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Dyslipidemia drugs

Kohji Shirai, Toru Fujita, Michitaka Tanaka, Yuka Fujii, Masatsugu Shimomasuda, Soichi Sakai, Yoshishige Samukawa
INTRODUCTION: Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase and is used as an anti-obesity drug in many countries. However, there are no data available regarding the effects of orlistat on visceral fat accumulation in Japanese subjects. Therefore, this comparative, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orlistat in Japanese participants with excessive visceral fat accumulation and without dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension ("metabolic diseases")...
December 10, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Maiara Destro Inácio, Alex Rafacho, Nathália Aparecida de Paula Camaforte, Poliana Teixeira, Priscilla Maria Ponce Vareda, Natália Moretti Violato, José Roberto Bosqueiro
Objective: Fibrates are used as lipid-lowering drugs and are well tolerated as cotreatments when glucose metabolism disturbances are also present. Synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) are diabetogenic drugs that cause dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance when in excess. Thus, we aimed to describe the potential of bezafibrate in preventing or attenuating the adverse effects of GCs on glucose and lipid homeostasis. Methods: Male Wistar rats were treated with high-dose bezafibrate (300 mg/kg, body mass (b...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
Ghaith M Al-Taani, Sayer I Al-Azzam, Karem H Alzoubi, Mamoon A Aldeyab
Background: Treatment-related problems (TRPs) may pose risks for patients if unaddressed. With the increased complexity of health care, it is important to target pharmacists' efforts to patients that are at high risk for TRPs. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify medications most commonly associated with TRPs. Setting: Outpatient departments of five public and teaching hospitals in Jordan. Method: TRPs and drugs most commonly implicated with TRPs were assessed for patients recruited from outpatient clinics in five major hospitals in Jordan using a standardized and validated pharmaceutical care manual...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Raghunath Singh, Yashika Bansal, Bikash Medhi, Anurag Kuhad
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are the drug of choice in the management of mental illnesses by virtue of their advantage over typical antipsychotics i.e. least tendency of producing extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS) or pseudoparkinsonism. Despite the clinical efficacy, AAPs produces troublesome adverse effects, particularly hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia weight gain, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and QT prolongation which further develops metabolic and cardiac complications with subsequent reduction in life expectancy, poor patient compliance, and sudden death...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Latife Salame-Khouri, Dalia Cuenca-Abruch
More than 70% of the population in Mexico is overweight or obese, affecting mainly people in productive age. Obesity is associated with the development of diseases that increase cardiovascular risk (diabetes mellitus, hypertension or atherogenic dyslipidemia), diseases that limit the quality of life of the patient (osteoarthrosis or sleep apnea) and even with the increase in the incidence of certain types of cancer (breast or colon). It is evident that the decrease of at least 5% of body weight induces improvement in all these factors; however, in some patients it is difficult to achieve this goal only with lifestyle modifications...
November 30, 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
C Antza, I Doundoulakis, M Natsis, V Kotsis
Artery disease can be identified from ankle-brachial index (peripheral artery disease), pulse wave velocity (arterial stiffness), carotid intima media thickness (atherosclerosis) and flow-mediated dilation (endothelial disfunction). Arterial stiffness is a marker of cardiovascular disease associated with cardiovascular events. Increased vascular ageing is the acceleration of arterial stiffness inappropriate for the given chronological age. Treatment of early vascular ageing seems to be important if we target on primary cardiovascular prevention...
December 4, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Anne-Catherine Schwarz, Adrian T Billeter, Katharina M Scheurlen, Matthias Blüher, Beat P Müller-Stich
Metabolic diseases, comprising type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), dyslipidemia, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are rapidly increasing worldwide. Conservative medical therapy, including the newly available drugs, has only limited effects and does neither influence survival or the development of micro- or macrovascular complications, nor the progression of NASH to liver cirrhosis, nor the development of hepatocellular carcinomas in the NASH liver. In contrast, metabolic surgery is very effective independent of the preoperative body mass index (BMI) in reducing overall and cardiovascular mortality in patients with T2DM...
October 2018: Visceral Medicine
Dong Wook Kim, Jeeyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on elderly epilepsy included only patients with new-onset disease, but there are many patients who developed epilepsy earlier and aged. AIM: We compared the characteristics of new-onset and persistence epilepsy in the elderly. METHODS: We performed a 10-year retrospective analysis of elderly patients with epilepsy divided into two groups according to the onset of seizure: new-onset epilepsy (onset age≥65) and persistent epilepsy (onset age<65)...
November 28, 2018: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
Hicham Abou Zeid, Rita Kallab, Marie Antoinette Najm, Hisham Jabbour, Roger Noun, Fadi Sleilati, Salim Chucri, Christine Dagher, Ghassan Sleilaty, Nicole Naccache
BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are cornerstone in multimodal analgesia protocols. This point is of great value in morbidly obese patients due to the high prevalence of restrictive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that NSAIDs do not increase acute bariatric surgery complications while optimizing postoperative analgesia. METHODS: Databases of two medical centers were retrospectively reviewed to find all patients who underwent bariatric surgery between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017...
