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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064050/development-of-a-novel-ph-sensitive-silane-crosslinked-injectable-hydrogel-for-controlled-release-of-neomycin-sulfate
#1
Sehrish Jabeen, Atif Islam, Abdul Ghaffar, Nafisa Gull, Ayesha Hameed, Anbreen Bashir, Tahir Jamil, Tousif Hussain
Silane crosslinked biopolymer based novel pH-responsive hydrogels were fabricated by blending the cationic (chitosan) and anionic (alginate) polymers with poly (vinyl alcohol). Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used, as a crosslinker in different amounts due to its nonhazardous nature, to study its impact on physical and chemical properties of the prepared injectable hydrogels along with the controlled release of drug. The swelling response of the prepared hydrogels was examined in different solvent media which exhibited decreased swelling ratio with increase in the amount of TEOS...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041947/cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-lesions
#2
Sarah E MacPherson, Colm Healy, Michael Allerhand, Barbara Spanò, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Mark White, Daniela Smirni, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Marco Bozzali, Lisa Cipolotti
The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls...
December 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039662/individual-differences-in-spontaneous-analogical-transfer
#3
James R Kubricht, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test...
December 30, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030746/association-of-fluid-intelligence-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-a-population-representative-sample-of-us-adolescents
#4
Katherine M Keyes, Jonathan Platt, Alan S Kaufman, Katie A McLaughlin
Importance: Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. Objective: To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004...
December 28, 2016: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018191/hebb-and-cattell-the-genesis-of-the-theory-of-fluid-and-crystallized-intelligence
#5
REVIEW
Richard E Brown
Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to "Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence," which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990060/the-structure-of-working-memory-in-young-children-and-its-relation-to-intelligence
#6
Shelley Gray, Samuel Green, Mary Alt, Tiffany P Hogan, Trudy Kuo, Shara Brinkley, Nelson Cowan
This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7-9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan's three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) three-factor model (specified according to Baddeley, 1986) and decisively better than Baddeley's (2000) four-factor model that included an episodic buffer...
February 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989970/neurocognitive-function-surrounding-the-resection-of-frontal-who-grade-i-meningiomas-a-prospective-matched-control-study
#7
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from intracranial meningiomas may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunctions in specific cognitive domains depending on tumor location and size. The literature on the cognitive function surrounding the resection of frontal meningiomas is sparse. METHODS: We performed a prospective matched-control study to investigate the cognitive performance of frontal meningioma patients undergoing resection. The neurocognitive status one week and two months post resection was compared to the preoperative status and to matched-controls...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966279/training-and-transfer-effects-of-response-inhibition-training-in-children-and-adults
#8
Xin Zhao, Ling Chen, Joseph H R Maes
Response inhibition is crucial for mental and physical health but studies assessing the trainability of this type of inhibition are rare. Thirty-nine children aged 10-12 years and 46 adults aged 18-24 years were assigned to an adaptive go/no-go inhibition training condition or an active control condition. Transfer of training effects to performance on tasks assessing response inhibition, interference control, working memory updating, task-switching, and non-verbal fluid intelligence were assessed during 3- and 6-month follow-up sessions and/or an immediate post-training session...
