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Hyuk Jin Yun, Ai Wern Chung, Lana Vasung, Edward Yang, Tomo Tarui, Caitlin K Rollins, Cynthia M Ortinau, P Ellen Grant, Kiho Im
Accurate parcellation and labeling of primary cortical sulci in the human fetal brain is useful for regional analysis of brain development. However, human fetal brains show large spatio-temporal changes in brain size, cortical folding patterns, and relative position/size of cortical regions, making accurate automatic sulcal labeling challenging. Here, we introduce a novel sulcal labeling method for the fetal brain using spatio-temporal gyrification information from multiple fetal templates. First, spatial probability maps of primary sulci are generated on the templates from 23 to 33 gestational weeks and registered to an individual brain...
December 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Matthan W A Caan, Pierre-Louis Bazin, José P Marques, Gilles de Hollander, Serge Dumoulin, Wietske van der Zwaag
Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging generates images of meaningful physical or chemical variables measured in physical units that allow quantitative comparisons between tissue regions and among subjects scanned at the same or different sites. Here, we show that we can acquire quantitative T1 , T2 * , and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) information in a single acquisition, using a multi-echo (ME) extension of the second gradient-echo image of the MP2RAGE sequence. This combination is called MP2RAGE ME, or MP2RAGEME...
December 13, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Shruti Agarwal, Haris I Sair, Sachin K Gujar, Jun Hua, Hanzhang Lu, Jay J Pillai
AIM: To demonstrate that a novel resting state BOLD ALFF (the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation)-based correction method can substantially enhance the detectability of motor task activation in the presence of tumor-induced neurovascular uncoupling (NVU). METHODS: Twelve de novo brain tumor patients who underwent comprehensive clinical BOLD fMRI exams including task fMRI and resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) were evaluated. Each patient displayed decreased/absent task fMRI activation in the primary ipsilesional primary motor cortex in the absence of corresponding motor deficit or suboptimal task performance, consistent with NVU...
December 14, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Yun-Hui Chen, Su-Fang Li, Dan Lv, Gui-Dong Zhu, Yu-Hua Wang, Xin Meng, Qiang Hu, Cheng-Chong Li, Liang-Tang Zhang, Xiang-Ping Chu, Xiao-Ping Wang, Ping Li
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients have difficulty in switching between obsessive thought and compulsive behavior, which may be related to the dysfunction of the salience network (SN). However, little is known about the changes in intra- and inter- intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the SN in patients with OCD. In this study, we parceled the SN into 19 subregions and investigated iFC changes for each of these subregions in 40 drug-naïve patients with OCD and 40 healthy controls (HCs) using seed-based functional connectivity resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
N Alperin, J Wiltshire, S H Lee, A R Ramos, R Hernandez-Cardenache, T Rundek, R Curiel Cid, D Loewenstein
Study Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the extent to which sleep quality impacts amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI)-related brain regions in a cognitively normal cohort of individuals. Methods: Seventy four participants were rigorously evaluated using a battery of cognitive tests and a detailed clinical assessment to verify normal cognitive status. We then screened for sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and depressive symptoms using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)...
December 12, 2018: Sleep
Yann Le Guen, Marie Amalric, Philippe Pinel, Christophe Pallier, Vincent Frouin
Cognitive performance is highly heritable. However, little is known about common genetic influences on cognitive ability and brain activation when engaged in a cognitive task. The Human Connectome Project (HCP) offers a unique opportunity to study this shared genetic etiology with an extended pedigree of 785 individuals. To investigate this common genetic origin, we took advantage of the HCP dataset, which includes both language and mathematics activation tasks. Using the HCP multimodal parcellation, we identified areals in which inter-individual functional MRI (fMRI) activation variance was significantly explained by genetics...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Isaac B James, Debra A Bourne, Gabriella DiBernardo, Sheri S Wang, Jeffrey A Gusenoff, Kacey Marra, J Peter Rubin
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting has emerged as the treatment of choice for soft-tissue augmentation and reconstruction. Variability of volume retention remains the greatest challenge for this technique, often requiring multiple operations to achieve the desired volume. Graft that is placed greater than 2 mm from the recipient bed will undergo necrosis. Improved understanding of the architecture of fat within the recipient bed is paramount to improving outcomes. The impact of cannula diameter on graft architecture is unknown...
