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Inyoung Lee, Noya Loew, Wakako Tsugawa, Kazunori Ikebukuro, Koji Sode
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems are most important in the current Type I diabetes care and as component for the development of artificial pancreas systems because the amount of insulin being supplied is calculated based on the CGM results. Therefore, to stably and accurately control the blood glucose level, CGM should be stable and accurate for a long period. We have been engaged in the biomolecular engineering and application of FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase complex (FADGDH) which is capable of direct electron transfer...
January 15, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Seiya Tsujimura
In this review, I present the main highlights of my works in the development of bioelectrocatalysis, which can be used in widespread applications, particularly for the design of biosensor and biofuel cells. In particular, I focus on research progress made in two key bioelectrocatalytic reactions: glucose oxidation by flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and oxygen reduction by bilirubin oxidase. I demonstrate the fundamental principles of bioelectrocatalysis and the requirements for enhancing the catalytic performance, including the choice of a mediator of redox reactions, immobilization, and electrode materials...
October 1, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Risa Nofiani, Kate de Mattos-Shipley, Karen E Lebe, Li-Chen Han, Zafar Iqbal, Andrew M Bailey, Christine L Willis, Thomas J Simpson, Russell J Cox
Strobilurins from fungi are the inspiration for the creation of the β-methoxyacrylate class of agricultural fungicides. However, molecular details of the biosynthesis of strobilurins have remained cryptic. Here we report the sequence of genomes of two fungi that produce strobilurins and show that each contains a biosynthetic gene cluster, which encodes a highly reducing polyketide synthase with very unusual C-terminal hydrolase and methyltransferase domains. Expression of stpks1 in Aspergillus oryzae leads to the production of prestrobilurin A when the fermentation is supplemented with a benzoyl coenzyme A (CoA) analogue...
September 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Joanna C Sadler, Andrew Currin, Douglas B Kell
Directed evolution enables the improvement and optimisation of enzymes for particular applications and is a valuable tool for biotechnology and synthetic biology. However, studies are often limited in their scope by the inability to screen very large numbers of variants to identify improved enzymes. One class of enzyme for which a universal, operationally simple ultra-high throughput (>106 variants per day) assay is not available is flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) dependent oxidases. The current high throughput assay involves a visual, colourimetric, colony-based screen, however this is not suitable for very large libraries and does not enable quantification of the relative fitness of variants...
September 24, 2018: Analyst
Luca Giacinto Iacovino, Francesca Magnani, Claudia Binda
The first crystal structure of mammalian monoamine oxidases (MAOs) was solved in 2002; almost 65 years after, these FAD-dependent enzymes were discovered and classified as responsible for the oxidation of aromatic neurotransmitters. Both MAO A and MAO B feature a two-domain topology characterized by the Rossmann fold, interacting with dinucleotide cofactors, which is intimately associated to a substrate-binding domain. This globular body is endowed with a C-terminal α-helix that anchors the protein to the outer mitochondrial phospholipid bilayer...
November 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Thomas Heine, Willem J H van Berkel, George Gassner, Karl-Heinz van Pée, Dirk Tischler
Flavoprotein monooxygenases create valuable compounds that are of high interest for the chemical, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical industries, among others. Monooxygenases that use flavin as cofactor are either single- or two-component systems. Here we summarize the current knowledge about two-component flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenases and describe their biotechnological relevance. Two-component FAD-dependent monooxygenases catalyze hydroxylation, epoxidation, and halogenation reactions and are physiologically involved in amino acid metabolism, mineralization of aromatic compounds, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites...
August 2, 2018: Biology
Tuomo A Keinänen, Nikolay Grigorenko, Alex R Khomutov, Qingqiu Huang, Anne Uimari, Leena Alhonen, Mervi T Hyvönen, Jouko Vepsäläinen
Enzymes generally display strict stereospecificity and regioselectivity for their substrates. Here by using FAD-dependent human acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), human spermine (Spm) oxidase (SMOX) and yeast polyamine oxidase (Fms1), we demonstrate that these fundamental properties of the enzymes may be regulated using simple guide molecules, being either covalently attached to polyamines or used as a supplement to the substrate mixtures. APAO, which naturally metabolizes achiral N 1 -acetylated polyamines, displays aldehyde-controllable stereospecificity with chiral 1-methylated polyamines, like (R)- and (S)- 1-methylspermidine (1,8-diamino-5-azanonane) (1-MeSpd)...
