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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315594/goal-neglect-fluid-intelligence-and-processing-speed-manipulating-instruction-load-and-inter-stimulus-interval
#1
Matthew H Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E MacPherson
Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them...
March 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290070/parieto-frontal-gyrification-and-working-memory-in-healthy-adults
#2
Sophie Green, Karen Blackmon, Thomas Thesen, Jonathan DuBois, Xiuyuan Wang, Eric Halgren, Orrin Devinsky
Gyrification of the cortical mantle is a dynamic process that increases with cortical surface area and decreases with age. Increased gyrification is associated with higher scores on cognitive tasks in adults; however, the degree to which this relationship is independent of cortical surface area remains undefined. This study investigates whether regional variation in gyrification is associated with domain-general and domain-specific cognition. Our hypothesis is that increased local gyrification confers a functional advantage that is independent of surface area...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284581/cognitive-function-surrounding-resection-of-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-with-suprasellar-extension-a-prospective-matched-control-study
#3
Philipp Hendrix, Christoph J Griessenauer, Elisa Hans, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from pituitary adenomas may experience cognitive dysfunctions due to hormonal imbalance or suprasellar tumor extension displacing neural structures. Progressively enlarging or symptomatic nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension are frequently resected. The literature on neurocognitive performance surrounding resection of these lesions is sparse. METHODS: A prospective matched-control study was conducted to investigate the impact of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension on preoperative and postoperative cognitive performance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277150/socioeconomic-deprivation-and-the-development-of-neuropsychological-functions-a-study-with-street-children-in-ecuador
#4
Graham Pluck, Daniel R Banda-Cruz, M Victoria Andrade-Guimaraes, Ana F Trueba
Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to have a considerable influence on the development of neuropsychological functions. In particular there is strong evidence for less efficient development of prefrontal-cortex-related functions in children raised in low-SES households. "Street children" are a common feature of low SES in many low- and middle-income countries, and some researchers have suggested that the unique life experiences of street children may drive their neurocognitive development. This study compares a group of 36 former street children in Quito, Ecuador with a control group of 26 never street-connected schoolchildren...
March 1, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273664/cognitive-predictors-of-everyday-problem-solving-across-the-lifespan
#5
Xi Chen, Christopher Hertzog, Denise C Park
BACKGROUND: An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age...
March 9, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266717/theory-of-mind-and-wisdom-the-development-of-different-forms-of-perspective-taking-in-late-adulthood
#6
Hannes Rakoczy, Raphaela Wandt, Stefanie Thomas, Jana Nowak, Ute Kunzmann
How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261131/visual-working-memory-capacity-can-be-increased-by-training-on-distractor-filtering-efficiency
#7
Cui-Hong Li, Xu He, Yu-Juan Wang, Zhe Hu, Chun-Yan Guo
It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (CDA) (contralateral delay activity) of different conditions, and evaluated the transfer effect of visual FE training on verbal WM and fluid intelligence, as indexed by performance on the verbal WM span task and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251618/a-randomised-crossover-simulation-study-comparing-the-impact-of-chemical-biological-radiological-or-nuclear-substance-personal-protection-equipment-on-the-performance-of-advanced-life-support-interventions
#8
J Schumacher, J Arlidge, F Garnham, I Ahmad
Recent incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances have stressed the importance of sufficient personal protection equipment for medical first-responders. Modern lightweight, battery-independent, suit ensembles may prove superior to the current protective suit used in the UK. This study compared the powered respiratory protective suit (PRPS ensemble) with a lightweight suit consisting of a SARATOGA(®) Multipurpose CBRN Protective Coverall Polyprotect 12 in conjunction with the Avon C50 Respirator/Avon CBRNF12CE filter canister and butyl rubber protective gloves (Polyprotect 12 ensemble)...
March 2, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250990/measuring-fluid-intelligence-in-healthy-older-adults
#9
Mohammed K Shakeel, Vina M Goghari
The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230383/the-interplay-between-personality-and-cognitive-ability-across-12-years-in-middle-and-late-adulthood-evidence-for-reciprocal-associations
#10
Markus Wettstein, Benjamin Tauber, Elżbieta Kuźma, Hans-Werner Wahl
Research on relationships between personality and cognitive abilities has so far resulted in inconsistent findings regarding the strength of the associations. Moreover, relationships have rarely been compared longitudinally and bidirectionally between midlife versus late-life cohorts by considering different personality traits as well as multiple cognitive domains over a long-term follow-up period. We hypothesize that the interplay between the "Big Five" personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) and cognitive abilities (information processing speed, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence) may change from midlife to old age due to age-associated changes in cognitive and personality plasticity...
February 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223371/socioeconomic-attainment-of-extremely-low-birth-weight-survivors-the-role-of-early-cognition
#11
Kathleen G Dobson, Mark A Ferro, Michael H Boyle, Louis A Schmidt, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
OBJECTIVES: To determine: (1) if childhood cognitive and academic abilities mediate the association between being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and socioeconomic attainment at age 29 to 36 years; (2) which cognitive abilities (IQ, verbal abilities, fluid intelligence, mathematical abilities, or academic achievement) most strongly mediate this association; and (3) if the mediating role of cognition is different in ELBW survivors with significant neurosensory impairment (NSI)...
