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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899724/working-memory-capacity-and-fluid-intelligence-maintenance-and-disengagement
#1
Zach Shipstead, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895568/feasibility-of-a-mobile-cognitive-intervention-in-childhood-absence-epilepsy
#2
Peter Glynn, Soyong Eom, Frank Zelko, Sookyong Koh
Children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) frequently present with cognitive comorbidities and school performance concerns. The present study evaluated the feasibility of an intervention for such comorbidities using a mobile cognitive therapy application on an iPad. Eight children with CAE and school concerns aged 7-11 participated in a 4-week intervention. They were asked to use the application for 80 min per week (20 min/day, 4 times/week). Parents and children completed satisfaction surveys regarding the application...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832354/neuropsychological-improvement-after-posterior-fossa-arachnoid-cyst-drainage
#3
M L Cuny, M Pallone, H Piana, N Boddaert, C Sainte-Rose, L Vaivre-Douret, P Piolino, S Puget
PURPOSE: Posterior fossa arachnoid cysts (PFAC) are mostly considered as benign lesions of the cerebellum. Although many studies have shown the major role of the cerebellum in modulating movement, language, cognition, and social interaction, there are few studies on the cognitive impact and surgical decompression of PFAC. METHODS: We present the cases of two brothers successively diagnosed with PFAC and neuropsychological delay. After multidisciplinary discussion with the boys' parents, it was decided to drain these lesions...
November 10, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826268/creativity-and-cognitive-skills-among-millennials-thinking-too-much-and-creating-too-little
#4
Brice Corgnet, Antonio M Espín, Roberto Hernán-González
Organizations crucially need the creative talent of millennials but are reluctant to hire them because of their supposed lack of diligence. Recent studies have shown that hiring diligent millennials requires selecting those who score high on the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) and thus rely on effortful thinking rather than intuition. A central question is to assess whether the push for recruiting diligent millennials using criteria such as cognitive reflection can ultimately hamper the recruitment of creative workers...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821254/the-relationship-between-baseline-pupil-size-and-intelligence
#5
Jason S Tsukahara, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseline condition. Yet these findings were incidental and lacked a clear explanation. Therefore, in the present series of studies we systematically investigated whether pupil size during a passive baseline is associated with individual differences in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence...
December 2016: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797557/cognitive-predictors-of-a-common-multitasking-ability-contributions-from-working-memory-attention-control-and-fluid-intelligence
#6
Thomas S Redick, Zach Shipstead, Matthew E Meier, Janelle J Montroy, Kenny L Hicks, Nash Unsworth, Michael J Kane, D Zachary Hambrick, Randall W Engle
Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings...
November 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794259/an-evaluation-of-fluid-immersion-therapy-for-the-prevention-of-pressure-ulcers
#7
P R Worsley, B Parsons, D L Bader
BACKGROUND: Individuals with impaired mobility can spend prolonged periods on support surfaces, increasing their risk of developing pressure ulcers. Manufacturers have developed mattresses to maximise contact area. The present study evaluated both the biomechanical and physiological responses to lying postures on a Fluid Immersion Simulation mattress. METHODS: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited to evaluate the mattress during three prescribed settings of immersion (high, medium and low)...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758729/evaluating-a-social-problem-solving-intervention-for-juvenile-detainees-depressive-outcomes-and-moderators-of-effectiveness
#8
Gerald J Haeffel, Sascha Hein, Amanda Square, Donna Macomber, Maria Lee, John Chapman, Elena L Grigorenko
This study reports findings from the administration of a social problem-solving training (SPST) intervention to juvenile detainees in the Connecticut Youth Detainee Program. SPST is a cognitive behavioral intervention that teaches children and youth how to more effectively cope with interpersonal stress and conflict. In the current study, we tested whether SPST could decrease depressive symptoms in a sample of detained adolescent offenders. The study used a randomized-control design with detention staff administering the intervention...