November 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
M Rubega, M Carboni, M Seeber, D Pascucci, S Tourbier, G Toscano, P Van Mierlo, P Hagmann, G Plomp, S Vulliemoz, C M Michel
In the last decade, the use of high-density electrode arrays for EEG recordings combined with the improvements of source reconstruction algorithms has allowed the investigation of brain networks dynamics at a sub-second scale. One powerful tool for investigating large-scale functional brain networks with EEG is time-varying effective connectivity applied to source signals obtained from electric source imaging. Due to computational and interpretation limitations, the brain is usually parcelled into a limited number of regions of interests (ROIs) before computing EEG connectivity...
December 3, 2018: Brain Topography
Hans J Ten Donkelaar, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Jürgen K Mai
The gyri and sulci of the human brain were defined by pioneers such as Louis-Pierre Gratiolet and Alexander Ecker, and extensified by, among others, Dejerine (1895) and von Economo and Koskinas (1925). Extensive discussions of the cerebral sulci and their variations were presented by Ono et al. (1990), Duvernoy (1992), Tamraz and Comair (2000), and Rhoton (2007). An anatomical parcellation of the spatially normalized single high resolution T1 volume provided by the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI; Collins, 1994; Collins et al...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Chendi Wang, Bernard Ng, Rafeef Garbi
Brain parcellation is often a prerequisite for network analysis due to the statistical challenges, computational burdens, and interpretation difficulties arising from the high dimensionality of neuroimaging data. Predominant approaches are largely unimodal with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) being the primary modality used. These approaches thus neglect other brain attributes that relate to brain organization. In this paper, we propose an approach for integrating fMRI and diffusion MRI (dMRI) data...
November 30, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Priya Santhanam, Steffanie H Wilson, Terrence R Oakes, Lindell K Weaver
INTRODUCTION: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can result in many structural abnormalities in the cerebral cortex. While thinning of the cortex has been shown in mTBI patients, there is high regional variability in reported findings. High-resolution imaging can elucidate otherwise unnoticed changes in cortical measures following injury. This study examined age-related patterns of cortical thickness in U.S. active duty service members and veterans with a history of mTBI (n = 66) as compared to a normative population (n = 67)...
November 28, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Nicola Amoroso, Marianna La Rocca, Stefania Bruno, Tommaso Maggipinto, Alfonso Monaco, Roberto Bellotti, Sabina Tangaro
Analysis and quantification of brain structural changes, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), are increasingly used to define novel biomarkers of brain pathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have suggested that brain topological organization can reveal early signs of AD. Here, we propose a novel brain model which captures both intra- and inter-subject information within a multiplex network approach. This model localizes brain atrophy effects and summarizes them with a diagnostic score...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Gabriel Ramirez-Garcia, Kathleen A Harrison, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz, Joseph Y Nashed, Douglas J Cook
Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Brain imaging data from experimental rodent stroke models suggest that size and location of the ischemic lesion relate to behavioral outcome. However, such a relationship between these two variables has not been established in Non-Human Primate (NHP) models. Thus, we aimed to evaluate whether size, location, and severity of stroke following controlled Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) in NHP model correlated to neurological outcome. Forty cynomolgus macaques underwent MCAO, after 4 mortalities, thirty-six subjects were followed during the longitudinal study...