February 21, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205143/development-of-a-gastric-absorptive-immediate-responsive-oral-protein-loaded-versatile-polymeric-delivery-system
#12
Pierre P D Kondiah, Yahya E Choonara, Lomas K Tomar, Charu Tyagi, Pradeep Kumar, Lisa C du Toit, Thashree Marimuthu, Girish Modi, Viness Pillay
A multifunctional platform to deliver three diverse proteins of insulin, interferon beta (INF-β) and erythropoietin (EPO), using a novel copolymeric microparticulate system of TMC-PEGDMA-MAA, was synthesised as an intelligent pH-responsive 2-fold gastric and intestinal absorptive system. Physiochemical and physicomechanical studies proved the degree of crystallinity that supported the controlled protein delivery of the microparticulate system. The copolymer was tableted before undertaking in vitro and in vivo analysis...
February 15, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165253/working-memory-training-in-typically-developing-children-a-meta-analysis-of-the-available-evidence
#13
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
The putative effectiveness of working memory (WM) training at enhancing cognitive and academic skills is still ardently debated. Several researchers have claimed that WM training fosters not only skills such as visuospatial WM and short-term memory (STM), but also abilities outside the domain of WM, such as fluid intelligence and mathematics. Other researchers, while acknowledging the positive effect of WM training on WM-related cognitive skills, are much more pessimistic about the ability of WM training to improve other cognitive and academic skills...
February 6, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147899/the-impact-of-working-memory-training-on-near-and-far-transfer-measures-is-it-all-about-fluid-intelligence
#14
H Lee Swanson, Meaghan McMurran
This randomized control study investigates the effects of working memory (WM) training on near (similar WM memory tasks) and far (math problem-solving processes and accuracy tasks) transfer in children aged 7 to 11 years who vary in fluid intelligence. Participants were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of two WM training conditions (repeated practice vs. cued recall). ​When compared to the control condition, the results show that the cued recall condition yields higher post-test scores for the far transfer measures, whereas the repeated practice condition yields higher scores for the near transfer​ measures...
February 1, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116702/working-memory-training-revisited-a-multi-level-meta-analysis-of-n-back-training-studies
#15
Anna Soveri, Jan Antfolk, Linda Karlsson, Benny Salo, Matti Laine
The efficacy of working memory (WM) training has been a controversial and hotly debated issue during the past years. Despite a large number of training studies and several meta-analyses, the matter has not yet been solved. We conducted a multi-level meta-analysis on the cognitive transfer effects in healthy adults who have been administered WM updating training with n-back tasks, the most common experimental WM training paradigm. Thanks to this methodological approach that has not been employed in previous meta-analyses in this field, we were able to include effect sizes from all relevant tasks used in the original studies...
January 23, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104542/hippocampal-morphology-and-cognitive-functions-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#16
Maria Del Carmen Valdés Hernández, Simon R Cox, Jaeil Kim, Natalie A Royle, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alan J Gow, Devasuda Anblagan, Mark E Bastin, Jinah Park, John M Starr, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Structural measures of the hippocampus have been linked to a variety of memory processes and also to broader cognitive abilities. Gross volumetry has been widely used, yet the hippocampus has a complex formation, comprising distinct subfields which may be differentially sensitive to the deleterious effects of age, and to different aspects of cognitive performance. However, a comprehensive analysis of multidomain cognitive associations with hippocampal deformations among a large group of cognitively normal older adults is currently lacking...
December 21, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090818/individual-differences-in-proactive-interference-in-verbal-and-visuospatial-working-memory
#17
Lindsey Lilienthal
Proactive interference (PI) has been shown to affect working memory (WM) span as well as the predictive utility of WM span measures. However, most of the research on PI has been conducted using verbal memory items, and much less is known about the role of PI in the visuospatial domain. In order to further explore this issue, the present study used a within-subjects manipulation of PI that alternated clusters of trials with verbal and visuospatial to-be-remembered items. Although PI was shown to build and release across trials similarly in the two domains, important differences also were observed...
January 15, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064050/development-of-a-novel-ph-sensitive-silane-crosslinked-injectable-hydrogel-for-controlled-release-of-neomycin-sulfate
#18
Sehrish Jabeen, Atif Islam, Abdul Ghaffar, Nafisa Gull, Ayesha Hameed, Anbreen Bashir, Tahir Jamil, Tousif Hussain
Silane crosslinked biopolymer based novel pH-responsive hydrogels were fabricated by blending the cationic (chitosan) and anionic (alginate) polymers with poly(vinyl alcohol). Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used, as a crosslinker in different amounts due to its nonhazardous nature, to study its impact on physical and chemical properties of the prepared injectable hydrogels along with the controlled release of drug. The swelling response of the prepared hydrogels was examined in different solvent media which exhibited decreased swelling ratio with increase in the amount of TEOS...
April 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041947/cognitive-reserve-and-cognitive-performance-of-patients-with-focal-frontal-lesions
#19
Sarah E MacPherson, Colm Healy, Michael Allerhand, Barbara Spanò, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Mark White, Daniela Smirni, Tim Shallice, Edgar Chan, Marco Bozzali, Lisa Cipolotti
The Cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis was put forward to account for the variability in cognitive performance of patients with similar degrees of brain pathology. Compensatory neural activity within the frontal lobes has often been associated with CR. For the first time we investigated the independent effects of two CR proxies, education and NART IQ, on measures of executive function, fluid intelligence, speed of information processing, verbal short term memory (vSTM), naming, and perception in a sample of 86 patients with focal, unilateral frontal lesions and 142 healthy controls...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039662/individual-differences-in-spontaneous-analogical-transfer
#20
James R Kubricht, Hongjing Lu, Keith J Holyoak
Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test...
December 30, 2016: Memory & Cognition
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