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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230383/the-interplay-between-personality-and-cognitive-ability-across-12-years-in-middle-and-late-adulthood-evidence-for-reciprocal-associations
#1
Markus Wettstein, Benjamin Tauber, Elżbieta Kuźma, Hans-Werner Wahl
Research on relationships between personality and cognitive abilities has so far resulted in inconsistent findings regarding the strength of the associations. Moreover, relationships have rarely been compared longitudinally and bidirectionally between midlife versus late-life cohorts by considering different personality traits as well as multiple cognitive domains over a long-term follow-up period. We hypothesize that the interplay between the "Big Five" personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) and cognitive abilities (information processing speed, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence) may change from midlife to old age due to age-associated changes in cognitive and personality plasticity...
February 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223371/socioeconomic-attainment-of-extremely-low-birth-weight-survivors-the-role-of-early-cognition
#2
Kathleen G Dobson, Mark A Ferro, Michael H Boyle, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
OBJECTIVES: To determine: (1) if childhood cognitive and academic abilities mediate the association between being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and socioeconomic attainment at age 29 to 36 years; (2) which cognitive abilities (IQ, verbal abilities, fluid intelligence, mathematical abilities, or academic achievement) most strongly mediate this association; and (3) if the mediating role of cognition is different in ELBW survivors with significant neurosensory impairment (NSI)...
February 21, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205143/development-of-a-gastric-absorptive-immediate-responsive-oral-protein-loaded-versatile-polymeric-delivery-system
#3
Pierre P D Kondiah, Yahya E Choonara, Lomas K Tomar, Charu Tyagi, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Thashree Marimuthu, Girish Modi, Viness Pillay
A multifunctional platform to deliver three diverse proteins of insulin, interferon beta (INF-β) and erythropoietin (EPO), using a novel copolymeric microparticulate system of TMC-PEGDMA-MAA, was synthesised as an intelligent pH-responsive 2-fold gastric and intestinal absorptive system. Physiochemical and physicomechanical studies proved the degree of crystallinity that supported the controlled protein delivery of the microparticulate system. The copolymer was tableted before undertaking in vitro and in vivo analysis...
February 15, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165253/working-memory-training-in-typically-developing-children-a-meta-analysis-of-the-available-evidence
#4
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
The putative effectiveness of working memory (WM) training at enhancing cognitive and academic skills is still ardently debated. Several researchers have claimed that WM training fosters not only skills such as visuospatial WM and short-term memory (STM), but also abilities outside the domain of WM, such as fluid intelligence and mathematics. Other researchers, while acknowledging the positive effect of WM training on WM-related cognitive skills, are much more pessimistic about the ability of WM training to improve other cognitive and academic skills...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147899/the-impact-of-working-memory-training-on-near-and-far-transfer-measures-is-it-all-about-fluid-intelligence
#5
H Lee Swanson, Meaghan McMurran
This randomized control study investigates the effects of working memory (WM) training on near (similar WM memory tasks) and far (math problem-solving processes and accuracy tasks) transfer in children aged 7 to 11 years who vary in fluid intelligence. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of two WM training conditions (repeated practice vs. cued recall). ​When compared to the control condition, the results show that the cued recall condition yields higher post-test scores for the far transfer measures, whereas the repeated practice condition yields higher scores for the near transfer​ measures...
February 1, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116702/working-memory-training-revisited-a-multi-level-meta-analysis-of-n-back-training-studies
#6
Anna Soveri, Jan Antfolk, Linda Karlsson, Benny Salo, Matti Laine
The efficacy of working memory (WM) training has been a controversial and hotly debated issue during the past years. Despite a large number of training studies and several meta-analyses, the matter has not yet been solved. We conducted a multi-level meta-analysis on the cognitive transfer effects in healthy adults who have been administered WM updating training with n-back tasks, the most common experimental WM training paradigm. Thanks to this methodological approach that has not been employed in previous meta-analyses in this field, we were able to include effect sizes from all relevant tasks used in the original studies...
January 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104542/hippocampal-morphology-and-cognitive-functions-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#7
Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Simon R Cox, Jaeil Kim, Natalie A Royle, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alan J Gow, Devasuda Anblagan, Mark E Bastin, Jinah Park, John M Starr, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Structural measures of the hippocampus have been linked to a variety of memory processes and also to broader cognitive abilities. Gross volumetry has been widely used, yet the hippocampus has a complex formation, comprising distinct subfields which may be differentially sensitive to the deleterious effects of age, and to different aspects of cognitive performance. However, a comprehensive analysis of multidomain cognitive associations with hippocampal deformations among a large group of cognitively normal older adults is currently lacking...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090818/individual-differences-in-proactive-interference-in-verbal-and-visuospatial-working-memory
#8
Lindsey Lilienthal
Proactive interference (PI) has been shown to affect working memory (WM) span as well as the predictive utility of WM span measures. However, most of the research on PI has been conducted using verbal memory items, and much less is known about the role of PI in the visuospatial domain. In order to further explore this issue, the present study used a within-subjects manipulation of PI that alternated clusters of trials with verbal and visuospatial to-be-remembered items. Although PI was shown to build and release across trials similarly in the two domains, important differences also were observed...