October 19, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756695/enhanced-working-memory-performance-via-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-the-possibility-of-near-and-far-transfer
#9
Michael C Trumbo, Laura E Matzen, Brian A Coffman, Michael A Hunter, Aaron P Jones, Charles S H Robinson, Vincent P Clark
Although working memory (WM) training programs consistently result in improvement on the trained task, benefit is typically short-lived and extends only to tasks very similar to the trained task (i.e., near transfer). It is possible that pairing repeated performance of a WM task with brain stimulation encourages plasticity in brain networks involved in WM task performance, thereby improving the training benefit. In the current study, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was paired with performance of a WM task (n-back)...
October 15, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752960/tracking-the-dynamics-of-divergent-thinking-via-semantic-distance-analytic-methods-and-theoretical-implications
#10
Richard W Hass
Divergent thinking has often been used as a proxy measure of creative thinking, but this practice lacks a foundation in modern cognitive psychological theory. This article addresses several issues with the classic divergent-thinking methodology and presents a new theoretical and methodological framework for cognitive divergent-thinking studies. A secondary analysis of a large dataset of divergent-thinking responses is presented. Latent semantic analysis was used to examine the potential changes in semantic distance between responses and the concept represented by the divergent-thinking prompt across successive response iterations...
October 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27727034/understanding-the-outcome-in-the-chinese-changjiang-disaster-in%C3%A2-2015-a-retrospective-study
#11
Ce Yang, Jie Gao, Juan Du, Haiyan Wang, Jianxin Jiang, Zhengguo Wang
BACKGROUND: Rescue after a maritime disaster remains a great challenge in emergency medicine. OBJECTIVE: We performed an overview of rescue efforts among the victims in the sunken cruise ship Eastern Star in the 2015 Changjiang River marine disaster, as well as possible preventive measures in maritime transport situations. METHODS: The rescue records of 454 victims of the sunken ship were analyzed retrospectively. Their demographic data, rescue effects, accident inducement, and injury disposition were reviewed...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726029/feasibility-of-baseline-neurocognitive-assessment-using-cogstate-during-the-first-month-of-therapy-for-childhood-leukemia
#12
Stephen A Sands, Brian T Harel, Mirko Savone, Kara Kelly, Veena Vijayanathan, Jennifer Greene Welch, Lynda Vrooman, Lewis B Silverman, Peter D Cole
PURPOSE: Neurocognitive impairment is frequently observed among acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors within the domains of intelligence, attention, processing speed, working memory, learning, and memory. However, few have investigated treatment-induced changes in neurocognitive function during the first months of treatment. Additionally, dysfunction during treatment may be preceded by changes in biomarkers measured within cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Identification of acute declines in neurocognitive function, as well as predictive genotypes or biomarkers, could guide therapeutic trials of protective interventions...
October 10, 2016: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706278/fluid-choice-matters-in-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-pancreatitis-lactated-ringer-s-vs-isotonic-saline
#13
Mohammed M Aboelsoud, Osama Siddique, Alexander Morales, Young Seol, Mazen O Al-Qadi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of different crystal- loid solutions on clinical outcomes in critically-ill patients with acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with AP admitted to the ICU using the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III) database. We investigated the effect of fluid type; lactated ringer's (LR) vs. isotonic saline (IS) on hospital mortality rates, and ICU length of stay (LOS)...
October 4, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686223/body-fluid-levels-of-neuroactive-amino-acids-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Hui-Fei Zheng, Wen-Qiang Wang, Xin-Min Li, Gail Rauw, Glen B Baker
A review of studies on the body fluid levels of neuroactive amino acids, including glutamate, glutamine, taurine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, tryptophan, D-serine, and others, in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is given. The results reported in the literature are generally inconclusive and contradictory, but there has been considerable variation among the previous studies in terms of factors such as age, gender, number of subjects, intelligence quotient, and psychoactive medication being taken...
