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Fluid intelligence

Lucie Angel, Badiâa Bouazzaoui, Michel Isingrini, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Sandrine Vanneste, Moïse Ledoux, Valérie Gissot, Caroline Hommet, Fréderic Andersson, Laurent Barantin, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Jérémy Pasco, Thomas Desmidt, Frédéric Patat, Vincent Camus, Jean-Pierre Remenieras
Aging is characterized by a cognitive decline of fluid abilities and is also associated with electrophysiological changes. The vascular hypothesis proposes that brain is sensitive to vascular dysfunction which may accelerate age-related brain modifications and thus explain age-related neurocognitive decline. To test this hypothesis, cognitive performance was measured in 39 healthy participants from 20 to 80 years, using tests assessing inhibition, fluid intelligence, attention and crystallized abilities. Brain functioning associated with attentional abilities was assessed by measuring the P3b ERP component elicited through an auditory oddball paradigm...
March 12, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Graham Pluck
The concept of intelligence as a measurable trait of intellectual function continues to be an important issue in psychology. Traditionally, a core field of differential psychology and widely employed in applied settings, it is also important in various research fields. Here, I describe development of a new assessment of general intelligence of adults that has no language component and can be administered in about 10 minutes. A total sample of 176 adult participants, from various settings, was assessed with a set of matrix tasks that involved either visuospatial (fluid) or semantic (crystallized) reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
Steven H Baete, Jingyun Chen, Ying-Chia Lin, Xiuyuan Wang, Ricardo Otazo, Fernando E Boada
A novel approach is presented for group statistical analysis of diffusion weighted MRI datasets through voxelwise Orientation Distribution Functions (ODF). Recent advances in MRI acquisition make it possible to use high quality diffusion weighted protocols (multi-shell, large number of gradient directions) for routine in vivo study of white matter architecture. The dimensionality of these data sets is however often reduced to simplify statistical analysis. While these approaches may detect large group differences, they do not fully capitalize on all acquired image volumes...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Peter Bright, Ian van der Linde
To evaluate impact of neurological injury on cognitive performance it is typically necessary to derive a baseline (or "premorbid") estimate of a patient's general cognitive ability prior to the onset of impairment. In this paper, we consider a range of common methods for producing this estimate, including those based on current best performance, embedded "hold/no-hold" tests, demographic information, and word reading ability. Ninety-two neurologically healthy adult participants were assessed on the full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, D...
March 12, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Mustapha Chekaf, Nicolas Gauvrit, Alessandro Guida, Fabien Mathy
Working memory has been shown to be strongly related to fluid intelligence; however, our goal is to shed further light on the process of information compression in working memory as a determining factor of fluid intelligence. Our main hypothesis was that compression in working memory is an excellent indicator for studying the relationship between working-memory capacity and fluid intelligence because both depend on the optimization of storage capacity. Compressibility of memoranda was estimated using an algorithmic complexity metric...
March 10, 2018: Cognitive Science
Jack Morrison, Giles Watts, Glyn Hobbs, Nick Dawnay
Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user...
February 21, 2018: Forensic Science International
Anne Moehring, Ulrich Schroeders, Oliver Wilhelm
Medical education research has focused almost entirely on the education of future physicians. In comparison, findings on other health-related occupations, such as medical assistants, are scarce. With the current study, we wanted to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in a real life educational setting and add to the sparse literature on medical assistants. Acquisition of vocational knowledge in vocational education and training (VET) was examined for medical assistant students ( n = 448). Differences in domain-specific vocational knowledge were predicted by crystallized and fluid intelligence in the course of VET...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Kara J Blacker, Serban Negoita, Joshua B Ewen, Susan M Courtney
Working memory (WM) is the ability to maintain and manipulate task-relevant information in the absence of sensory input. While its improvement through training is of great interest, the degree to which WM training transfers to untrained WM tasks (near transfer) and other untrained cognitive skills (far transfer) remains debated and the mechanism(s) underlying transfer are unclear. Here we hypothesized that a critical feature of dual n-back training is its reliance on maintaining relational information in WM...
December 2017: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement
Matthew R Ponte, Alexander D Hudson, Kalaichelvi Saravanamuttu
Many of the extraordinary three-dimensional architectures that pattern our physical world emerge from complex nonlinear systems or dynamic populations whose individual constituents are only weakly correlated to each other. Shoals of fish, murmuration behaviours in birds, congestion patterns in traffic and even networks of social conventions are examples of spontaneous pattern formation, which cannot be predicted from the properties of individual elements alone. Pattern formation at a different scale has been observed or predicted in weakly correlated systems including superconductors, atomic gases near Bose Einstein condensation and incoherent optical fields...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ute Kunzmann, Cornelia Wieck, Cathrin Dietzel
This study investigated age differences in empathic accuracy, the ability to correctly perceive others' emotions, in a sample of 151 boys and men from three age groups: adolescents (Mage = 16 years, SD = 1.04), young adults (Mage = 29 years, SD = 2.78), and middle-aged adults (Mage = 50 years, SD = 3.07). All participants viewed nine newly developed film clips, each depicting a boy or a man reliving one of three emotions (anger, sadness, or happiness), while talking about an autobiographical memory...