August 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Ying Zhao, Xin Li, Feng Wang, Xunchao Zhao, Yuqiao Gao, Changjiang Zhao, Lin He, Zuotong Li, Jingyu Xu
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyzes the formation of glycerol-3-phosphate, and plays an essential role in glycerolipid metabolism and in response to various stresses in different species. In this study, six ZmGPDH genes were obtained by a thorough search against maize genome, and designated as ZmGPDH1-6, respectively. The structural and evolutionary analyses showed that the ZmGPDHs family had typical conserved domains and similar protein structures as the known GPDHs from other plant species...
2018: PloS One
Kevin Sea, Jerry Lee, Daniel To, Berniece Chen, Matthew H Sazinsky, Edward J Crane
Within the family of pyridine nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase (PNDOR), enzymes are a group of single-cysteine containing FAD-dependent reductases that utilize a tightly bound coenzyme A to assist in the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of di-, per-, and polysulfide substrates in bacteria and archaea. For many of these homodimeric enzymes, it has proved difficult to determine the substrate specificity and metabolic function based on sequence and genome analysis alone. Coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (CoADR) isolated from Pyrococcus horikoshii ( ph CoADR) reduces Co-A per- and polysulfides, but, unlike other highly homologous members of this group, is a poor CoA disulfide reductase...
July 2018: FEBS Open Bio
Ethan G Stoddard, Regan F Volk, James P Carson, Cecilia M Ljungberg, Taylor A Murphree, Jordan N Smith, Natalie C Sadler, Anil K Shukla, Charles Ansong, Aaron T Wright
Lung diseases and disorders are a leading cause of death among infants. Many of these diseases and disorders are caused by premature birth and underdeveloped lungs. In addition to developmentally related disorders, the lungs are exposed to a variety of environmental contaminants and xenobiotics upon birth that can cause breathing issues and are progenitors of cancer. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the developing lung, we applied an activity-based chemoproteomics approach for the functional characterization of the xenometabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes, active ATP and nucleotide binding enzymes, and serine hydrolases using a suite of activity-based probes (ABPs)...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Jineetkumar Gawad, Chandrakant Bonde
Tuberculosis has proved harmful to the entire history of mankind from past several decades. Decaprenyl-phosphoryl-ribose 2'-epimerase (DprE1) is a recent target which was identified in 2009 but unfortunately it is neither explored nor crossed phase II. In past several decades few targets were identified for effective antitubercular drug discovery. Resistance is the major problem for effective antitubercular drug discovery. Arabinose is constituent of mycobacterium cell wall. Biosynthesis of arabinose is FAD dependant two step epimerisation reaction which is catalysed by DprE1 and DprE2 flavoprotein enzymes...
June 23, 2018: Chemistry Central Journal
Tayaba Ismail, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Chowon Kim, Taejoon Kwon, Tae Joo Park, Hyun-Shik Lee
The lysine-specific histone demethylase 1A (KDM1A) was the first demethylase to challenge the concept of the irreversible nature of methylation marks. KDM1A, containing a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidase domain, demethylates histone 3 lysine 4 and histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K4me1/2 and H3K9me1/2). It has emerged as an epigenetic developmental regulator and was shown to be involved in carcinogenesis. The functional diversity of KDM1A originates from its complex structure and interactions with transcription factors, promoters, enhancers, oncoproteins, and tumor-associated genes (tumor suppressors and activators)...
June 19, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Peng Liu, Jie Du, Jia Zhang, Jian Wang, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo Meng
Spiroplasma eriocheiris, a pathogen that causes mass mortality of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis, is a wall less bacteria and belongs to the Mollicutes. This study was designed to investigate the effects of colchicine on S. eriocheiris growth, cell morphology, and proteins expression. We found that in the presence of colchicine, the spiroplasma cells lost their helicity, and the length of the cells in the experimental group was longer than that of the control. With varying concentrations of the colchicine treatment, the total time to achieve a stationary phase of the spiroplasma was increased, and the cell population was decreased...
