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Adolescent Behavior

Rahel Hoffmann, Julia Kaiser, Anette Kersting
OBJECTIVE: Due to the unique importance of parental and sibling relationships and concurrently existing developmental challenges, the loss of a parent or sibling due to cancer is a highly stressful event for children and adolescents. This is the first systematic review that integrates findings on psychosocial outcomes after parental or sibling cancer bereavement. METHODS: A systematic search of Web of Science, PubMed, PsycINFO, and PubPsych was conducted, last in December 2017...
August 18, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Ryan Sun, Zhaoxi Wang, Birgit Claus Henn, Li Su, Quan Lu, Xihong Lin, Robert O Wright, David C Bellinger, Molly Kile, Maitreyi Mazumdar, Martha Maria Tellez-Rojo, Lourdes Schnaas, David C Christiani
It is believed that genetic factors play a large role in the development of many cognitive and neurological processes; however, epidemiological evidence for the genetic basis of childhood neurodevelopment is very limited. Identification of the genetic polymorphisms associated with early-stage neurodevelopment will help elucidate biological mechanisms involved in neuro-behavior and provide a better understanding of the developing brain. To search for such variants, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for infant mental and motor ability at two years of age with mothers and children recruited from cohorts in Bangladesh and Mexico...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Janneke Francisca Maria Scheerman, Pepijn van Empelen, Cor van Loveren, Berno van Meijel
BACKGROUND: The insertion of fixed orthodontic appliances increases the risk of dental caries, particularly in adolescents. Caries can be prevented through good oral health behavior. To support adolescents with fixed orthodontic appliances and for promoting oral health behavior, we developed a theory- and evidence-based mHealth program, the WhiteTeeth app. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our paper was to describe the systematic development and content of the WhiteTeeth app...
August 17, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Amalie Thorsti Møller Rønnstad, Anne-Sofie Halling-Overgaard, Carsten R Hamann, Lone Skov, Alexander Egeberg, Jacob P Thyssen
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been associated with anxiety and depression, but the magnitude of the alleged association is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between AD in children and adults and, respectively, depression, anxiety, and suicidal behavior. METHODS: The medical databases PubMed, Embase, and PsychINFO were searched. RESULTS: There was a significant association between adult AD and, respectively, depression (pooled odds ratio [OR], 2...
September 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, David M Maahs, Michael Seid, Jamie Crandell, Franziska K Bishop, Kimberly A Driscoll, Christine M Hunter, Jessica C Kichler, Debra Standiford, Joan M Thomas
BACKGROUND: Adolescents with type 1 diabetes commonly have poor glycaemic control. We aimed to test the efficacy of a newly developed adaptive behavioral intervention (Flexible Lifestyles Empowering Change; FLEX) on metabolic and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Young people (13-16 years, type 1 diabetes duration >1 year, HbA1c of 64-119 mmol/mol [8·0-13·0%], and without other serious medical conditions or pregnancy) from two clinical sites (Colorado and Ohio, USA) were eligible for enrolment...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Hanan E Badr, Konstantinos Francis
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and drug use among adolescent boys, and to examine adolescents' psychosocial factors, and suicidal behaviors associated with adolescents' substance use. METHODS: The Kuwait Global School-Based Student Health Survey employed a two-stage cluster sample design targeting a representative sample of adolescents. This study focused on the participated 1310 boys. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, student t-test, and multivariate analysis...
