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Adolescent Behavior

Macarena Soledad Fernández, Jorge Carrizo, Wladimir Plaza, Paola Haeger, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Prenatal and/or early postnatal ethanol exposure (PEE) is associated with significant behavioral and physiological deficits in offspring, including alterations in stress response systems and a greater likelihood of alcohol use disorders. Stress-induced ethanol drinking after PEE, however, has been largely unexplored. The present study analyzed ethanol intake in male Sprague-Dawley rats after protracted prenatal and early postnatal ethanol exposure and tested whether social isolation during the sensitive period of adolescence modulates the effects of PEE on ethanol drinking...
October 17, 2018: Alcohol
Lauren B Shomaker, Lauren Gulley, Allison M Hilkin, Emma Clark, Shelly Annameier, Sangeeta Rao, Bonny Rockette-Wagner, Andrea Kriska, Kenneth P Wright, Eric Stice, Kristen J Nadeau, Megan M Kelsey
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms often manifest in adolescence and predict worsening insulin sensitivity, a key precursor in the path to β-cell failure and type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a six-week cognitive-behavioral group versus six-week health education group for improving insulin sensitivity and preserving β-cell function in adolescent girls at-risk for T2D with depressive symptoms and evaluate mechanisms underlying the association between depression and insulin dynamics...
October 17, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
S Tordjman, L Vaivre-Douret, S Chokron, S Kermarrec
We have been sensitized to children with high intellectual potential (HIP) having difficulties given the number of children consulting in our outpatient medico-psychological centres for scholastic problems (possibly leading to school failure), anxiety disorders or behavioral disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in which a high intellectual potential was discovered during psychological assessments. It is the contrast, and more precisely the paradox, between the high intellectual potential of these children and their scholastic difficulties (including school failure), and the psychic suffering expressed by some of them, which led us to question, challenge and propose therapeutic and educational care adapted to these children...
October 16, 2018: L'Encéphale
Martin Holtmann, Laura Mokros, Inken Kirschbaum-Lesch, Michael Kölch, Paul L Plener, Christian Ruckes, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Tanja Legenbauer
BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are among the most prominent health problems in youth. Even with the best available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, remission rates are low. Without early treatment, depression in youth is associated with a high risk of symptom progression, chronicity, co-morbidity, and suicidal behavior. Thus, adolescent depression is a prime candidate for innovation in treatment. In depressive adults, meta-analytic evidence has proven that bright light therapy (BLT) is a potent low-threshold intervention, promising due to easy application, low side effects, and optimized compliance...
October 19, 2018: Trials
Candace Doepker, Kara Franke, Esther Myers, Jeffrey J Goldberger, Harris R Lieberman, Charles O'Brien, Jennifer Peck, Milton Tenenbein, Connie Weaver, Daniele Wikoff
In 2016⁻2017, we conducted and published a systematic review on caffeine safety that set out to determine whether conclusions that were presented in the heavily cited Health Canada assessment, remain supported by more recent data. To that end, we reviewed data from 380 studies published between June 2001 and June 2015, which were identified from an initial batch of over 5000 articles through a stringent search and evaluation process. In the current paper, we use plain language to summarize our process and findings, with the intent of sharing additional context for broader reach to the general public...
October 18, 2018: Nutrients
Martin P Paulus, Lindsay M Squeglia, Kara Bagot, Joanna Jacobus, Rayus Kuplicki, Florence J Breslin, Jerzy Bodurka, Amanda Sheffield Morris, Wesley K Thompson, Hauke Bartsch, Susan F Tapert
The adolescent brain undergoes profound structural changes which is influenced by many factors. Screen media activity (SMA; e.g., watching television or videos, playing video games, or using social media) is a common recreational activity in children and adolescents; however, its effect on brain structure is not well understood. A multivariate approach with the first cross-sectional data release from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study was used to test the maturational coupling hypothesis, i...