November 27, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Mehmet Sayiner, Brian Lam, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common type of chronic liver disease worldwide. From the spectrum of NAFLD, it is nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that predominantly predisposes patients to higher risk for development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is growing evidence that the risk of progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is not uniform among all patients with NASH. In fact, NASH patients with increasing numbers of metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, visceral obesity and dyslipidemia are at a higher risk of mortality...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
Yusuke Kobayashi, Kouji Banno, Haruko Kunitomi, Eiichiro Tominaga, Daisuke Aoki
Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer and the eighth most common cause of cancer mortality in women. Although standard chemotherapy is the established treatment for ovarian cancer, the prognosis remains poor, and it is highly anticipated that new drugs will be developed. New drugs, such as humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibodies and poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, are expected to improve clinical outcomes of ovarian cancer. However, long-term, costly research is required to develop such new drugs, and soaring national healthcare costs are becoming a concern worldwide...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Yong Hoon Kim, Ae-Young Her, Myung Ho Jeong, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Dong-Ho Shin, Jung-Sun Kim, Young-Guk Ko, Donghoon Choi, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang
BACKGROUND: Limited studies focused on long-term outcomes of statin therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with or without dyslipidemia after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the era of new-generation drug-eluting stents (DES). We thought to investigate 2-year clinical outcomes of statin therapy in these patients. METHODS: A total of 18,137 eligible AMI patients (from the Korea AMI Registry [KAMIR]) were finally enrolled and divided into four groups according to the presence or absence of dyslipidemia and statin therapy (dyslipidemia+/statin- [group A, 309 patients], dyslipidemia+/statin+ [group B, 2094 patients], dyslipidemia-/statin- [group C, 672 patients], dyslipidemia-/statin+ [group D, 15062 patients])...
November 25, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Ranjeet Prasad Dash, R Jayachandra Babu, Nuggehally R Srinivas
Number of drugs with different mechanisms of actions is undergoing clinical trials for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Given the complexity of the disease with respect to pathophysiology in the liver and associated changes in the renal function, it becomes apparent that a clear ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) strategy needs to be put in place for a successful nomination of a drug candidate for NASH. This review discusses using in vitro and in vivo ADME screens to understand the properties of drugs and to establish whether or not the chosen drug(s) can overcome the challenges related hepatic and renal transporters covering both uptake and efflux mechanisms imposed by NASH...
2018: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Elevated prolactin levels are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. No previous study has compared the effect of hypolipidemic therapy on plasma levels of lipids and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with and without hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: The study included three age-, weight-, blood pressure- and lipid-matched groups of premenopausal women: 18 women with untreated hyperprolactinemia, 19 women with bromocriptine-treated hyperprolactinemia and 20 drug-naïve women with normal prolactin levels...
September 6, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
John S Sampalis, Eliofotisti Psaradellis, Melissa Stutz, Jenaya Rickard, Emmanouil Rampakakis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management of hypertension and dyslipidemia is important when considering cardiovascular disease risk; however, achievement of optimal lipid and blood pressure (BP) targets in clinical practice remains inadequate. This analysis sought to estimate the frequency, effectiveness, and safety of co-administrated atorvastatin and perindopril in routine care. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of four Canadian, prospective, multi-center, observational studies assessing real-life effectiveness and safety of perindopril + atorvastatin in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients with concomitant dyslipidemia over 16 weeks...
November 17, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Carley J S Heck, Allyson N Hamlin, Namandje N Bumpus
Efavirenz (EFV), a widely used antiretroviral drug, is associated with idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity and dyslipidemia. Here we demonstrate that EFV stimulates the activation in primary hepatocytes of key cell stress regulators: inositol requiring 1α (IRE1α) and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Following EFV exposure, XBP1 splicing (indicating activation) was increased 35.7-fold in primary human hepatocytes. Paralleling this, XBP1 splicing and IRE1α phosphorylation (p-IRE1α, active IRE1α) were elevated 36...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Atsushi Ogata, Yasuhiro Kato, Shinji Higa, Kazuyuki Yoshizaki
Tocilizumab (TCZ) is an interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitor used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It was developed in 2008, and its effectiveness is supported by evidence from all over the world based on its first decade of use. Although the overall efficacy and safety profiles of TCZ are similar to those of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, TCZ displays certain differences. The most notable advantage of TCZ is its usefulness as a monotherapy. Additionally, TCZ is favorable in the improvement of systemic inflammatory symptoms such as anemia and fatigue...
November 14, 2018: Modern Rheumatology
Ju-Yang Jung, Young Choi, Chang-Hee Suh, Dukyong Yoon, Hyoun-Ah Kim
Gout is a chronic disease associated with deposition of monosodium urate crystals and accompanied by diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Hypertriglyceridemia is common among patients with gout, and fenofibrate is usually used to reduce triglyceride levels. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of uric acid reduction by fenofibrate in patients with gout administered uric acid lowering agents (viz., the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat). Data from 863 patients with gout were collected from electronic medical records comprising information on underlying diseases, laboratory findings, and drug histories...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yusuke Kobayashi, Kouji Banno, Haruko Kunitomi, Shimpei Nagai, Takayuki Takahashi, Mayuka Anko, Moito Iijima, Takashi Takeda, Yusuke Matoba, Kanako Nakamura, Kosuke Tsuji, Eiichiro Tominaga, Daisuke Aoki
Novel pharmacological therapies are in development for cancer, ranging from conventional chemotherapeutic drugs to molecular targeted drugs, antibody-based drugs, and immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are developed using new technologies. However, the increasing cost of new drug development is increasing the costs of national healthcare and putting pressure on government finances worldwide. Under these circumstances, drug repositioning (i.e. discovering novel effects of existing drugs, thereby allowing their use to treat other diseases) has become a major focus because of reliability and cost reduction...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Soulmaz Shorakae, Elisabeth A Lambert, Eveline Jona, Carolina Ika Sari, Barbora de Courten, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Helena J Teede
Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is increased in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Moxonidine is a centrally acting sympatholytic drug with known beneficial effects on hypertension, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia and inflammation. In this double-blind placebo controlled randomized clinical trial we examined the effect of moxonidine on modulating sympathetic activity and downstream metabolic abnormalities in 48 pre-menopausal women with PCOS (Rotterdam diagnostic criteria), recruited from the community (January 2013-August 2015)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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