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Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Nicholas A Egan, Joseph Patria, Imane Assakhi, Phaedra Tavlarides-Hontz, Shannon Modla, Eric R Muñoz, Matthew B Hudson, Mark S Parcells
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a collective term used to refer microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies produced by a variety of cells and released into interstitial spaces and bodily fluids. Serum exosomes can serve as invaluable biomarkers, containing m/miRNAs, lipids, and proteins, indicative of various conditions. There are currently limited studies on the characterization and mutual consensus of biomarker profiles of serum exosomes purified by different methods. Here we compared the advantages and disadvantages of two commonly used serum exosome purification procedures including ultracentrifugation (UC) and Total Exosome Isolation (TEI) reagent, by analyzing exosome size distribution, concentration, morphology and miRNA expression profiles...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Youyong Kong, Jiasong Wu, Guanyu Yang, Yulin Zuo, Yang Chen, Huazhong Shu, Jean Louis Coatrieux
BACKGROUND: Although supervoxel segmentation methods have been employed for brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) processing and analysis, due to the specific features of the brain, including complex-shaped internal structures and partial volume effect, their performance remains unsatisfactory. NEW METHODS: To address these issues, this paper presents a novel iterative spatial fuzzy clustering (ISFC) algorithm to generate 3D supervoxels for brain MRI volume based on prior knowledge...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Nathaniel E Anderson, J Michael Maurer, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Keith A Harenski, Carla L Harenski, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with severe emotional and interpersonal consequences and persistent antisocial behavior. Neurobiological models of psychopathy emphasize impairments in emotional processing, attention, and integration of information across large-scale neural networks in the brain. One of the largest integrative hubs in the brain is the corpus callosum (CC) - a large white matter structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. METHOD: The current study examines CC volume, measured via Freesurfer parcellation, in a large sample (n = 495) of incarcerated men who were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jane Son, Deborah Debono, Robert Leitner, Rhoshel Lenroot, Julie Johnson
AIM: Youth with both intellectual disability (ID) and mental health (MH) disorders (dual diagnosis) have complex physical and MH needs that can make providing integrated care for this complex group challenging. We conducted a mixed methods needs assessment to identify gaps and challenges in care delivery, identify bridges for these and identify what works well in existing services. METHODS: Our research team recruited service providers (n = 126) caring for youth aged 14-24 years with a dual diagnosis in the Illawarra Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia, to participate in focus group interviews...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Liang Han, Neil K Savalia, Micaela Y Chan, Phillip F Agres, Anupama S Nair, Gagan S Wig
Adult aging is associated with differences in structure, function, and connectivity of brain areas. Age-based brain comparisons have typically rested on the assumption that brain areas exhibit a similar spatial organization across age; we evaluate this hypothesis directly. Area parcellation methods that identify locations where resting-state functional correlations (RSFC) exhibit abrupt transitions (boundary-mapping) are used to define cortical areas in cohorts of individuals sampled across a large range of the human adult lifespan (20-93 years)...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Simon B Eickhoff, B T Thomas Yeo, Sarah Genon
A defining aspect of brain organization is its spatial heterogeneity, which gives rise to multiple topographies at different scales. Brain parcellation - defining distinct partitions in the brain, be they areas or networks that comprise multiple discontinuous but closely interacting regions - is thus fundamental for understanding brain organization and function. The past decade has seen an explosion of in vivo MRI-based approaches to identify and parcellate the brain on the basis of a wealth of different features, ranging from local properties of brain tissue to long-range connectivity patterns, in addition to structural and functional markers...
October 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Sung Woo Joo, Woon Yoon, Seung-Hyun Shon, Harin Kim, Saetbyeol Cha, Kee Jeong Park, Jungsun Lee
Several studies have produced extensive evidence on white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia (SZ). However, optimum consistency and reproducibility have not been achieved, and reported low white matter tract integrity in patients with SZ varies between studies. A whole-brain imaging study with a large sample size is needed. This study aimed to investigate white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and connections between regions of interests (ROIs) in the same hemisphere in 122 patients with SZ and 129 healthy controls with public neuroimaging data from SchizConnect...
2018: PloS One
Erica Barry, Sofia Cerda-Gonzalez, Wenming Luh, Richard E Daws, Ashish Raj, Philippa J Johnson
Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information about neuroanatomy and improves detection of neuropathology. As yet a comprehensive evaluation of the diffusivity parameters within the feline brain has not been documented. In this study, we anesthetized and performed in vivo MRI on the brain of eight neurologically normal felines. A T1-weighted structural sequence with a resolution of 0.5mm3 and a parallel diffusion weighted sequence with 61 directions and a resolution of 1.5mm3 was obtained...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Maik Lucas, Alicia Balbín-Suárez, Kornelia Smalla, Doris Vetterlein
Apple replant disease (ARD) is the phenomenon of soil decline occurring after repeated planting of apple trees at the same site. This study aimed to elucidate whether ARD is systemic, i.e. whether the contact of parts of the root system with ARD soil causes the whole plant to show poor shoot and root growth. A split-root experiment was conducted with seedlings of 'M26', offering the same plant for its root system the choice between the substrates ARD soil (+ARD), γ-sterilized ARD soil (-ARD) or soil from a grass parcel (Control) with the following combinations: +ARD/+ARD, -ARD/-ARD; +ARD/-ARD; +ARD/Control...
2018: PloS One
Clint Greene, Matt Cieslak, Scott T Grafton
To facilitate the comparison of white matter morphologic connectivity across target populations, it is invaluable to map the data to a standardized neuroanatomical space. Here, we evaluated direct streamline normalization (DSN), where the warping was applied directly to the streamlines, with two publically available approaches that spatially normalize the diffusion data and then reconstruct the streamlines. Prior work has shown that streamlines generated after normalization from reoriented diffusion data do not reliably match the streamlines generated in native space...
