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Dyslipidemia drugs

Gurpreet S Wander, Mohammed Yunus Khan Hukkeri, Sachin Yalagudri, Bharti Mahajan, Archana Toppo Panda
Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are a major cause of premature death and disability. Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are responsible for 52% of mortality amongst Indians, of these CV diseases are responsible for 66% of NCD mortality in India. We not only need widespread primary preventive strategy but also need effective secondary prevention protocols to reduce this. Secondary prevention in patients who already had myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization is of utmost importance to reduce mortality, cardiac events and improve quality of life...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Henriette Holst Nerild, Mikkel Bring Christensen, Filip Krag Knop, Andreas Brønden
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major global health challenge associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intervention strategies managing multiple risk factors (hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia) in patients with T2D can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by ~50%. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide an update on the development and clinical potential of colesevelam as a glucose-lowering drug in T2D. Furthermore, they outline the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and the clinical efficacy and safety data from the studies carried out to obtain market authorization for colesevelam...
October 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Katharina Warncke, Sebastian Kummer, Peter Herbert Kann, Dominik Bergis, Esther Bollow, Michael Hummel, Flavius Zoicas, Sebastian Wernert, Reinhard W Holl
BACKGROUND: Although diabetes is a common complication of acromegaly or Cushing´s disease, there are only few detailed studies with a focus on cardiovascular risk, metabolic control or diabetes therapy. Here, we provide a comprehensive characterization from the longitudinal DPV (Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumentation) registry. METHODS: Patients from the registry≥18 years of age with diabetes and acromegaly or Cushing´s disease were compared to patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes using the statistical software SAS 9...
October 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Bogusław Okopień, Łukasz Bułdak, Aleksandra Bołdys
The need to reduce residual cardiovascular risk led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve patients' outcomes. The residual risk in people with atherogenic dyslipidemia, despite LDL reduction obtained mainly by statins, remains high. Fibrates in those patients lead to significant clinical improvements. Those include reduction in the progression of atherosclerosis, which translates into decrease in cardiovascular events and improvements in microvascular diabetic complications. Furthermore there are other clinical and biochemical benefits connected with fibrate therapy (e...
October 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Armani, Caterina Mammi, Alessandra Feraco, Massimiliano Caprio
Atherosclerosis is due to a chronic inflammatory response affecting vascular endothelium and is promoted by several factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. To date, there is evidence to support a role for circulating aldosterone as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Transgenic mouse models have been generated to study cellular and molecular processes leading to atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we describe a protocol that takes advantage of continuous infusion of aldosterone in ApoE-/- mice and generates atherosclerotic plaques in the aortic root after 4 weeks of treatment...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Vasilios Papademetriou, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Christodoulos Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Koutsampasopoulos, Kiriakos Dimitriadis, Kostas Tsioufis
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder that is characterized by substantially increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Patients with FH have a significantly higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) events, and the timely reduction of LDL-C is of paramount importance to ameliorate the risk for CV disease. Among the available lipid-lowering therapies, the novel proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors have emerged as a very promising class of drugs for the management of such patients...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Haider J Warraich, Jamal S Rana
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dyslipidemia in patients with T2DM confers significant additional risk of adverse outcomes to patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). These patients carry residual risk of adverse outcomes despite optimal management with conventional therapy such as lifestyle changes and statin therapy. The role of both nonstatin monotherapy in statin-intolerant patients and combination therapy with statins in patients with high risk of CVD events has been well studied. We sought to review the role of newer therapies in risk reduction in these patients...
October 11, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Klaus G Parhofer
Patients with diabetes mellitus have an elevated cardiovascular risk. Lipid-lowering therapy is a successful strategy to prevent atherosclerotic events in these patients. Therefore, almost all professional societies recommend statin therapy for patients with diabetes under certain conditions. Despite this broad consensus, a number of controversial issues remain. Thus, it remains unclear in which patients the lipid parameters should be determined in the fasting state and in which postprandial values are sufficient...
2018: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
Vasilios G Athyros, Niki Katsiki, Aikaterini Dimakopoulou, Dimitrios Patoulias, Sofia Alataki, Michael Doumas
BACKGROUND: Drugs mimicking natural beneficial mutations, including that for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), might represent the future of hypolipidemic drug treatment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to review the properties and the effects of these drugs, which are either already commercially available or are in the process to be approved for the treatment of dyslipidemia. RESULTS: More than a decade ago, it was accidentally discovered that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) loss-of-function mutations resulted in marked lifelong reduction of LDL-C and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
October 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Perry Wengrofsky, Ghassan Mubarak, Ahmed Shim, Pramod Theetha Kariyanna, Adam Buzidkowski, Jacob Schwartz, Samy I McFarlane
Marijuana abuse is rapidly growing and currently it is the most coimnon drug of abuse in the United States due to increased legalization for recreational and medicinal use. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannibol, the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, acts via the endocannabinoid system to elicit various cardiovascular physiological effects, and has been associated with many adverse cardiovascular effects such as acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death that have previously been reported by our group and others...
2018: American journal of medical case reports
Yeongmin Woo, Jeong-Soo Shin, Chi-Young Shim, Jung-Sun Kim, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Sungha Park, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Geu-Ru Hong, Young-Guk Ko, Seok-Min Kang, Donghoon Choi, Jong-Won Ha, Myeong-Ki Hong, Yangsoo Jang, Sang-Hak Lee
Fibrates are used in patients with dyslipidemia and high cardiovascular risk. However, information regarding drug response to fibrate has been highly limited. We investigated treatment results and factors associated with triglyceride reduction after fenofibrate therapy using large-scale real-world data. Patients with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, at low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol goal but with triglyceride level ≥150 mg/dL, and undergoing treatment with fenofibrate 135-160 mg for the first time were included in this retrospective observational study...
