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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408412/fluid-intelligence-predicts-novel-rule-implementation-in-a-distributed-frontoparietal-control-network
#1
Nadja Tschentscher, Daniel Mitchell, John Duncan
Fluid intelligence has been associated with a distributed cognitive control or multiple-demand (MD) network, comprising regions of lateral frontal, insular, dorsomedial frontal and parietal cortex. Human fluid intelligence is also intimately linked to task complexity, and the process of solving complex problems in a sequence of simpler, more focused parts. Here, a complex target detection task included multiple independent rules, applied one at a time in successive task epochs. Though only one rule applied at a time, increasing task complexity (number of rules) impaired performance in participants of lower fluid intelligence...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402332/deep-learning-for-flow-sculpting-insights-into-efficient-learning-using-scientific-simulation-data
#2
Daniel Stoecklein, Kin Gwn Lore, Michael Davies, Soumik Sarkar, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian
A new technique for shaping microfluid flow, known as flow sculpting, offers an unprecedented level of passive fluid flow control, with potential breakthrough applications in advancing manufacturing, biology, and chemistry research at the microscale. However, efficiently solving the inverse problem of designing a flow sculpting device for a desired fluid flow shape remains a challenge. Current approaches struggle with the many-to-one design space, requiring substantial user interaction and the necessity of building intuition, all of which are time and resource intensive...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401527/fluid-intelligence-traits-of-personality-and-personality-disorders-in-a-cohort-of-adult-ks-patients-with-the-classic-47-xxy-karyotype
#3
D Liberato, S Granato, D Grimaldi, F M Rossi, N Tahani, D Gianfrilli, A Anzuini, A Lenzi, G Cavaggioni, A F Radicioni
PURPOSE: Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) is associated with specific neurobehavioral features and personality traits. The aim of our study was to investigate fluid intelligence, personality traits and personality disorders (PD) and possible correlations with testosterone in a cohort of adult KS patients. METHODS: We analyzed 58 adult KS patients with the classic 47, XXY karyotype. The Structured Clinical Interview for axis II disorders was used to assess DSM IV personality disorders...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381995/working-memory-training-for-healthy-older-adults-the-role-of-individual-characteristics-in-explaining-short-and-long-term-gains
#4
Erika Borella, Elena Carbone, Massimiliano Pastore, Rossana De Beni, Barbara Carretti
Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore whether individual characteristics such as age, education, vocabulary, and baseline performance in a working memory (WM) task-similar to the one used in the training (criterion task)-predict the short- and long-term specific gains and transfer effects of a verbal WM training for older adults. Method: Four studies that adopted the Borella et al. (2010) verbal WM training procedure were found eligible for our analysis as they included: healthy older adults who attended either the training sessions (WM training group), or alternative activities (active control group); the same measures for assessing specific gains (on the criterion WM task), and transfer effects (nearest on a visuo-spatial WM task, near on short-term memory tasks and far on a measure of fluid intelligence, a measure of processing speed and two inhibitory measures); and a follow-up session...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378297/working-memory-components-that-predict-word-problem-solving-is-it-merely-a-function-of-reading-calculation-and-fluid-intelligence
#5
Wenson Fung, H Lee Swanson
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the differential effects of working memory (WM) components (the central executive, phonological loop, and visual-spatial sketchpad) on math word problem-solving accuracy in children (N = 413, ages 6-10) are completely mediated by reading, calculation, and fluid intelligence. The results indicated that all three WM components predicted word problem solving in the nonmediated model, but only the storage component of WM yielded a significant direct path to word problem-solving accuracy in the fully mediated model...
April 4, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369877/change-in-fluid-and-crystallized-intelligence-and-student-achievement-the-role-of-intellectual-engagement
#6
Gizem Hülür, Fidan Gasimova, Alexander Robitzsch, Oliver Wilhelm
Intellectual engagement (IE) refers to enjoyment of intellectual activities and is proposed as causal for knowledge acquisition. The role of IE for cognitive development was examined utilizing 2-year longitudinal data from 112 ninth graders (average baseline age: 14.7 years). Higher baseline IE predicted higher baseline crystallized ability but not changes therein, and was not associated with fluid ability. Furthermore, IE predicted change in school grades in language but not in mathematics grades or in standardized tests...