2018: Network neuroscience
Jie Lisa Ji, Marjolein Spronk, Kaustubh Kulkarni, Grega Repovš, Alan Anticevic, Michael W Cole
Understanding complex systems such as the human brain requires characterization of the system's architecture across multiple levels of organization - from neurons, to local circuits, to brain regions, and ultimately large-scale brain networks. Here we focus on characterizing the human brain's large-scale network organization, as it provides an overall framework for the organization of all other levels. We developed a highly principled approach to identify cortical network communities at the level of functional systems, calibrating our community detection algorithm using extremely well-established sensory and motor systems as guides...
October 3, 2018: NeuroImage
Shikha Dixit, Narendra K Arora, Atiqur Rahman, Natasha J Howard, Rakesh K Singh, Mayur Vaswani, Manoja K Das, Faruqueuddin Ahmed, Prashant Mathur, Nikhil Tandon, Rajib Dasgupta, Sanjay Chaturvedi, Jaishri Jethwaney, Suresh Dalpath, Rajendra Prashad, Rakesh Kumar, Rakesh Gupta, Laurette Dube, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Inadequate administrative health data, suboptimal public health infrastructure, rapid and unplanned urbanization, environmental degradation, and poor penetration of information technology make the tracking of health and well-being of populations and their social determinants in the developing countries challenging. Technology-integrated comprehensive surveillance platforms have the potential to overcome these gaps. OBJECTIVE: This paper provides methodological insights into establishing a geographic information system (GIS)-integrated, comprehensive surveillance platform in rural North India, a resource-constrained setting...
October 5, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Kimberly A Oldenborg, Alan D Steinman
Many riverine wetlands have been drained for the creation of agricultural land; however, global declines in freshwater biodiversity have begun to motivate wetland restoration projects around the world. Legacy phosphorus (P) increases the risk that wetland restoration may liberate excess P to the water column and connecting waterbodies, resulting in a trade-off of restored habitat for degraded water quality. To avoid this trade-off, we dredged a former agricultural parcel prior to hydrologic reconnection, and evaluated restoration success by comparing sediment P dynamics before and after dredging...
September 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher L Hippensteel, Richard C Sadler, Adam J Milam, Victoria Nelson, C Debra Furr-Holden
The oversaturation of alcohol outlets can have disastrous public health consequences. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential impact of new zoning legislation, TransForm Baltimore on locations of alcohol outlets. More specifically, the study sought to determine the effect of the new zoning code on the potential redistribution of alcohol outlets and also provide empirical support for the need to actively monitor redistribution of outlets to avoid further inequitable oversaturation in disadvantaged neighborhoods...
October 3, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Oscar H Del Brutto, Robertino M Mera, Mauricio Zambrano, Aldo F Costa
Recent studies suggested that both the Evans index (EI) and the bicaudate index (BI) are predictive markers of central atrophy and, as such, have been inversely associated with cognitive performance. This study investigated whether the EI and the BI (independently and combined) correlated with the MoCA score by means of generalized linear models adjusted for relevant confounders. Using a population-based design, 618 Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 underwent a head CT and MoCA testing. Both, the EI and the BI, were independently calculated by two readers, and a mean of the two values for each index was calculated for analysis...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Avniel S Ghuman, Julie A Fiez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Chen Cheng, Lingzhong Fan, Xiaoluan Xia, Simon B Eickhoff, Hai Li, Haifang Li, Junjie Chen, Tianzi Jiang
The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in biological motion perception but is also thought to be essential for speech and facial processing. However, although there are many previous investigations of distinct functional modules within the pSTS, the functional organization of the pSTS in its full functional heterogeneity has not yet been established. Here we applied a connectivity-based parcellation strategy to delineate the human pSTS subregions based on distinct anatomical connectivity profiles and divided it into rostral and caudal subregions using diffusion tensor imaging...
October 1, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im, Banu Ahtam, Cynthia T Laurentys, Wai-Man Chan, Maya Brainard, Sheena Chew, Marie Drottar, Caroline D Robson, Irene Drmic, Elizabeth C Engle
Seven unrelated individuals (four pediatric, three adults) with the TUBB3 E410K syndrome, harboring identical de novo heterozygous TUBB3 c.1228 G>A mutations, underwent neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging. Despite the absence of cortical malformations, they have intellectual and social disabilities. To search for potential etiologies for these deficits, we compared their brain's structural and white matter organization to 22 controls using structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Diffusion images were processed to calculate fractional anisotropy (FA) and perform tract reconstructions...
October 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Marijn van Vliet, Mia Liljeström, Susanna Aro, Riitta Salmelin, Jan Kujala
Communication between brain regions is thought to be facilitated by the synchronization of oscillatory activity. Hence, large-scale functional networks within the brain may be estimated by measuring synchronicity between regions. Neurophysiological recordings, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), provide a direct measure of oscillatory neural activity with millisecond temporal resolution. In this paper, we describe a full data analysis pipeline for functional connectivity analysis based on dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS) of MEG data...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Andrew K Conner, Robert G Briggs, Meherzad Rahimi, Goksel Sali, Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Chad A Glenn, James D Battiste, Michael E Sughrue
The middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) is a small and somewhat controversial white matter tract of the human cerebrum, confined to the posterior superior temporal region from which it courses posteriorly to connect at the occipital-parietal interface. The tract appears to be involved in language processing as well as auditory organization and localization, while sub-serving other higher level cognitive functions that have yet to be fully elucidated. Little is known about the specific, interparcellation connections that integrate to form the MdLF...
September 27, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
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