2018: PloS One
Karen Alejandra Méndez-Lara, David Santos, Núria Farré, Sheila Ruiz-Nogales, Sergi Leánez, José Luis Sánchez-Quesada, Edgar Zapico, Enrique Lerma, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Jesús María Martín-Campos, Josep Julve, Olga Pol
The antinociceptive effects of the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) during chronic pain are well documented, but most of its possible side-effects remain poorly understood. In this work, we examine the impact of CORM-2 treatment on the lipoprotein profile and two main atheroprotective functions attributed to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes while analyzing the effect of this drug on diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin (Stz)-induced diabetic mice treated with CORM-2 (Stz-CORM-2) or vehicle (Stz-vehicle) were used to evaluate the effect of this drug on the modulation of painful diabetic neuropathy using nociceptive behavioral tests...
2018: PloS One
Laura B Ferguson, Lingling Zhang, Shi Wang, Courtney Bridges, R Adron Harris, Igor Ponomarev
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that act as transcription factors in response to endogenous lipid messengers. The fibrates and thiazolidinediones are synthetic PPAR agonists used clinically to treat dyslipidemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, respectively, but also improve symptoms of several other diseases. Transposable elements (TEs), repetitive sequences in mammalian genomes, are implicated in many of the same conditions for which PPAR agonists are therapeutic, including neurodegeneration, schizophrenia, and drug addiction...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Luis E Simental-Mendía, Fernando Guerrero-Romero
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of resveratrol supplementation on lipid profile in individuals with dyslipidemia. METHODS: Apparently healthy men and non-pregnant women 20 to 65 y of age with new diagnosis of dyslipidemia were enrolled in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and randomly allocated to receive either resveratrol 100mg/d or placebo (sucrose 0.5 g/d) for 2 mo. Smoking, alcohol intake, diabetes, acute or chronic renal or hepatic diseases, malignancy, cardiovascular disease, serum triacylglycerol levels ≥400mg/dL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels ≥190mg/dL, and consumption of lipid-lowering drugs or supplements containing resveratrol were exclusion criteria...
July 12, 2018: Nutrition
Desmond Y H Yap, Colin Tang, Gary C W Chan, Lorraine P Y Kwan, Maggie K M Ma, Maggie M Y Mok, Tak Mao Chan
OBJECTIVE: To expand the limited longterm data on sirolimus treatment in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). Our pilot short-term data suggested efficacy of sirolimus treatment in these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 16 class III/IV/V patients with LN who have received prednisolone (PSL) and sirolimus either as initial or maintenance treatment. RESULTS: Sixteen patients received sirolimus treatment (9 because of intolerance to standard immunosuppressants and 7 because of a history of malignancy) for 45...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Rheumatology
Michel Farnier
Total cardiovascular risk estimation using a system such as SCORE is recommended for adults>40years of age without evidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, severe hypertension or familial hypercholesterolemia. Before treatment, a full lipid profile is recommended, fasting in French guidelines, fasting or non-fasting in European guidelines. LDL-C has to be used as the primary target for treatment. For patients with elevated triglycerides, non-HDL-C level is also recommended as the secondary goal for treatment...
September 28, 2018: La Presse Médicale
T E Strandberg, K Räikkönen, V Salomaa, A Strandberg, H Kautiainen, M Kivimäki, K Pitkälä, J Huttunen
OBJECTIVES: In a 5-year multifactorial risk reduction intervention for healthy men with at least one cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, mortality was unexpectedly higher in the intervention than the control group during the first 15-year follow-up. In order to find explanations for the adverse outcome, we have extended mortality follow-up and examined in greater detail baseline characteristics that contributed to total mortality. DESIGN: Long-term follow-up of a controlled intervention trial...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Yaschilal Muche Belayneh, Eshetie Melese Birru
Diabetes mellitus is one of the largest global health problems demanding preventive and new therapeutic interventions. Currently, there is a need for safe, effective, and less costly antidiabetic medications, and investigating medicinal plants for new antidiabetic medication is an interesting research area. Thus, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic activities of 80% methanolic leaf extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. subspecies aurea (Fabaceae) in mice. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of the three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg) of crude hydromethanolic leaf extract was studied on normoglycemic, oral glucose loaded, and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice models...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
A Elenkov, Y Al-Jebari, A Giwercman
Register-based studies have indicated that men with impaired fertility are at higher risk for developing various adult-onset diseases than fertile men. The majority of men undergoing ICSI treatment are sub-fertile and since they are in contact with the health care system, these men are well suited as target for preventive measures. Our study included all men (N = 459 766) who had fathered children in Sweden between 2006 and 2016. Swedish registry data was used for obtaining information regarding conception method and defining three groups of fathers - ICSI -treated, IVF - treated and non IVF/ICSI...
September 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Antonio Hernández-Mijares, Juan F Ascaso, Mariano Blasco, Ángel Brea, Ángel Díaz, Teresa Mantilla, Juan Pedro-Botet, Xavier Pintó, Jesús Millán
There is no doubt about the relationship between LDL-c and cardiovascular risk, as well as about the benefits of statin treatment. Once the objective of LDL-c has been achieved, the evidences that demonstrate the persistence of a high cardiovascular risk, a concept called residual risk, are notable. The residual risk of lipid origin is based on atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by an increase in triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a decrease in HDL-c and qualitative alterations in LDL particles...
September 24, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
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