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Fluid intelligence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157454/developing-a-new-intelligent-system-for-the-diagnosis-of-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#1
Chengye Li, Lingxian Hou, Bishundat Yanesh Sharma, Huaizhong Li, ChengShui Chen, Yuping Li, Xuehua Zhao, Hui Huang, Zhennao Cai, Huiling Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB), clinicians often diagnose tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) by using diagnostic tests, which have not only poor sensitivity, but poor availability as well. The aim of our study is to develop a new artificial intelligence based diagnostic model that is accurate, fast, non-invasive and cost effective to diagnose TPE. It is expected that a tool derived based on the model be installed on simple computer devices (such as smart phones and tablets) and be used by clinicians widely...
January 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156647/effects-of-nutritional-interventions-during-pregnancy-on-infant-and-child-cognitive-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
REVIEW
Rachael M Taylor, Shanna M Fealy, Alessandra Bisquera, Roger Smith, Clare E Collins, Tiffany-Jane Evans, Alexis J Hure
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that folate, iodine and iron intake during pregnancy impacts on foetal brain development and cognitive function. However, in human studies, the relationship with other dietary nutrients is less clear. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to critically appraise the current literature and meta-analyses results from nutritional interventions during pregnancy that aimed to optimise infant and child cognitive outcomes...
November 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143409/chronnectome-fingerprinting-identifying-individuals-and-predicting-higher-cognitive-functions-using-dynamic-brain-connectivity-patterns
#3
Jin Liu, Xuhong Liao, Mingrui Xia, Yong He
The human brain is a large, interacting dynamic network, and its architecture of coupling among brain regions varies across time (termed the "chronnectome"). However, very little is known about whether and how the dynamic properties of the chronnectome can characterize individual uniqueness, such as identifying individuals as a "fingerprint" of the brain. Here, we employed multiband resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from the Human Connectome Project (N = 105) and a sliding time-window dynamic network analysis approach to systematically examine individual time-varying properties of the chronnectome...
November 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141019/exploring-the-relationship-between-video-game-expertise-and-fluid-intelligence
#4
Athanasios V Kokkinakis, Peter I Cowling, Anders Drachen, Alex R Wade
Hundreds of millions of people play intellectually-demanding video games every day. What does individual performance on these games tell us about cognition? Here, we describe two studies that examine the potential link between intelligence and performance in one of the most popular video games genres in the world (Multiplayer Online Battle Arenas: MOBAs). In the first study, we show that performance in the popular MOBA League of Legends' correlates with fluid intelligence as measured under controlled laboratory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136310/brain-networks-of-the-imaginative-mind-dynamic-functional-connectivity-of-default-and-cognitive-control-networks-relates-to-openness-to-experience
#5
Roger E Beaty, Qunlin Chen, Alexander P Christensen, Jiang Qiu, Paul J Silvia, Daniel L Schacter
Imagination and creative cognition are often associated with the brain's default network (DN). Recent evidence has also linked cognitive control systems to performance on tasks involving imagination and creativity, with a growing number of studies reporting functional interactions between cognitive control and DN regions. We sought to extend the emerging literature on brain dynamics supporting imagination by examining individual differences in large-scale network connectivity in relation to Openness to Experience, a personality trait typified by imagination and creativity...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135806/fluid-intelligence-relates-to-the-resting-state-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuation-and-functional-connectivity-a-multivariate-pattern-analysis
#6
Changjun Li, Guocheng Yang, Meiling Li, Bo Li
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between fluid intelligence (gF) and the pattern of the functional characteristics in the resting state in adults using multivariate pattern analysis. Resting-state functional images from 100 participants in the Human Connectome Project data set were analyzed. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was first calculated, and a support vector regression approach was used to identify the association with gF. To discover whether the connectivity of the gF-associated areas was also related to gF, we further checked the seed-based functional connectivity using the seeds from the ALFF...
November 13, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122720/connectome-based-predictive-modeling-of-attention-comparing-different-functional-connectivity-features-and-prediction-methods-across-datasets
#7
Kwangsun Yoo, Monica D Rosenberg, Wei-Ting Hsu, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li, Dustin Scheinost, R Todd Constable, Marvin M Chun
Connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM; Finn et al., 2015; Shen et al., 2017) was recently developed to predict individual differences in traits and behaviors, including fluid intelligence (Finn et al., 2015) and sustained attention (Rosenberg et al., 2016a), from functional brain connectivity (FC) measured with fMRI. Here, using the CPM framework, we compared the predictive power of three different measures of FC (Pearson's correlation, accordance, and discordance) and two different prediction algorithms (linear and partial least square [PLS] regression) for attention function...