March 28, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362867/working-memory-test-battery-for-young-adults-computerized-working-memory-assessment
#7
Liang Ma, Lei Chang, Xiaoying Chen, Renlai Zhou
This study developed a battery of computerized working memory (WM) tests and a scoring system suitable for young adult users. The tests comprised five classic tasks derived from Baddeley's model of WM, reflecting each of the five WM functions. We recruited 115 undergraduate and graduate students from various academic fields and constructed a preliminary WM scoring norm for young adults. The scoring norm was used as a basis for developing a computerized assessment system. The results of correlation analysis show that the fluid intelligence of young adults is related to the memory function of WM, but not to the central executive system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360850/exercise-induced-fitness-changes-correlate-with-changes-in-neural-specificity-in-older-adults
#8
Maike M Kleemeyer, Thad A Polk, Sabine Schaefer, Nils C Bodammer, Lars Brechtel, Ulman Lindenberger
Neural specificity refers to the degree to which neural representations of different stimuli can be distinguished. Evidence suggests that neural specificity, operationally defined as stimulus-related differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns, declines with advancing adult age, and that individual differences in neural specificity are associated with individual differences in fluid intelligence. A growing body of literature also suggests that regular physical activity may help preserve cognitive abilities in old age...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334687/neurocognitive-status-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-brain-tumors-in-good-neurological-condition-the-impact-of-tumor-type-volume-and-location
#9
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive function is of great importance in patients with brain tumors. Even patients in good neurological condition may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunction that affects their daily living. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction in patients suffering from common supratentorial brain tumors with minor neurological deficits. METHODS: A prospective study evaluating neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with a newly-diagnosed brain tumor in good neurological condition was performed at a major German academic institution...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-early-but-possibly-modifiable-alzheimer-s-disease-changes
#10
Claudio Liguori, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Francesca Izzi, Andrea Romigi, Alberto Cordella, Giuseppe Sancesario, Fabio Placidi
Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder. Actually, literature lacks studies examining sleep, cognition, and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) cerebrospinal-fluid biomarkers in OSA patients. Therefore, we firstly studied cognitive performances, polysomnographic sleep, and CSF β-amyloid, tau proteins and lactate levels in patients affected by subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) divided in three groups: OSA patients (showing an Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI ≥15/h), controls (showing an AHI<15/h), and patients treating OSA by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315594/goal-neglect-fluid-intelligence-and-processing-speed-manipulating-instruction-load-and-inter-stimulus-interval
#11
Matthew H Iveson, Sergio Della Sala, Mike Anderson, Sarah E MacPherson
Goal maintenance is the process where task rules and instructions are kept active to exert their control on behavior. When this process fails, an individual may ignore a rule while performing the task, despite being able to describe it after task completion. Previous research has suggested that the goal maintenance system is limited by the number of concurrent rules which can be maintained during a task, and that this limit is dependent on an individual's level of fluid intelligence. However, the speed at which an individual can process information may also limit their ability to use task rules when the task demands them...
March 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290070/parieto-frontal-gyrification-and-working-memory-in-healthy-adults
#12
Sophie Green, Karen Blackmon, Thomas Thesen, Jonathan DuBois, Xiuyuan Wang, Eric Halgren, Orrin Devinsky
Gyrification of the cortical mantle is a dynamic process that increases with cortical surface area and decreases with age. Increased gyrification is associated with higher scores on cognitive tasks in adults; however, the degree to which this relationship is independent of cortical surface area remains undefined. This study investigates whether regional variation in gyrification is associated with domain-general and domain-specific cognition. Our hypothesis is that increased local gyrification confers a functional advantage that is independent of surface area...
March 13, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284581/cognitive-function-surrounding-resection-of-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-with-suprasellar-extension-a-prospective-matched-control-study
#13
Philipp Hendrix, Christoph J Griessenauer, Elisa Hans, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Patients suffering from pituitary adenomas may experience cognitive dysfunctions due to hormonal imbalance or suprasellar tumor extension displacing neural structures. Progressively enlarging or symptomatic nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension are frequently resected. The literature on neurocognitive performance surrounding resection of these lesions is sparse. METHODS: A prospective matched-control study was conducted to investigate the impact of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas with suprasellar extension on preoperative and postoperative cognitive performance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277150/socioeconomic-deprivation-and-the-development-of-neuropsychological-functions-a-study-with-street-children-in-ecuador
#14
Graham Pluck, Daniel R Banda-Cruz, M Victoria Andrade-Guimaraes, Ana F Trueba
Socioeconomic status (SES) is known to have a considerable influence on the development of neuropsychological functions. In particular there is strong evidence for less efficient development of prefrontal-cortex-related functions in children raised in low-SES households. "Street children" are a common feature of low SES in many low- and middle-income countries, and some researchers have suggested that the unique life experiences of street children may drive their neurocognitive development. This study compares a group of 36 former street children in Quito, Ecuador with a control group of 26 never street-connected schoolchildren...
