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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729621/genotype-environment-interaction-on-human-cognitive-function-conditioned-on-the-status-of-breastfeeding-and-maternal-smoking-around-birth
#1
S Hong Lee, W M Shalanee P Weerasinghe, Julius H J van der Werf
We estimated genotype by environment interaction (G × E) on later cognitive performance and educational attainment across four unique environments, i.e. 1) breastfed without maternal smoking, 2) breastfed with maternal smoking, 3) non-breastfed without maternal smoking and 4) non-breastfed with maternal smoking, using a novel design and statistical approach that was facilitated by the availability of datasets with the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). There was significant G × E for both fluid intelligence (p-value = 1...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705691/functional-connectivity-within-and-between-intrinsic-networks-correlates-with-trait-mind-wandering
#2
Christine A Godwin, Michael A Hunter, Matthew A Bezdek, Gregory Lieberman, Seth Elkin-Frankston, Victoria L Romero, Katie Witkiewitz, Vincent P Clark, Eric H Schumacher
Individual differences across a variety of cognitive processes are functionally associated with individual differences in intrinsic networks such as the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, the extent to which these networks correlate or anticorrelate has been associated with performance in a variety of circumstances. Despite the established role of the DMN in mind wandering processes, little research has investigated how large-scale brain networks at rest relate to mind wandering tendencies outside the laboratory...
July 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701976/a-latent-factor-analysis-of-working-memory-measures-using-large-scale-data
#3
Otto Waris, Anna Soveri, Miikka Ahti, Russell C Hoffing, Daniel Ventus, Susanne M Jaeggi, Aaron R Seitz, Matti Laine
Working memory (WM) is a key cognitive system that is strongly related to other cognitive domains and relevant for everyday life. However, the structure of WM is yet to be determined. A number of WM models have been put forth especially by factor analytical studies. In broad terms, these models vary by their emphasis on WM contents (e.g., visuospatial, verbal) vs. WM processes (e.g., maintenance, updating) as critical, dissociable elements. Here we conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses on a broad set of WM tasks, half of them numerical-verbal and half of them visuospatial, representing four commonly used task paradigms: simple span, complex span, running memory, and n-back...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663569/lower-school-performance-in-late-chronotypes-underlying-factors-and-mechanisms
#4
Giulia Zerbini, Vincent van der Vinne, Lana K M Otto, Thomas Kantermann, Wim P Krijnen, Till Roenneberg, Martha Merrow
Success at school determines future career opportunities. We described a time-of-day specific disparity in school performance between early and late chronotypes. Several studies showed that students with a late chronotype and short sleep duration obtain lower grades, suggesting that early school starting times handicap their performance. How chronotype, sleep duration, and time of day impact school performance is not clear. At a Dutch high school, we collected 40,890 grades obtained in a variety of school subjects over an entire school year...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606629/neural-substrates-underlying-balanced-time-perspective-a-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-study
#5
Yiqun Guo, Zhiyi Chen, Tingyong Feng
Balanced time perspective (BTP), which is defined as a mental ability to switch flexibly among different time perspectives Zimbardo and Boyd (1999), has been suggested to be a central component of positive psychology Boniwell and Zimbardo (2004). BTP reflects individual's cognitive flexibility towards different time frames, which leads to many positive outcomes, including positive mood, subjective wellbeing, emotional intelligence, fluid intelligence, and executive control. However, the neural basis of BTP is still unclear...