December 13, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920750/fluid-intelligence-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-executive-control-and-balanced-time-perspective
#9
Marcin Zajenkowski, Maciej Stolarski, Joanna Witowska, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Paweł Łowicki
This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults (N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919297/fluid-intelligence-and-the-cross-frequency-coupling-of-neuronal-oscillations
#10
Adam Chuderski
Several existing theoretical models predict that the individual capacity of working memory and abstract reasoning (fluid intelligence) strongly depends on certain features of neuronal oscillations, especially their cross-frequency coupling. Empirical evidence supporting these predictions is still scarce, but it makes the future studies on oscillatory coupling a promising line of research that can uncover the physiological underpinnings of fluid intelligence. Cross-frequency coupling may serve as the optimal level of description of neurocognitive processes, integrating their genetic, structural, neurochemical, and bioelectrical underlying factors with explanations in terms of cognitive operations driven by neuronal oscillations...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918695/sedentary-time-physical-activity-and-executive-function-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-youth
#11
Erick E Wickel
BACKGROUND: This study examined associations between sedentary time, physical activity (PA), and executive function among youth participating in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. METHODS: >: Sedentary time and PA (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)) were objectively assessed at 9 and 15 yrs, while executive function (inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were assessed at 15 yrs. Regression models were used to examine associations...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899724/working-memory-capacity-and-fluid-intelligence-maintenance-and-disengagement
#12
Zach Shipstead, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895568/feasibility-of-a-mobile-cognitive-intervention-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#13
Peter Glynn, Soyong Eom, Frank Zelko, Sookyong Koh
Children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) frequently present with cognitive comorbidities and school performance concerns. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention for such comorbidities using a mobile cognitive therapy application on an iPad. Eight children with CAE and school concerns aged 7-11 participated in a 4-week intervention. They were asked to use the application for 80 min per week (20 min/day, 4 times/week). Parents and children completed satisfaction surveys regarding the application...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832354/neuropsychological-improvement-after-posterior-fossa-arachnoid-cyst-drainage
#14
M L Cuny, M Pallone, H Piana, N Boddaert, C Sainte-Rose, L Vaivre-Douret, P Piolino, S Puget
PURPOSE: Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) are mostly considered as benign lesions of the cerebellum. Although many studies have shown the major role of the cerebellum in modulating movement, language, cognition, and social interaction, there are few studies on the cognitive impact and surgical decompression of PFAC. METHODS: We present the cases of two brothers successively diagnosed with PFAC and neuropsychological delay. After multidisciplinary discussion with the boys' parents, it was decided to drain these lesions...
November 10, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826268/creativity-and-cognitive-skills-among-millennials-thinking-too-much-and-creating-too-little
#15
Brice Corgnet, Antonio M Espín, Roberto Hernán-González
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821254/the-relationship-between-baseline-pupil-size-and-intelligence
#16
Jason S Tsukahara, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797557/cognitive-predictors-of-a-common-multitasking-ability-contributions-from-working-memory-attention-control-and-fluid-intelligence
#17
Thomas S Redick, Zach Shipstead, Matthew E Meier, Janelle J Montroy, Kenny L Hicks, Nash Unsworth, Michael J Kane, D Zachary Hambrick, Randall W Engle
Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794259/an-evaluation-of-fluid-immersion-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-pressure-ulcers
#18
P R Worsley, B Parsons, D L Bader
BACKGROUND: Individuals with impaired mobility can spend prolonged periods on support surfaces, increasing their risk of developing pressure ulcers. Manufacturers have developed mattresses to maximise contact area. The present study evaluated both the biomechanical and physiological responses to lying postures on a Fluid Immersion Simulation mattress. METHODS: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited to evaluate the mattress during three prescribed settings of immersion (high, medium and low)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758729/evaluating-a-social-problem-solving-intervention-for-juvenile-detainees-depressive-outcomes-and-moderators-of-effectiveness
#19
Gerald J Haeffel, Sascha Hein, Amanda Square, Donna Macomber, Maria Lee, John Chapman, Elena L Grigorenko
This study reports findings from the administration of a social problem-solving training (SPST) intervention to juvenile detainees in the Connecticut Youth Detainee Program. SPST is a cognitive behavioral intervention that teaches children and youth how to more effectively cope with interpersonal stress and conflict. In the current study, we tested whether SPST could decrease depressive symptoms in a sample of detained adolescent offenders. The study used a randomized-control design with detention staff administering the intervention...
October 19, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756695/enhanced-working-memory-performance-via-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-the-possibility-of-near-and-far-transfer
#20
Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Brian A Coffman, Michael A Hunter, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Vincent P Clark
Although working memory (WM) training programs consistently result in improvement on the trained task, benefit is typically short-lived and extends only to tasks very similar to the trained task (i.e., near transfer). It is possible that pairing repeated performance of a WM task with brain stimulation encourages plasticity in brain networks involved in WM task performance, thereby improving the training benefit. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with performance of a WM task (n-back)...
December 2016: Neuropsychologia
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