January 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064050/development-of-a-novel-ph-sensitive-silane-crosslinked-injectable-hydrogel-for-controlled-release-of-neomycin-sulfate
#9
Sehrish Jabeen, Atif Islam, Abdul Ghaffar, Nafisa Gull, Ayesha Hameed, Anbreen Bashir, Tahir Jamil, Tousif Hussain
Silane crosslinked biopolymer based novel pH-responsive hydrogels were fabricated by blending the cationic (chitosan) and anionic (alginate) polymers with poly(vinyl alcohol). Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used, as a crosslinker in different amounts due to its nonhazardous nature, to study its impact on physical and chemical properties of the prepared injectable hydrogels along with the controlled release of drug. The swelling response of the prepared hydrogels was examined in different solvent media which exhibited decreased swelling ratio with increase in the amount of TEOS...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041947/cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-lesions
#10
Sarah E MacPherson, Colm Healy, Michael Allerhand, Barbara Spanò, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Mark White, Daniela Smirni, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Marco Bozzali, Lisa Cipolotti
The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039662/individual-differences-in-spontaneous-analogical-transfer
#11
James R Kubricht, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test...
December 30, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030746/association-of-fluid-intelligence-and-psychiatric-disorders-in-a-population-representative-sample-of-us-adolescents
#12
Katherine M Keyes, Jonathan Platt, Alan S Kaufman, Katie A McLaughlin
Importance: Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. Objective: To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Design, Setting, and Participants: National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004...
February 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018191/hebb-and-cattell-the-genesis-of-the-theory-of-fluid-and-crystallized-intelligence
#13
REVIEW
Richard E Brown
Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to "Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence," which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990060/the-structure-of-working-memory-in-young-children-and-its-relation-to-intelligence
#14
Shelley Gray, Samuel Green, Mary Alt, Tiffany P Hogan, Trudy Kuo, Shara Brinkley, Nelson Cowan
This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7-9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan's three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) three-factor model (specified according to Baddeley, 1986) and decisively better than Baddeley's (2000) four-factor model that included an episodic buffer...
February 2017: Journal of Memory and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989970/neurocognitive-function-surrounding-the-resection-of-frontal-who-grade-i-meningiomas-a-prospective-matched-control-study
#15
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from intracranial meningiomas may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunctions in specific cognitive domains depending on tumor location and size. The literature on the cognitive function surrounding the resection of frontal meningiomas is sparse. METHODS: We performed a prospective matched-control study to investigate the cognitive performance of frontal meningioma patients undergoing resection. The neurocognitive status one week and two months post resection was compared to the preoperative status and to matched-controls...
October 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966279/training-and-transfer-effects-of-response-inhibition-training-in-children-and-adults
#16
Xin Zhao, Ling Chen, Joseph H R Maes
Response inhibition is crucial for mental and physical health but studies assessing the trainability of this type of inhibition are rare. Thirty-nine children aged 10-12 years and 46 adults aged 18-24 years were assigned to an adaptive go/no-go inhibition training condition or an active control condition. Transfer of training effects to performance on tasks assessing response inhibition, interference control, working memory updating, task-switching, and non-verbal fluid intelligence were assessed during 3- and 6-month follow-up sessions and/or an immediate post-training session...
December 13, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920750/fluid-intelligence-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-executive-control-and-balanced-time-perspective
#17
Marcin Zajenkowski, Maciej Stolarski, Joanna Witowska, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Paweł Łowicki
This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults (N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919297/fluid-intelligence-and-the-cross-frequency-coupling-of-neuronal-oscillations
#18
Adam Chuderski
Several existing theoretical models predict that the individual capacity of working memory and abstract reasoning (fluid intelligence) strongly depends on certain features of neuronal oscillations, especially their cross-frequency coupling. Empirical evidence supporting these predictions is still scarce, but it makes the future studies on oscillatory coupling a promising line of research that can uncover the physiological underpinnings of fluid intelligence. Cross-frequency coupling may serve as the optimal level of description of neurocognitive processes, integrating their genetic, structural, neurochemical, and bioelectrical underlying factors with explanations in terms of cognitive operations driven by neuronal oscillations...
December 6, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918695/sedentary-time-physical-activity-and-executive-function-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-youth
#19
Erick E Wickel
BACKGROUND: This study examined associations between sedentary time, physical activity (PA), and executive function among youth participating in the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. METHODS: >: Sedentary time and PA (light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)) were objectively assessed at 9 and 15 yrs, while executive function (inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence) were assessed at 15 yrs. Regression models were used to examine associations...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899724/working-memory-capacity-and-fluid-intelligence-maintenance-and-disengagement
#20
Zach Shipstead, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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