of Raven, Socially Action and Interpersonal Problem Solving Scale. The structural equation model showed the relationship between the emotion understanding and school performance depends on a mediator variable that in the context of the study was designated social competence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856955/long-term-pitch-memory-for-music-recordings-is-related-to-auditory-working-memory-precision
#9
Stephen C Van Hedger, Shannon L M Heald, Howard C Nusbaum
Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training, and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch...
August 31, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819875/pathways-from-birth-weight-to-adhd-symptoms-through-fluid-reasoning-in-youth-with-or-without-intellectual-disability
#10
Julia E Morgan, Steve S Lee, Sandra K Loo, Joshua W Yuhan, Bruce L Baker
Although individual differences in fluid reasoning reliably mediate predictions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from birth weight in youth with typical cognitive development (TD), it is unknown if this indirect effect operates similarly in the development of ADHD symptoms secondary to intellectual disability (ID). Thus, we evaluated mediation by fluid reasoning in a longitudinal sample of 163 youth (45% female) with (n = 52) or without (n = 111) ID who were followed prospectively from age 5 to age 13...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811256/cognitive-estimation-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-and-posterior-lesions
#11
Lisa Cipolotti, Sarah E MacPherson, Sara Gharooni, Natasja van-Harskamp, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Parashkev Nachev
The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is a widely used test to investigate estimation abilities requiring complex processes such as reasoning, the development and application of appropriate strategies, response plausibility checking as well as general knowledge and numeracy (e.g., Shallice and Evans, 1978; MacPherson et al., 2014). Thus far, it remains unknown whether the CET is both sensitive and specific to frontal lobe dysfunction. Neuroimaging techniques may not represent a useful methodology for answering this question since the complex processes involved are likely to be associated with a large network of brain regions, some of which are not functionally necessary to successfully carry out the CET...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800514/the-relationship-between-executive-functions-and-fluid-intelligence-in-euthymic-bipolar-disorder-patients
#12
Belén Goitia, Facundo Manes, Teresa Torralva, Mariano Sigman, John Duncan, Marcelo Cetkovich, María Roca
Distinct cognitive deficits have been described in Bipolar disorder (BD), including executive impairments, commonly attributed to frontal dysfunction. However, recent attention has been paid to the heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in this population, suggesting that the executive deficits observed in BD might be due to a loss in fluid intelligence (g). Following our previous line of investigation in multiple neurological and psychiatric conditions we aimed at determining the role of g in frontal deficits in BD...
August 1, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771762/cognitive-impairment-in-adolescents-and-adults-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#13
Leif Karlsson, Anton Gezelius, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
OBJECTIVE: Impaired cognition has been reported in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), although the findings have been conflicting. It has been hypothesized that the major causes of the deficits are prenatal hormonal imbalances and/or excessive glucocorticoid treatment. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND SETTING: This was an observational study comparing cognition in CAH patients (n=55) to control subjects from the general population (n=58), aged 16-33 years. Nine CAH subjects had been treated prenatally with dexamethasone...
August 3, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761438/differential-cloud-particles-evolution-algorithm-based-on-data-driven-mechanism-for-applications-of-ann
#14
Wei Li
Computational scientists have designed many useful algorithms by exploring a biological process or imitating natural evolution. These algorithms can be used to solve engineering optimization problems. Inspired by the change of matter state, we proposed a novel optimization algorithm called differential cloud particles evolution algorithm based on data-driven mechanism (CPDD). In the proposed algorithm, the optimization process is divided into two stages, namely, fluid stage and solid stage. The algorithm carries out the strategy of integrating global exploration with local exploitation in fluid stage...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750832/functional-brain-activation-associated-with-working-memory-training-and-transfer
#15
Cameron M Clark, Linette Lawlor-Savage, Vina M Goghari
While behavioural trials of working memory (WM) training have received much attention in recent years, a lesser explored parallel approach is functional neuroimaging. A small literature has suggested a complex time course for functional activation pattern changes following WM training (i.e. not simply increasing or decreasing due to training); however, no study to date has examined such neuroplastic effects in both the training task (dual n-back) and the fluid intelligence transfer task to which the training is purported to transfer (Raven's Matrices)...