November 24, 2018: Neuroscience
Elena Najdenovska, Yasser Alemán-Gómez, Giovanni Battistella, Maxime Descoteaux, Patric Hagmann, Sebastien Jacquemont, Philippe Maeder, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Eleonora Fornari, Meritxell Bach Cuadra
The thalamic nuclei are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases and therefore, their identification is of key importance in numerous clinical treatments. Automated segmentation of thalamic subparts is currently achieved by exploring diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI), but in absence of such data, atlas-based segmentation can be used as an alternative. Currently, there is a limited number of available digital atlases of the thalamus. Moreover, all atlases are created using a few subjects only, thus are prone to errors due to the inter-subject variability of the thalamic morphology...
November 27, 2018: Scientific Data
C Sánchez Contreras, J Alcolea, V Bujarrabal, A Castro-Carrizo, L Velilla Prieto, M Santander-García, G Quintana-Lacaci, J Cernicharo
We present continuum and molecular line emission ALMA observations of OH 231.8+4.2, a well studied bipolar nebula around an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. The high angular resolution <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>(</mml:mo> <mml:mo>∼</mml:mo> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mn>0</mml:mn> <mml:mo>·</mml:mo> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>″</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msubsup> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> <mml:mtext>-</mml:mtext> <mml:msubsup> <mml:mn>0</mml:mn> <mml:mo>·</mml:mo> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>″</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msubsup> <mml:mn>3</mml:mn> <mml:mo>)</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:math> and sensitivity of our ALMA maps provide the most detailed and accurate description of the overall nebular structure and kinematics of this object to date...
October 23, 2018: Astronomy and Astrophysics
Ali R Khan, Nole M Hiebert, Andrew Vo, Brian T Wang, Adrian M Owen, Ken N Seergobin, Penny A MacDonald
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder that has no reliable biomarkers. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of semi-automated sub-regional analysis of the striatum with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish PD patients from controls (i.e., as a diagnostic biomarker) and to compare PD patients at different stages of disease. With 3 Tesla MRI, diffusion- and T1-weighted scans were obtained on two occasions in 24 PD patients and 18 age-matched, healthy controls...
November 16, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Timo Roine, Ben Jeurissen, Daniele Perrone, Jan Aelterman, Wilfried Philips, Jan Sijbers, Alexander Leemans
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging can be used to non-invasively probe the brain microstructure. In addition, recent advances have enabled the identification of complex fiber configurations present in most of the white matter. This has improved the investigation of structural connectivity with tractography methods. Whole-brain structural connectivity networks, or connectomes, are reconstructed by parcellating the gray matter and performing tractography to determine connectivity between these regions...
October 26, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Yurui Gao, Kurt G Schilling, Iwona Stepniewska, Junzhong Xu, Bennett A Landman, Benoit M Dawant, Adam W Anderson
Background: Clustering thalamic nuclei is important for both research and clinical purposes. For example, ventral intermediate nuclei in thalami serve as targets in both deep brain stimulation neurosurgery and radiosurgery for treating patients suffering from movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease and essential tremor). Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is able to reflect tissue microstructure in the central nervous system via fitting different models, such as, the diffusion tensor (DT), constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD), neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and the spherical mean technique (SMT)...
March 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Thomas Brandt, Marianne Dieterich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To apply the concept of nonreflexive sensorimotor and cognitive vestibular functions and disturbances to the current view of separate right and left thalamocortical systems. RECENT FINDINGS: The neuronal modules for sensorimotor and cognitive functions are organized in so-called provincial hubs with intracommunity connections that interact task-dependently via connector hubs. Thalamic subnuclei may serve not only as provincial hubs but also in higher order nuclei as connector hubs...
November 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Kyan Younes, Khader M Hasan, Arash Kamali, Christine E McGough, Zafer Keser, Omar Hasan, Tomas Melicher, Larry A Kramer, Paul E Schulz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Ventricular enlargement in elderly raises a challenging differential diagnosis to physicians. While Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) constitutes a potentially reversible syndrome. iNPH has a unique pathophysiology pertaining to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics and periventricular white matter. We aimed to determine the effects of iNPH on periventricular white matter bundles and to further characterize its ventricular and sulcal CSF distribution by using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and CSF volumetrics on high resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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