June 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597718/effect-of-working-memory-updating-training-on-retrieving-symptoms-of-children-with-learning-disabilities
#6
Xiaoying Chen, Maolin Ye, Lei Chang, Weigang Chen, Renlai Zhou
Working memory (WM) deficiency is a primary reason for the poor academic performance of children with learning disabilities (LDs). Studies have shown that the WM of typical children could be improved through training, and WM training contributes to improving their fluid intelligence and academic achievement. However, few studies have investigated WM training for children with LDs, and results have been inconsistent. The present study examined the long-term effects of WM updating training and whether it can mitigate LD symptoms...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558000/working-memory-training-in-healthy-young-adults-support-for-the-null-from-a-randomized-comparison-to-active-and-passive-control-groups
#7
Cameron M Clark, Linette Lawlor-Savage, Vina M Goghari
Training of working memory as a method of increasing working memory capacity and fluid intelligence has received much attention in recent years. This burgeoning field remains highly controversial with empirically-backed disagreements at all levels of evidence, including individual studies, systematic reviews, and even meta-analyses. The current study investigated the effect of a randomized six week online working memory intervention on untrained cognitive abilities in a community-recruited sample of healthy young adults, in relation to both a processing speed training active control condition, as well as a no-contact control condition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557500/do-the-effects-of-working-memory-training-depend-on-baseline-ability-level
#8
Jeffrey L Foster, Tyler L Harrison, Kenny L Hicks, Christopher Draheim, Thomas S Redick, Randall W Engle
There is a debate about the ability to improve cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence through training on tasks of working memory capacity. The question addressed in the research presented here is who benefits the most from training: people with low cognitive ability or people with high cognitive ability? Subjects with high and low working memory capacity completed a 23-session study that included 3 assessment sessions, and 20 sessions of training on 1 of 3 training regiments: complex span training, running span training, or an active-control task...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521521/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-fluid-intelligence
#9
Arthur MacNeill Horton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506124/fluid-intelligence-a-brief-history
#10
Phillip Kent
The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502585/frontoparietal-neurostimulation-modulates-working-memory-training-benefits-and-oscillatory-synchronization
#11
Kevin T Jones, Dwight J Peterson, Kara J Blacker, Marian E Berryhill
There is considerable interest in maintaining working memory (WM) because it is essential to accomplish most cognitive tasks, and it is correlated with fluid intelligence and ecologically valid measures of daily living. Toward this end, WM training protocols aim to improve WM capacity and extend improvements to unpracticed domains, yet success is limited. One emerging approach is to couple WM training with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). This pairing of WM training with tDCS in longitudinal designs promotes behavioral improvement and evidence of transfer of performance gains to untrained WM tasks...
July 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497989/focus-on-fluid-reasoning-the-relationship-between-fluid-reasoning-and-the-pattern-of-strengths-and-weaknesses-model
#12
Lisa M Grant, Pauline Prince
The purpose of this paper is to examine the Fluid Reasoning Index of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children, Fifth Edition (WISC-V), and determine how fluid-reasoning skills relate to academic skill acquisition in the classroom setting. We also examine the myriad of ways within which learning and learning disabilities can be defined. Also, we plan to examine a brief review of the definition of a Specific Learning Disability and review some of the leading theories related to the Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses model...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494815/association-between-fluid-intake-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-patients-with-negative-fluid-balance-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Yanfei Shen, Xinmei Huang, Weimin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Compared to positive fluid balance (FB), negative FB is associated with improved clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. However, as to whether achieving more negative FB can further improve outcomes has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate whether more negative FB and restricted fluid intake were associated with improved outcomes in critically ill patients. METHOD: Data were extracted from the Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III Database...
May 12, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493012/eeg-microstate-correlates-of-fluid-intelligence-and-response-to-cognitive-training
#14
Emiliano Santarnecchi, Arjun R Khanna, Christian S Musaeus, Christopher S Y Benwell, Paula Davila, Faranak Farzan, Santosh Matham, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mouhsin M Shafi
The neurobiological correlates of human fluid intelligence (Gf) remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that spatiotemporal dynamics of EEG activity correlate with baseline measures of Gf and with its modulation by cognitive training. EEG dynamics were assessed in 74 healthy participants by examination of fast-changing, recurring, topographically-defined electric patterns termed "microstates", which characterize the electrophysiological activity of distributed cortical networks. We find that the frequency of appearance of specific brain topographies, spatially associated with visual (microstate B) and executive control (microstate C) networks, respectively, is inversely related to Gf scores...
