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Xiaohong Zhang, Can Xiao
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most prevalent human cancers, which is known for local growth, easily migration, long-distance invasion and reoccurrence. Targeted ultrasound (US) contrast combined with ultrasound for lung cancer diagnosis has been applied in the clinic. In the present study, a novel targeted ultrasound contrast agent containing chistosan/Fe3 O4 -parceled bispecific antibody (TcBab) targeting carcino-embryonic antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor was introduced, and the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity was investigated in patients with NSCLC...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Isabel Catarina Duarte, Sónia Brito-Costa, Ricardo Cayolla, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The neural basis of dilemmas involving decisions with profound affective impact, such as in romantic life, remains to be understood. The "Battle of the Sexes" is a paradigm from Game Theory that can be used to experimentally address such dilemmas. A form of in-group love, tribal love in football fans, provides the opportunity to study strong affective dilemmas when tribal and romantic love compete for hedonic decision-making. Here, we used for the first time a "Battle of the Sexes" dilemma using fMRI...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Danielle E McCarthy, Mark Versella
Introduction: Non-adherence to pharmacotherapies complicates studies of comparative pharmacotherapy effectiveness. Modeling adherence and abstinence simultaneously may facilitate analysis of both treatment acceptability and effectiveness. Methods: Secondary analyses of a three-arm randomized comparative trial of nicotine patch, varenicline, and combination nicotine patch and lozenge among adult daily smokers (N=1086) were conducted. Adherence rates collected via interactive voice response systems during the first 27 days of quitting were compared across treatment conditions...
August 9, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Jaeuk Hwang, Margaret Legarreta, Charles Elliott Bueler, Jennifer DiMuzio, Erin McGlade, In Kyoon Lyoo, Deborah Yurgelun-Todd
Background: Suicide is a public health concern for United States veterans and civilians. Prior research has shown neurobiological factors in suicide. However, studies of neuroimaging correlates of suicide risk have been limited. This study applied complex weighted network analyses to characterize the neural connectivity in white matter in veterans with suicide behavior. Methods: Twenty-eight veterans without suicide behavior (NS), 29 with a history of suicidal ideation only (SI), and 23 with prior suicide attempt (SA) completed diffusion tensor brain imaging, the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
David C Van Essen, Chad J Donahue, Matthew F Glasser
Cerebral cortex and cerebellar cortex both vary enormously across species in their size and complexity of convolutions. We discuss the development and evolution of cortical structures in terms of anatomy and functional organization. We propose that the distinctive shapes of cerebral and cerebellar cortex can be explained by relatively few developmental processes, notably including mechanical tension along axons and dendrites. Regarding functional organization, we show how maps of myelin content in cerebral cortex are evolutionarily conserved across primates but differ in the proportion of cortex devoted to sensory, cognitive, and other functions...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Aaron Carass, Jennifer L Cuzzocreo, Shuo Han, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Paul E Rasser, Melanie Ganz, Vincent Beliveau, Jose Dolz, Ismail Ben Ayed, Christian Desrosiers, Benjamin Thyreau, José E Romero, Pierrick Coupé, José V Manjón, Vladimir S Fonov, D Louis Collins, Sarah H Ying, Chiadi U Onyike, Deana Crocetti, Bennett A Landman, Stewart H Mostofsky, Paul M Thompson, Jerry L Prince
The human cerebellum plays an essential role in motor control, is involved in cognitive function (i.e., attention, working memory, and language), and helps to regulate emotional responses. Quantitative in-vivo assessment of the cerebellum is important in the study of several neurological diseases including cerebellar ataxia, autism, and schizophrenia. Different structural subdivisions of the cerebellum have been shown to correlate with differing pathologies. To further understand these pathologies, it is helpful to automatically parcellate the cerebellum at the highest fidelity possible...