November 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101550/chess-knowledge-predicts-chess-memory-even-after-controlling-for-chess-experience-evidence-for-the-role-of-high-level-processes
#8
David M Lane, Yu-Hsuan A Chang
The expertise effect in memory for chess positions is one of the most robust effects in cognitive psychology. One explanation of this effect is that chess recall is based on the recognition of familiar patterns and that experts have learned more and larger patterns. Template theory and its instantiation as a computational model are based on this explanation. An alternative explanation is that the expertise effect is due, in part, to stronger players having better and more conceptual knowledge, with this knowledge facilitating memory performance...
November 3, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101008/use-of-a-neural-net-to-model-the-impact-of-optical-coherence-tomography-abnormalities-on-vision-in-age-related-macular-degeneration
#9
Tariq M Aslam, Haider R Zaki, Sajjad Mahmood, Zaria C Ali, Nur A Ahmad, Mariana R Thorell, Konstantinos Balaskas
PURPOSE: To develop a neural network for the estimation of visual acuity from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration and to demonstrate its use to model the impact of specific controlled OCT changes on vision. DESIGN: Artificial Intelligence (neural network) study. METHODS: We assessed 1400 OCT scans of patients with neovascular age related macular degeneration (AMD). 15 physical features for each eligible OCT as well as patient age were used as input data and corresponding recorded visual acuity as the target data to train, validate and test a supervised neural network...
October 31, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097354/the-importance-of-trust-in-the-adoption-and-use-of-intelligent-assistive-technology-by-older-adults-to-support-aging-in-place-scoping-review-protocol
#10
Josephine McMurray, Gillian Strudwick, Cheryl Forchuk, Adam Morse, Jessica Lachance, Arani Baskaran, Lauren Allison, Richard Booth
BACKGROUND: Intelligent assistive technologies that complement and extend human abilities have proliferated in recent years. Service robots, home automation equipment, and other digital assistant devices possessing artificial intelligence are forms of assistive technologies that have become popular in society. Older adults (>55 years of age) have been identified by industry, government, and researchers as a demographic who can benefit significantly from the use of intelligent assistive technology to support various activities of daily living...
November 2, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094067/comorbidities-confounding-the-outcomes-of-surgery-for-third-window-syndrome-outlier-analysis
#11
P Ashley Wackym, Heather T Mackay-Promitas, Shaban Demirel, Gerard J Gianoli, Martin S Gizzi, Dale M Carter, David A Siker
Objective: Patients with third window syndrome and superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) symptoms whose surgical outcomes placed them as outliers were systematically studied to determine comorbidities that were responsible for their poor outcomes due to these confounding factors. Study Design: Observational analytic case-control study in a tertiary referral center. Methods: Twelve adult patients with clinical SSCD syndrome underwent surgical management and had outcomes that did not resolve all of their subjective symptoms...
October 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080484/mental-rotation-ability-and-everyday-life-spatial-activities-in-individuals-with-down-syndrome
#12
Chiara Meneghetti, Enrico Toffalini, Barbara Carretti, Silvia Lanfranchi
Although certain visuospatial abilities, such as mental rotation, are crucially important in everyday activities, they have been little explored in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). This study investigates: i) mental rotation ability in individuals with DS; and ii) its relation to cognitive abilities and to everyday spatial activities. Forty-eight individuals with DS and 48 typically-developing (TD) children, matched on measures of vocabulary and fluid intelligence, were compared on their performance in a rotation task that involved detecting which of two figures would fit into a hole if rotated (five angles of rotation were considered: 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, 180°)...
October 25, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078025/discrepancy-analysis-between-crystallized-and-fluid-intelligence-tests-a-novel-method-to-detect-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#13
Akiko Takaiwa, Naoya Kuwayama, Naoki Akioka, Daina Kashiwazaki, Satoshi Kuroda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to accurately determine the presence of mild cognitive impairment, which is often difficult to evaluate using only simple tests. Our approach focused on discrepancy analysis of fluid intelligence relative to crystallized intelligence using internationally recognized neuropsychological tests. METHODS: One-hundred and five patients diagnosed with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis were assessed. The neuropsychological tests included the two-subtests (information, picture completion) of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R-two-subtests): crystallized intelligence tests and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS; immediate memory, visuospatial/-construction, language, attention, delayed memory, and total score) as fluid intelligence tests...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077479/illness-and-intelligence-are-comparatively-strong-predictors-of-individual-differences-in-depressive-symptoms-following-middle-age
#14
Stephen Aichele, Patrick Rabbitt, Paolo Ghisletta
OBJECTIVE: We compared the importance of socio-demographic, lifestyle, health, and multiple cognitive measures for predicting individual differences in depressive symptoms in later adulthood. METHOD: Data came from 6203 community-dwelling older adults (age 41-93 years at study entry) from the United Kingdom. Predictors (36 in total) were assessed up to four times across a period of approximately 12 years. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale...