October 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Michael S Robbins, Holly Barrett Waldron, Charles W Turner, Janet Brody, Hyman Hops, Timothy Ozechowski
This study examined the effects of observation-based supervision Building Outcomes with Observation-Based Supervision of Therapy (BOOST therapists = 26, families = 105), versus supervision as usual (SAU therapists = 21, families = 59) on (a) youth externalizing behavior problems and (b) the moderating effects of changes in family functioning on youth externalizing behaviors for adolescents receiving Functional Family Therapy (FFT). Exploratory analyses examined the impact of supervision conditions on youth internalizing problems...
October 19, 2018: Family Process
Charles H Zeanah
Unusual social behaviors have been central to our notions of autism spectrum disorders since their original descriptions. We have come to recognize that such behaviors are broadly distributed beyond the classic phenotype and may be induced by postnatal experiences involving insufficient care. Sex differences have also been noted, and a paper in the current issue by Mandy and colleagues, demonstrates different longitudinal trajectories in boys and girls in autistic social traits from middle childhood to mid-adolescence...
November 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Jesús Maya, Lucía Jiménez, Bárbara Lorence, Gonzalo Del Moral, Victoria Hidalgo
Scene-Based Psychodramatic Family Therapy (SB-PFT) is an innovative treatment used with troubled adolescents and their parents to improve family relationships and reduce adolescents' problematic behavior. It integrates the principles of family therapy, psychodrama, and multiple-family group methodology. This research is a pilot study to obtain empirical evidence on the SB-PFT therapeutic process by gauging the perception of change of troubled adolescents and their parents, and assess the perceived helpfulness of its methodology and techniques...
October 19, 2018: Family Process
Mark J Taylor, Henrik Larsson, Christopher Gillberg, Paul Lichtenstein, Sebastian Lundström
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently defined as a disorder with onset during childhood. Although ADHD occurs in adults as well as children, recent debate has focused on whether adult ADHD represents a continuation of a child-onset disorder or if ADHD may, in at least some cases, have an adult onset. We therefore aimed to test the hypothesis of adult-onset ADHD using a sample born relatively recently (1992-1999) in order to minimize confounding by secular changes in diagnostic practices...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Pilar Arribas, Carmen Iranzo-Tatay, Luis M Rojo-Bofill, Ana García-Blanco, Llanos Conesa, Javier Plumed, Isabel Bofill-Moscardó, Lorenzo Livianos-Aldana, Luis Rojo-Moreno
significantly increase during puberty. The goal of this research is to evaluate changes during puberty which could have genetic and environmental influences on a broad spectrum of disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Methods. Participants were 158 pairs of adolescent female twins, categorized in two groups according to menarche stage (pre or post). ED measures: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed by means of the Children’s Eating Attitudes Test and four sub-scales of the Eating Disorders Inventory: Drive for thinness, Body dissatisfaction, Ineffectiveness, and Perfectionism...
September 2018: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
Franziska Hoche, Maureen P Daly, Yogesh K Chutake, Eve Valera, Janet C Sherman, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease causing cerebellar ataxia, mucocutaneous telangiectasias, immunodeficiency, and malignancies. A pilot study reported cognitive and behavioral manifestations characteristic of the cerebellar cognitive affective / Schmahmann syndrome (CCAS). We set out to test and further define these observations because a more comprehensive understanding of the spectrum of impairments in AT is essential for optimal management. Twenty patients (12 males; 9...