February 1, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Peng Yuan, Manuel C Voelkle, Naftali Raz
According to Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT, Jung and Haier, 2007), individual differences in a circumscribed set of brain regions account for variations in general intelligence (g). The components of g, fluid (Gf) and crystalized (Gc) reasoning, exhibit distinct trajectories of age-related change. Because the brain also ages differentially, we hypothesized that age-related cognitive and neural changes would be coupled. In a sample of healthy middle-aged and older adults, we examined changes in Gf (operationalized by Cattell Culture Fair Test) and Gc (indexed by two vocabulary tests) as well as in structural properties of 19 brain regions...
January 19, 2018: NeuroImage
J D Kruschwitz, L Waller, L S Daedelow, H Walter, I M Veer
One hallmark example of a link between global topological network properties of complex functional brain connectivity and cognitive performance is the finding that general intelligence may depend on the efficiency of the brain's intrinsic functional network architecture. However, although this association has been featured prominently over the course of the last decade, the empirical basis for this broad association of general intelligence and global functional network efficiency is quite limited. In the current study, we set out to replicate the previously reported association between general intelligence and global functional network efficiency using the large sample size and high quality data of the Human Connectome Project, and extended the original study by testing for separate association of crystallized and fluid intelligence with global efficiency, characteristic path length, and global clustering coefficient...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Inkyung Park, Soohyun Cho
This study examined whether different aspects of mathematical proficiency influence one's ability to make adaptive financial decisions. "Numeracy" refers to the ability to process numerical and probabilistic information and is commonly reported as an important factor which contributes to financial decision-making ability. The precision of mental number representation (MNR), measured with the number line estimation (NLE) task has been reported to be another critical factor. This study aimed to examine the contribution of these mathematical proficiencies while controlling for the influence of fluid intelligence, math anxiety and personality factors...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Hikaru Takeuchi, Yasuyuki Taki, Rui Nouchi, Ryoichi Yokoyama, Yuka Kotozaki, Seishu Nakagawa, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Kunio Iizuka, Yuki Yamamoto, Sugiko Hanawa, Tsuyoshi Araki, Carlos Makoto Miyauchi, Takamitsu Shinada, Kohei Sakaki, Yuko Sassa, Takayuki Nozawa, Shigeyuki Ikeda, Susumu Yokota, Magistro Daniele, Ryuta Kawashima
Myopia is part of the spectrum of refractive error. Myopia is associated with psychometric intelligence and, the link between brain anatomy and myopia has been hypothesized. Here we aimed to identify the associations between brain structures and refractive error in developed young adults. In a study cohort of 1,319 normal educated young adults, the refractive error showed a significant negative correlation with total intracranial volume and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume but not with total gray matter volume (GMV) or total white matter volume (WMV)...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Curtis L Johnson, Hillary Schwarb, Kevin M Horecka, Matthew D J McGarry, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Aron K Barbey
Brain tissue mechanical properties, measured in vivo with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity. Recently, our group has reported on the positive relationship between viscoelasticity of the hippocampus and performance on a relational memory task in healthy young adults, which highlighted the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function; however, structure-function relationships outside of the hippocampus have not yet been explored...
January 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Florian Schmitz, Olga Kunina-Habenicht, Andrea Hildebrandt, Klaus Oberauer, Oliver Wilhelm
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most prominent paradigms employed for the assessment of risk taking in the laboratory, and it was shown to distinguish between various patient groups and controls. The present study was conducted to test the psychometric characteristics of the original IGT and of a new gambling task variant for assessing individual differences. Two studies were conducted with adults of the general population ( n = 220) and with adolescents ( n = 389). Participants were also tested on multiple measures of working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, personality traits associated with risk-taking behavior, and self-reported risk taking in various domains...
January 1, 2018: Assessment
Thierry Lecerf, Gary L Canivez
Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA...
December 28, 2017: Psychological Assessment
Daniel Eriksson Sörman, Maria Josefsson, John E Marsh, Patrik Hansson, Jessica K Ljungberg
An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list...
2017: PloS One
Sabrina Guye, Claudia C von Bastian
The question of whether working memory training leads to generalized improvements in untrained cognitive abilities is a longstanding and heatedly debated one. Previous research provides mostly ambiguous evidence regarding the presence or absence of transfer effects in older adults. Thus, to draw decisive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of working memory training interventions, methodologically sound studies with larger sample sizes are needed. In this study, we investigated whether or not a computer-based working memory training intervention induced near and far transfer in a large sample of 142 healthy older adults (65 to 80 years)...
December 2017: Psychology and Aging
D A Moser, G E Doucet, A Ing, D Dima, G Schumann, R M Bilder, S Frangou
Working memory (WM) is a central construct in cognitive neuroscience because it comprises mechanisms of active information maintenance and cognitive control that underpin most complex cognitive behavior. Individual variation in WM has been associated with multiple behavioral and health features including demographic characteristics, cognitive and physical traits and lifestyle choices. In this context, we used sparse canonical correlation analyses (sCCAs) to determine the covariation between brain imaging metrics of WM-network activation and connectivity and nonimaging measures relating to sensorimotor processing, affective and nonaffective cognition, mental health and personality, physical health and lifestyle choices derived from 823 healthy participants derived from the Human Connectome Project...
December 5, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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