August 9, 2018: NeuroImage
Robert T R Huckstepp, Kathryn P Cardoza, Lauren E Henderson, Jack L Feldman
Recently, based on functional differences, we subdivided neurons juxtaposed to the facial nucleus into two distinct populations, the parafacial ventral and lateral regions, i.e., pFV and pFL. Little is known about the composition of these regions, i.e., are they homogenous or heterogeneous populations? Here, we manipulated their excitability in spontaneously breathing vagotomized urethane anesthetized adult rats to further characterize their role in breathing. In the pFL, disinhibition or excitation decreased breathing frequency (f) with a concomitant increase of tidal volume (VT), and induced active expiration; in contrast, reducing excitation had no effect...
2018: PloS One
Sean M Tobyne, David C Somers, James A Brissenden, Samantha W Michalka, Abigail L Noyce, David E Osher
The human cerebral cortex is estimated to comprise 200-300 distinct functional regions per hemisphere. Identification of the precise anatomical location of an individual's unique set of functional regions is a challenge for neuroscience that has broad scientific and clinical utility. Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of four interleaved regions in lateral frontal cortex (LFC) that are part of broader visual attention and auditory attention networks (Michalka et al., 2015; Noyce et al., 2017; Tobyne et al...
August 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Benjamin J Clark, Christine M Simmons, Laura E Berkowitz, Aaron A Wilber
The retrosplenial cortex is anatomically positioned to integrate sensory, motor, and visual information and is thought to have an important role in processing spatial information and guiding behavior through complex environments. Anatomical and theoretical work has argued that the retrosplenial cortex participates in spatial behavior in concert with input from the parietal cortex. Although the nature of these interactions is unknown, a central position is that the functional connectivity is hierarchical with egocentric spatial information processed in the parietal cortex and higher-level allocentric mappings generated in the retrosplenial cortex...
August 9, 2018: Behavioral Neuroscience
Kuang Wei, Matthew Cieslak, Clint Greene, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Carlson
Network neuroscience leverages diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and tractography to quantify structural connectivity of the human brain. However, scientists and practitioners lack a clear understanding of the effects of varying tractography parameters on the constructed structural networks. With diffusion images from the Human Connectome Project (HCP), we characterize how structural networks are impacted by the spatial resolution of brain atlases, total number of tractography streamlines, and grey matter dilation with various graph metrics...
2018: Network neuroscience
Cassiano O Becker, Dani Bassett, Victor M Preciado
OBJECTIVE: We analyze task-based fMRI time series to produce large-scale dynamical models that are capable of approximating the observed signal with good accuracy. APPROACH: We extend subspace system identification methods for deterministic and stochastic state-space models with external inputs. The dynamic behavior of the generated models is characterized using control-theoretic analysis tools. To validate their consistency, we perform a probabilistic inversion of the identified input-output relationships via joint state-input maximum likelihood estimation...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Mohammad Ali Ebrahimzadeh, Alireza Tafazoli, Javad Akhtari, Pourya Biparva, Shahram Eslami
New modifications in nanoparticles changed the applications of them obviously. Green synthesis of nanoparticles and their biomedical utilizations have been the focus of increasing attention in recent years. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) demonstrated surprising effects and many advantageous features for cancer therapy. Investigations indicated the anticancer activity of AgNPs in different ways, comprising cell cycle arrest, DNA damaging and apoptosis, alteration of P53 function, up/down regulation of some important cytokine genes and so on...
August 7, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Hirohisa Watanabe, Yuichi Riku, Kazuhiro Hara, Kazuya Kawabata, Tomohiko Nakamura, Mizuki Ito, Masaaki Hirayama, Mari Yoshida, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Patients with MSA show various phenotypes during the course of their illness, including parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, autonomic failure, and pyramidal signs. Patients with MSA sometimes present with isolated autonomic failure or motor symptoms/ signs. The median duration from onset to the concomitant appearance of motor and autonomic symptoms is approximately 2 years but can range up to 14 years. As the presence of both motor and autonomic symptoms is essential for the current diagnostic criteria, early diagnosis is difficult when patients present with isolated autonomic failure or motor symptoms/signs...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Movement Disorders
Jakob Wasserthal, Peter Neher, Klaus H Maier-Hein
The individual course of white matter fiber tracts is an important factor for analysis of white matter characteristics in healthy and diseased brains. Diffusion-weighted MRI tractography in combination with region-based or clustering-based selection of streamlines is a unique combination of tools which enables the in-vivo delineation and analysis of anatomically well-known tracts. This, however, currently requires complex, computationally intensive processing pipelines which take a lot of time to set up. TractSeg is a novel convolutional neural network-based approach that directly segments tracts in the field of fiber orientation distribution function (fODF) peaks without using tractography, image registration or parcellation...