October 18, 2018: Cerebellum
Edith Chen, Tianyi Yu, Gregory E Miller, Gene H Brody
INTRODUCTION: The transition to adulthood can be stressful for minority adolescents, and many may cope through unhealthy behaviors, including substance use and obesity-related behaviors. This study tested substance use and obesity trajectories over time in African American youth, longitudinal associations of trajectories with mental and physical health in adulthood, and whether self-control and sex predict trajectories. METHODS: Two longitudinal studies of 516 and 992 African American adolescents...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Margaret M Wrobleski, Elizabeth A Parker, Erin Hager, Kristen M Hurley, Sarah Oberlander, Brian C Merry, Maureen M Black
BACKGROUND: Adolescents' dietary intake often fails to meet national dietary guidelines, especially among low-income African-American youth. The dietary habits established in adolescence are likely to continue into adulthood, and a poor-quality diet increases the risk of developing obesity and chronic disease. Based on principles from ecological and social-cognitive behavior change health theories, perceptions of parental beliefs about healthy eating, perceptions of peer eating behaviors, and parental monitoring of what adolescents eat may positively influence adolescent diet quality...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Kyeong Hyang Byeon, Heejin Kimm, Sun Ha Jee, Jae Woong Sull, Boyoung Choi
Objectives: The suicide and drinking problems in adolescents are increasing every year, and it is known that suicide is related to drinking. This study aim to identify the relationship between heavy drinking experience (HDE) and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents. Methods: The Ninth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS) was used for analysis, 2013. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between HDE and suicide attempts, the relationship between HDE and suicide attempts in middle and high school students stratified by age...
September 26, 2018: Epidemiology and Health
Elisabeth M Weiss, Christian Rominger, Ellen Hofer, Andreas Fink, Ilona Papousek
BACKGROUND: Reduced facial expressivity (flat affect) and deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors are characteristic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Based on the important interpersonal functions of facial emotional responsiveness the present study aimed at a comprehensive and differentiated analysis of perceptible facial behavior in response to another person's naturalistic, dynamic facial expressions of emotion. METHODS: In a group of 21 adolescent and adult individuals with High-Funtioning autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) and in 21 matched healthy controls we examined perceptible facial responses using the whole range of action units of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) while participants were watching films displaying continuous, dynamic real-life facial expressions of four universal emotions (cheerfulness, anger, sadness, anxiety)...
October 15, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
S Tucker Price, Alexei O DeCastro, Clive D Brock
Sport-related concussions in youth and adolescent athletes most commonly resolve within one week without residual symptoms, with athletes resuming full participation following return to play guidelines. A small percentage of athletes have persistent symptoms that cause significant morbidity, some of whom are ultimately diagnosed with post-concussion syndrome. In these athletes, symptoms in the emotional domain can be more prolonged than other domains, with athletes reporting anxiety and depression months to years following injury...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
Zhaojun Teng, Qian Nie, Cheng Guo, Qian Zhang, Yanling Liu, Brad J Bushman
Although adolescents around the world play video games, little is known about their longitudinal effects on adolescents from Eastern countries. This large longitudinal violent video game study has 4 strengths. First, it is the first longitudinal study conducted with Chinese adolescents. Second, it examines moral disengagement as a possible mediating variable. Because violent video games reward immoral behaviors (e.g., stealing cars, killing characters), they might lead players to believe immoral behaviors are "no big deal...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Psychology
Terri Scott, Shelley L Brown
OBJECTIVE: Debate ensues regarding female-specific risk and strength factors among adolescent offenders. Using meta-analysis, we examined whether risk and strength factors predicted recidivism differentially between male and female youth. METHOD: Database searches identified 22 studies, representing 50,601 justice-involved youth (11,952 females and 38,649 males) and a total of 584 effect sizes. RESULTS: For the global risk domains, there is some evidence for gender neutrality (i...
November 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Jonathan G Shalom, Eva Gilboa-Schechtman, Dana Atzil-Slonim, Eran Bar-Kalifa, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon, Patricia van Oppen, Anton J L M van Balkom, Idan M Aderka
OBJECTIVE: Sudden gains are robust predictors of outcome in psychotherapy. However, previous attempts at predicting sudden gains have yielded inconclusive findings. The aim of the present study was to examine a novel, transdiagnostic, transtherapeutic predictor of sudden gains that would replicate in different settings and populations. Specifically, we examined intraindividual variability in symptoms. METHOD: We examined data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of prolonged exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents (n = 63), an RCT of cognitive and behavioral therapies for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults (n = 91), and psychodynamic therapy delivered under routine clinical conditions in a naturalistic setting for diverse disorders (n = 106)...
November 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
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