May 10, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492102/determinants-of-fluid-intelligence-in-healthy-aging-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-status-and-frontoparietal-cortex-structure
#15
Marta K Zamroziewicz, Erick J Paul, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive decline depends not only upon changes in brain health, but critically, also upon nutritional status. Decline in fluid intelligence, one of the most debilitating aspects of cognitive aging, has been linked to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status; however, it is not known whether this phenomenon results from specific omega-3 PUFAs acting on particular aspects of brain health. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether particular patterns of omega-3 PUFAs influence fluid intelligence by supporting specific neural structures...
May 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489432/touching-the-elephant-the-search-for-fluid-intelligence
#16
Theodore Wasserman, Lori Drucker Wasserman
Many constructs that we take for granted in modern neuropsychology, fluid intelligence among them, can best be explained by conceptionalizing them as a collection of task specific processes engaged in by an integrated recruited network involved in problem solving. Fractionalizing the network in an attempt to describe elements of its function leads to arbitrarily defined segments that may be interesting to discuss abstractly, but never occur independently in the real world operation of the system. We will seek to demonstrate that the construct of fluid intelligence is like that...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489422/mechanisms-of-automaticity-and-anticipatory-control-in-fluid-intelligence
#17
Arthur W Joyce
The constructs of fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) intelligence represent an early attempt to describe the mechanisms of problem solving in the vertebrate brain. Modern neuroscience demonstrates that problem solving involves interplay between the mechanisms of automaticity and anticipatory control, enabling nature's elegant solution to the challenges animals face in their environment. Studies of neural functioning are making clear the primary role of cortical-subcortical interactions in the manifestation of intelligent behavior in humans and other vertebrates...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480894/preserved-cognitive-functions-with-age-are-determined-by-domain-dependent-shifts-in-network-responsivity
#18
Dávid Samu, Karen L Campbell, Kamen A Tsvetanov, Meredith A Shafto, Lorraine K Tyler
Healthy ageing has disparate effects on different cognitive domains. The neural basis of these differences, however, is largely unknown. We investigated this question by using Independent Components Analysis to obtain functional brain components from 98 healthy participants aged 23-87 years from the population-based Cam-CAN cohort. Participants performed two cognitive tasks that show age-related decrease (fluid intelligence and object naming) and a syntactic comprehension task that shows age-related preservation...
May 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461462/complexity-and-compositionality-in-fluid-intelligence
#19
John Duncan, Daphne Chylinski, Daniel J Mitchell, Apoorva Bhandari
Compositionality, or the ability to build complex cognitive structures from simple parts, is fundamental to the power of the human mind. Here we relate this principle to the psychometric concept of fluid intelligence, traditionally measured with tests of complex reasoning. Following the principle of compositionality, we propose that the critical function in fluid intelligence is splitting a complex whole into simple, separately attended parts. To test this proposal, we modify traditional matrix reasoning problems to minimize requirements on information integration, working memory, and processing speed, creating problems that are trivial once effectively divided into parts...
May 16, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458748/resolving-conflicts-between-syntax-and-plausibility-in-sentence-comprehension
#20
Glenda Andrews, Jessica E Ogden, Graeme S Halford
Comprehension of plausible and implausible object- and subject-relative clause sentences with and without prepositional phrases was examined. Undergraduates read each sentence then evaluated a statement as consistent or inconsistent with the sentence. Higher acceptance of consistent than inconsistent statements indicated reliance on syntactic analysis. Higher acceptance of plausible than implausible statements reflected reliance on semantic plausibility. There was greater reliance on semantic plausibility and lesser reliance on syntactic analysis for more complex object-relatives and sentences with prepositional phrases than for less complex subject-relatives and sentences without prepositional phrases...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
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