October 27, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022841/designing-cellulosic-and-nanocellulosic-sensors-for-interface-with-a-protease-sequestrant-wound-dressing-prototype-implications-of-material-selection-for-dressing-and-protease-sensor-design
#15
Krystal R Fontenot, J Vincent Edwards, David Haldane, Nicole Pircher, Falk Liebner, Brian D Condon, Huzaifah Qureshi, Dorne Yager
Interfacing nanocellulosic-based biosensors with chronic wound dressings for protease point of care diagnostics combines functional material properties of high specific surface area, appropriate surface charge, and hydrophilicity with biocompatibility to the wound environment. Combining a protease sensor with a dressing is consistent with the concept of an intelligent dressing, which has been a goal of wound-dressing design for more than a quarter century. We present here biosensors with a nanocellulosic transducer surface (nanocrystals, nanocellulose composites, and nanocellulosic aerogels) immobilized with a fluorescent elastase tripeptide or tetrapeptide biomolecule, which has selectivity and affinity for human neutrophil elastase present in chronic wound fluid...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021836/specific-protein-biomarker-patterns-for-alzheimer-s-disease-improved-diagnostics-in-progress
#16
REVIEW
Illana Gozes
This short review looks at Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis through my own point of view, going from imaging through cerebrospinal fluid to blood proteins. Over the last couple of years, we have published two papers targeted at Alzheimer's diagnosis. In one paper, we took an approach of selecting a specific target, namely, activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), and our results tightened the association of ADNP blood expression with intelligence. In another paper, we took an unbiased approach of analysis of all genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cells lines and discovered changes in expression of the regulator of G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2) as a potential AD predictor...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992942/erratum-to-a-watershed-model-of-individual-differences-in-fluid-intelligence-neuropsychologia-91-2016-186-198
#17
Rogier A Kievit, Simon W Davis, John Griffiths, Marta M Correia, Cam-Can, Richard N Henson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992036/associations-between-sedentary-behaviours-and-cognitive-function-cross-sectional-and-prospective-findings-from-the-uk-biobank
#18
Kishan Bakrania, Charlotte L Edwardson, Kamlesh Khunti, Stephan Bandelow, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
We investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between different sedentary behaviours and cognitive function in a large sample of UK Biobank adults. Baseline data were available on 502,643 participants (years 2006-2010). Cognitive tests included prospective memory [n = 171,585 (baseline only)], visual-spatial memory [round 1 (n = 483,832); round 2 (n = 482,762)], fluid intelligence [n = 165,492], and short-term numeric memory [n = 50,370]. After a mean period of 5.3-years, between 12,091 and 114,373 participants also provided follow-up cognitive data...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968656/aerobic-fitness-explains-individual-differences-in-the-functional-brain-connectome-of-healthy-young-adults
#19
Tanveer Talukdar, Aki Nikolaidis, Chris E Zwilling, Erick J Paul, Charles H Hillman, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Aron K Barbey
A wealth of neuroscience evidence demonstrates that aerobic fitness enhances structural brain plasticity, promoting the development of gray matter volume and maintenance of white matter integrity within networks for executive function, attention, learning, and memory. However, the role of aerobic fitness in shaping the functional brain connectome remains to be established. The present work therefore investigated the effects of aerobic fitness (as measured by VO2max) on individual differences in whole-brain functional connectivity assessed from resting state fMRI data...
September 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938846/predictive-value-of-traditional-measures-of-executive-function-on-broad-abilities-of-the-cattell-horn-carroll-theory-of-cognitive-abilities
#20
Loes van Aken, Paul T van der Heijden, Wouter Oomens, Roy P C Kessels, Jos I M Egger
The neuropsychological construct of executive functions (EFs), and the psychometric Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities are both approaches that attempt to describe cognitive functioning. The coherence between EF and CHC abilities has been mainly studied using factor-analytical techniques. Through multivariate regression analysis, the current study now assesses the integration of these latent constructs in clinical assessment. The predictive power of six widely used executive tasks on five CHC measures (crystallized and fluid intelligence, visual processing, short-term memory, and processing speed) is examined...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
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