June 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jiguo Qiu, Bin Liu, Lingling Zhao, Yanting Zhang, Dan Cheng, Xin Yan, Jiandong Jiang, Qing Hong, Jian He
5-Hydroxypicolinic acid (5HPA), a natural pyridine derivative, is microbially degraded in the environment. However, the physiological, biochemical, and genetic foundations of 5HPA metabolism remain unknown. In this study, an operon ( hpa ), responsible for 5HPA degradation, was cloned from Alcaligenes faecalis JQ135. HpaM was a monocomponent flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent monooxygenase and shared low identity (only 28 to 31%) with reported monooxygenases. HpaM catalyzed the ortho decarboxylative hydroxylation of 5HPA, generating 2,5-dihydroxypyridine (2,5DHP)...
August 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Benjamin Jelen, Donato Giovannelli, Paul G Falkowski, Costantino Vetriani
The reduction of elemental sulfur is an important energy-conserving pathway in prokaryotes inhabiting geothermal environments, where sulfur respiration contributes to sulfur biogeochemical cycling. Despite this, the pathways through which elemental sulfur is reduced to hydrogen sulfide remain unclear in most microorganisms. We integrated growth experiments using Thermovibrio ammonificans, a deep-sea vent thermophile that conserves energy from the oxidation of hydrogen and reduction of both nitrate and elemental sulfur, with comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, coupled with scanning electron microscopy...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Hem R Thapa, Andrew J Lail, Neha Garg, Vinayak Agarwal
Flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent halogenases are widespread in natural product biosynthetic gene clusters and have been demonstrated to employ small organic molecules as substrates for halogenation, as well as substrates that are tethered to carrier proteins (CPs). Despite numerous reports of FAD-dependent halogenases utilizing CP-tethered substrates, only a few have been biochemically characterized due to limited accessibility to the physiological substrates. Here, we describe a method for the preparation of acyl-S-CP substrates and their use in biochemical assays to query the activity of FAD-dependent halogenases...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Joachim Müller, Andrew Hemphill, Norbert Müller
For over 50 years, metronidazole and other nitro compounds such as nitazoxanide have been used as a therapy of choice against giardiasis and more and more frequently, resistance formation has been observed. Model systems allowing studies on biochemical aspects of resistance formation to nitro drugs are, however, scarce since resistant strains are often unstable in culture. In order to fill this gap, we have generated a stable metronidazole- and nitazoxanide-resistant Giardia lamblia WBC6 clone, the strain C4...
August 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Madoka Okurita, Nanami Suzuki, Noya Loew, Hiromi Yoshida, Wakako Tsugawa, Kazushige Mori, Katsuhiro Kojima, David C Klonoff, Koji Sode
Fungal FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) are considered to be superior enzymes for glucose sensor strips because of their insensitivity to oxygen and maltose. One highly desirable mediator for enzyme sensor strips is hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride because of its low redox potential and high storage stability. However, in contrast to glucose oxidase (GOx), fungal FADGDH cannot utilize hexaammineruthenium(III) as electron acceptor. Based on strategic structure comparison between FADGDH and GOx, we constructed a mutant of Aspergillus flavus-derived FADGDH, capable of utilizing hexaammineruthenium(III) as electron acceptor: AfGDH-H403D...
October 2018: Bioelectrochemistry
Edinson Puentes-Cala, Manuel Liebeke, Stephanie Markert, Jens Harder
The enzymatic functionalization of hydrocarbons is a central step in the global carbon cycle initiating the mineralization of methane, isoprenes, and monoterpenes, the most abundant biologically produced hydrocarbons. Also, terpene-modifying enzymes have found many applications in the energy-economic biotechnological production of fine chemicals. Here, we describe a limonene dehydrogenase that was purified from the facultatively anaerobic betaproteobacterium Castellaniella defragrans 65Phen grown on monoterpenes under denitrifying conditions in the absence of molecular oxygen...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jiangchuan Shen, Brenna J C Walsh, Ana Lidia Flores-Mireles, Hui Peng, Yifan Zhang, Yixiang Zhang, Jonathan C Trinidad, Scott J Hultgren, David P Giedroc
Recent studies of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) signaling implicate low molecular weight (LMW) thiol persulfides and other reactive sulfur species (RSS) as signaling effectors. Here, we show that a CstR protein from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis), previously identified in Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), is an RSS-sensing repressor that transcriptionally regulates a cst-like operon in response to both exogenous sulfide stress and Angeli's salt, a precursor of nitroxyl (HNO). E. faecalis CstR reacts with coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) to form interprotomer disulfide and trisulfide bridges between C32 and C61', which negatively regulate DNA binding to a consensus CstR DNA operator...
June 15, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
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