September 29, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671485/inhibition-processes-are-dissociable-and-lateralized-in-human-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Lisa Cipolotti, Barbara Spanò, Colm Healy, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Edgar Chan, Mark White, Francesca Biondo, John Duncan, Tim Shallice, Marco Bozzali
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is known to make fundamental contributions to executive functions. However, the precise nature of these contributions is incompletely understood. We focused on a specific executive function, inhibition, the ability to suppress a pre-potent response. Functional imaging and animal studies have studied inhibition. However, there are only few lesion studies, typically reporting discrepant findings. For the first time, we conducted cognitive and neuroimaging investigations on patients with focal unilateral PFC lesions across two widely used inhibitory tasks requiring a verbal response: The Hayling Part 2 and Stroop Colour-Word Tests...
September 23, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667776/seeing-what-you-want-to-see-how-imprecise-uncertainty-ranges-enhance-motivated-reasoning
#16
Nathan F Dieckmann, Robin Gregory, Ellen Peters, Robert Hartman
In this article, we consider a novel criterion for evaluating representations of uncertainty ranges, namely, the extent to which a representation enhances motivated reasoning. In two studies, we show that perceptions of the distribution underlying ambiguous numerical ranges are affected by the motivations and worldviews of end users. This motivated reasoning effect remained after controlling for objective numeracy and fluid intelligence but was attenuated when the correct interpretation was made clear. We suggest that analysts and communicators explicitly consider the potential for motivated evaluation when evaluating uncertainty displays...
September 26, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658748/fluid-reasoning-mediates-the-association-of-birth-weight-with-adhd-symptoms-in-youth-from-multiplex-families-with-adhd
#17
Julia E Morgan, Steve S Lee, Sandra K Loo
OBJECTIVE: We tested mediation of birth weight and ADHD symptoms by multiple biologically plausible neurocognitive functions and evaluated familiality of observed indirect effects. METHOD: 647 youth from 284 multiplex families with ADHD completed the Arithmetic, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). Multiple mediation tested WISC subtests as mediators of birth weight and multi-informant ADHD symptoms...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645626/role-of-working-memory-inhibition-and-fluid-intelligence-in-the-performance-of-the-tower-of-london-task
#18
Giovanni D'Antuono, Francesca Romana La Torre, Dario Marin, Gabriella Antonucci, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
We investigated the relationship between verbal and visuo-spatial measures of working memory, inhibition, fluid intelligence and the performance on the Tower of London (ToL) task in a large sample of 830 healthy participants aged between 18 and 71 years. We found that fluid intelligence and visuo-spatial working memory accounted for a significant variance in the ToL task, while performances on verbal working memory and on the Stroop Test were not predictive for performance on the ToL. The present results confirm that fluid intelligence has a fundamental role on planning tests, but also show that visuo-spatial working memory plays a crucial role in ToL performance...
September 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639957/-neuropsychological-performance-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#19
Lilia Hernández Del Castillo, Antonio Martínez Bermejo, José Antonio Portellano Pérez, Pilar Tirado Requero, Alexandra Garriz Luis, Ramón Velázquez Fragua
INTRODUCTION: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with various clinical manifestations that affect the peripheral and central nervous system, as well as the skin, bones and endocrine and vascular system. There is still insufficient knowledge of neuropsychological effects of NF1 on children, and there is some controversy about the cognitive deficits that defines the cognitive profile of patients affected by this disorder. AIMS: In this study an analysis is made of the neuropsychological performance of a group of patients affected by NF1, compared with a control group of healthy children...
September 14, 2016: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630551/the-beat-to-read-a-cross-lingual-link-between-rhythmic-regularity-perception-and-reading-skill
#20
Annike Bekius, Thomas E Cope, Manon Grube
This work assesses one specific aspect of the relationship between auditory rhythm cognition and language skill: regularity perception. In a group of 26 adult participants, native speakers of 11 different native languages, we demonstrate a strong and significant correlation between the ability to detect a "roughly" regular beat and rapid automatized naming (RAN) as a measure of language skill (Spearman's rho, -0.47, p < 0.01). There was no such robust relationship for the "mirror image" task of irregularity detection, i...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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