July 24, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749159/hierarchical-exploratory-factor-analyses-of-the-woodcock-johnson-iv-full-test-battery-implications-for-chc-application-in-school-psychology
#16
Stefan C Dombrowski, Ryan J McGill, Gary L Canivez
The Woodcock-Johnson (fourth edition; WJ IV; Schrank, McGrew, & Mather, 2014a) was recently redeveloped and retains its linkage to Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory (CHC). Independent reviews (e.g., Canivez, 2017) and investigations (Dombrowski, McGill, & Canivez, 2017) of the structure of the WJ IV full test battery and WJ IV Cognitive have suggested the need for additional factor analytic exploration. Accordingly, the present study used principal axis factoring (PAF) followed by the Schmid and Leiman (SL; Schmid & Leiman, 1957) procedure with the 2 school-aged correlation matrices from the normative sample to determine the degree to which the WJ IV total battery structure could be replicated...
July 27, 2017: School Psychology Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729621/genotype-environment-interaction-on-human-cognitive-function-conditioned-on-the-status-of-breastfeeding-and-maternal-smoking-around-birth
#17
S Hong Lee, W M Shalanee P Weerasinghe, Julius H J van der Werf
We estimated genotype by environment interaction (G × E) on later cognitive performance and educational attainment across four unique environments, i.e. 1) breastfed without maternal smoking, 2) breastfed with maternal smoking, 3) non-breastfed without maternal smoking and 4) non-breastfed with maternal smoking, using a novel design and statistical approach that was facilitated by the availability of datasets with the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). There was significant G × E for both fluid intelligence (p-value = 1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705691/functional-connectivity-within-and-between-intrinsic-brain-networks-correlates-with-trait-mind-wandering
#18
Christine A Godwin, Michael A Hunter, Matthew A Bezdek, Gregory Lieberman, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Victoria L Romero, Katie Witkiewitz, Vincent P Clark, Eric H Schumacher
Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). The extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory. Here we examine the extent to which the DMN, along with the dorsal attention network (DAN) and frontoparietal control network (FPCN) correlate with the tendency to mind wander in daily life...
July 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701976/a-latent-factor-analysis-of-working-memory-measures-using-large-scale-data
#19
Otto Waris, Anna Soveri, Miikka Ahti, Russell C Hoffing, Daniel Ventus, Susanne M Jaeggi, Aaron R Seitz, Matti Laine
Working memory (WM) is a key cognitive system that is strongly related to other cognitive domains and relevant for everyday life. However, the structure of WM is yet to be determined. A number of WM models have been put forth especially by factor analytical studies. In broad terms, these models vary by their emphasis on WM contents (e.g., visuospatial, verbal) vs. WM processes (e.g., maintenance, updating) as critical, dissociable elements. Here we conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses on a broad set of WM tasks, half of them numerical-verbal and half of them visuospatial, representing four commonly used task paradigms: simple span, complex span, running memory, and n-back...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663569/lower-school-performance-in-late-chronotypes-underlying-factors-and-mechanisms
#20
Giulia Zerbini, Vincent van der Vinne, Lana K M Otto, Thomas Kantermann, Wim P Krijnen, Till Roenneberg, Martha Merrow
Success at school determines future career opportunities. We described a time-of-day specific disparity in school performance between early and late chronotypes. Several studies showed that students with a late chronotype and short sleep duration obtain lower grades, suggesting that early school starting times handicap their performance. How chronotype, sleep duration, and time of day impact school performance is not clear. At a Dutch high school, we collected 40,890 grades obtained in a variety of school subjects over an entire school year...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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