March 1, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273664/cognitive-predictors-of-everyday-problem-solving-across-the-lifespan
#15
Xi Chen, Christopher Hertzog, Denise C Park
BACKGROUND: An important aspect of successful aging is maintaining the ability to solve everyday problems encountered in daily life. The limited evidence today suggests that everyday problem solving ability increases from young adulthood to middle age, but decreases in older age. OBJECTIVES: The present study examined age differences in the relative contributions of fluid and crystallized abilities to solving problems on the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). We hypothesized that due to diminishing fluid resources available with advanced age, crystallized knowledge would become increasingly important in predicting everyday problem solving with greater age...
March 9, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266717/theory-of-mind-and-wisdom-the-development-of-different-forms-of-perspective-taking-in-late-adulthood
#16
Hannes Rakoczy, Raphaela Wandt, Stefanie Thomas, Jana Nowak, Ute Kunzmann
How does perspective-taking develop over the lifespan? This question has been investigated in two separate research traditions, dealing with theory of mind (ToM) and wisdom, respectively. Operating in almost complete isolation from each other, and using rather different conceptual approaches, these two traditions have produced seemingly contradictory results: While perspective-taking has been consistently found to decline in old age in ToM research, studies on wisdom have mostly found that perspective-taking remains constant or sometimes even increases in later adulthood...
March 7, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261131/visual-working-memory-capacity-can-be-increased-by-training-on-distractor-filtering-efficiency
#17
Cui-Hong Li, Xu He, Yu-Juan Wang, Zhe Hu, Chun-Yan Guo
It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (CDA) (contralateral delay activity) of different conditions, and evaluated the transfer effect of visual FE training on verbal WM and fluid intelligence, as indexed by performance on the verbal WM span task and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251618/a-randomised-crossover-simulation-study-comparing-the-impact-of-chemical-biological-radiological-or-nuclear-substance-personal-protection-equipment-on-the-performance-of-advanced-life-support-interventions
#18
J Schumacher, J Arlidge, F Garnham, I Ahmad
Recent incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear substances have stressed the importance of sufficient personal protection equipment for medical first-responders. Modern lightweight, battery-independent, suit ensembles may prove superior to the current protective suit used in the UK. This study compared the powered respiratory protective suit (PRPS ensemble) with a lightweight suit consisting of a SARATOGA(®) Multipurpose CBRN Protective Coverall Polyprotect 12 in conjunction with the Avon C50 Respirator/Avon CBRNF12CE filter canister and butyl rubber protective gloves (Polyprotect 12 ensemble)...
March 2, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250990/measuring-fluid-intelligence-in-healthy-older-adults
#19
Mohammed K Shakeel, Vina M Goghari
The present study evaluated subjective and objective cognitive measures as predictors of fluid intelligence in healthy older adults. We hypothesized that objective cognitive measures would predict fluid intelligence to a greater degree than self-reported cognitive functioning. Ninety-three healthy older (>65 years old) community-dwelling adults participated. Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) were used to measure fluid intelligence, Digit Span Sequencing (DSS) was used to measure working memory, Trail Making Test (TMT) was used to measure cognitive flexibility, Design Fluency Test (DFT) was used to measure creativity, and Tower Test (TT) was used to measure planning...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230383/the-interplay-between-personality-and-cognitive-ability-across-12-years-in-middle-and-late-adulthood-evidence-for-reciprocal-associations
#20
Markus Wettstein, Benjamin Tauber, Elżbieta Kuźma, Hans-Werner Wahl
Research on relationships between personality and cognitive abilities has so far resulted in inconsistent findings regarding the strength of the associations. Moreover, relationships have rarely been compared longitudinally and bidirectionally between midlife versus late-life cohorts by considering different personality traits as well as multiple cognitive domains over a long-term follow-up period. We hypothesize that the interplay between the "Big Five" personality traits (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) and cognitive abilities (information processing speed, crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence) may change from midlife to old age due to age-associated changes in cognitive and personality plasticity...
February 23, 2017: Psychology and Aging
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