August 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Matthew K Gnagey
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) has worked toward minimizing the degradation of wetlands since its inception. In 1985 the definition of the US waters regulated under Section 404 was expanded due to a Supreme Court ruling in an effort to specifically reduce environmental damage caused by new residential development. This study analyzes the resulting development permit approval process from the new regulatory environment following Section 404's expansion to examine the regulation's efficacy and illustrate potential tradeoffs between water resource protection and land fragmentation...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Elisabeth J Vinke, Marius de Groot, Vikram Venkatraghavan, Stefan Klein, Wiro J Niessen, M Arfan Ikram, Meike W Vernooij
With aging, the brain undergoes several structural changes. These changes reflect the normal aging process and are therefore not necessarily pathologic. In fact, better understanding of these normal changes is an important cornerstone to also disentangle pathologic changes. Several studies have investigated normal brain aging, both cross-sectional and longitudinal, and focused on a broad range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers. This study aims to comprise the different aspects in brain aging, by performing a comprehensive longitudinal assessment of brain aging, providing trajectories of volumetric (global and lobar; subcortical and cortical), microstructural, and focal (presence of microbleeds, lacunar or cortical infarcts) brain imaging markers in aging and the sequence in which these markers change in aging...
July 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Simone Di Plinio, Sjoerd J H Ebisch
Neuroimaging research made rapid advances in the study of the functional architecture of the brain during the past decade. Many proposals endorsed the relevance of large-scale brain networks, defined as ensembles of brain regions that exhibit highly correlated signal fluctuations. However, analysis methods need further elaboration to define the functional and anatomical extent of specialized subsystems within classical networks with a high reliability. We present a novel approach to characterize and examine the functional proprieties of brain networks...
August 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
K F Jankowski, J Batres, H Scott, G Smyda, J H Pfeifer, K Quevedo
Depression is associated with negative attention and attribution biases and maladaptive emotion responsivity and regulation, which adversely impact self-evaluations and interpersonal relationships. Using fMRI, we investigated the neural substrates of these impairments. We compared neural activity recruited by 126 clinically depressed and healthy adolescents (ages 11-17) during social exclusion (Exclusion>Inclusion) using Cyberball. Results revealed significant interaction effects within left anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus...
July 29, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sicong Tu, Ricarda A L Menke, Kevin Talbot, Matthew C Kiernan, Martin R Turner
BACKGROUND: The thalamus is a major neural hub, with selective connections to virtually all cortical regions of the brain. The multisystem neurodegenerative syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has pathogenic overlap with frontotemporal dementia, and objective in vivo markers of extra-motor pathological spread are lacking. To better consider the role of the thalamus in neurodegeneration, the present study assessed the integrity of the thalamus and its connectivity to major cortical regions of the brain in a longitudinal manner...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Ana Kroflič, Sanja Frka, Martin Simmel, Heike Wex, Irena Grgić
Our current understanding of the importance of surface-active substances (SAS) on atmospheric aerosol cloud-forming efficiency is limited, as explicit data on the content of size-resolved ambient aerosol SAS, which are responsible for lowering the surface tension (σ) of activating droplets, are not available. We report on the first data comprising seasonal variability of size-segregated SAS concentrations in ambient aerosol particulate matter (PM). To assess the impact of SAS distribution within PM on cloud droplet activation and growth, a concept of surfactant activity was adopted and a parametrization developed; i...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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