August 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Bin Yu, Xinguang Chen, Bonita Stanton, Ding-Geng Din Chen, Yunan Xu, Yan Wang
INTRODUCTION: The complex relationships among HIV knowledge, condom-use skills, self-efficacy, peer influence and intention to use condoms have been rigorously investigated. However, studies guided by a linear behavior change model often explain only a limited amount of variances. This study aims to advance our understanding of the relationships through a nonlinear quantum change paradigm. METHODS: Data (n = 1970, 40.61% male, mean age 16.94 ± 0.74) from a behavioral intervention program among high school students in the Bahamas were analyzed with a chained cusp catastrophe model in two steps...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Ashley L Grosso, Martin J Downing, Matthew Thomann, Mary Ann Chiasson, Eric W Schrimshaw, Sabina Hirshfield
The correlation between current alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well documented, but little is known about age of drinking onset and current risks among this population. Data from a 2008 Internet survey of 8,452 MSM in the United States were used to assess factors associated with age of onset of alcohol use. In a multivariable model, drinking onset before age 15 was significantly associated with a higher number of lifetime male anal sex partners and being behaviorally bisexual in the past 12 months...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
Matthew Cassels, Imke Baetens, Paul Wilkinson, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Jan R Wiersema, Karla Van Leeuwen, Glenn Kiekens
OBJECTIVE: Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) often occurs before age 15, yet the majority of research on risk factors for this dangerous behavior has focused on older samples. Insecure attachment has been previously identified as a risk factor for both NSSI and behavioral problems, and behavioral problems appear to be particularly associated with NSSI among young populations. Redressing the lack of young adolescent NSSI research, the present study uses longitudinal data from a sample of young adolescents to test a model in which insecure attachment acts as a prospective risk factor for NSSI via emotional and behavioral problems...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
Hannah S Szlyk, Lauren Gulbas, Luis Zayas
Suicide is a critical issue among Latina youth. In this study, we use family case analysis to explore how gendered oppression, silencing, and violence shape suicidal behaviors among a sample of Latina daughters (n = 10), and their parents. For comparison, we include family narratives from Latina adolescents with no histories of suicide attempts (n = 10). Results suggest how secrets and silence, as indicative of gendered oppression, may catalyze a suicide attempt. The risks are particularly salient when daughter and mother both have experienced violence that conflicts with gendered cultural scripts...
August 17, 2018: Family Process
Melissa J DuPont-Reyes, Alice P Villatoro, Jo C Phelan, Kris Painter, Bruce G Link
School-based violence is a current public concern in the United States. One factor that can impact school-based violence that has gained much attention is mental health status. To better inform public perceptions, this study provides new evidence concerning the association between mental health status and acting out violence in school-aged populations. We examined a diverse sample of sixth graders across 14 schools in Texas in 2011-2012 ( N = 721) who completed a self-administered survey assessing mental health symptoms and frequency of perpetration and/or receipt of different types of aggressive behaviors...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Marissa D Alert, Patrice G Saab, Maria M Llabre, Judith R McCalla
Little is known about the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in Hispanic adolescents. This study examined at baseline and 2-year follow-up: (1) the relationship between self-efficacy for physical activity and physical activity, (2) the association of weight perception with physical activity and sedentary behavior, and (3) whether sex moderated these associations. Hispanic adolescents ( N = 483 at baseline; age 15-17 years; 55.1% girls) completed questionnaires that assessed their self-efficacy for physical activity, weight perception, and time spent in physical activity and sedentary behavior...
August 17, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Petrus J de Vries, Lucy Wilde, Magdalena C de Vries, Romina Moavero, Deborah A Pearson, Paolo Curatolo
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with a wide range of behavioral, psychiatric, intellectual, academic, neuropsychological, and psychosocial difficulties, which are often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Here, we present a clinical update on TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, abbreviated as "TAND," to guide screening, diagnosis, and treatment in practice. The review is aimed at clinical geneticists, genetic counselors, pediatricians, and all generalists involved in the assessment and treatment of children, adolescents and adults with TSC, and related disorders...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
Susan T Ennett, Robert W Faris, Andrea M Hussong, Nisha Gottfredson, Veronica Cole
Although the contributions of friend selection and friend influence to adolescent homophily on substance use behaviors has been of enduring research interest, moderators of these processes have received relatively little research attention. Identification of factors that dampen or amplify selection and influence on substance use behaviors is important for informing prevention efforts. Whereas prior research has examined adolescent drinking, smoking, and marijuana use, the current study examined whether friend selection and friend influence operated on substance use involvement, an indicator of problematic use, and whether depressive symptomology moderated these processes...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Tereza Vitvarová, David Neumann, Radka Šimáková, Jan Kremláček
Objective: The poor metabolic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) has a negative impact on the developing brain. Hyperglycemia and glycemic fluctuations disrupt mainly executive functions. To assess a hypothesized deficit of the executive functions, we evaluated visual processing and reaction time in an oddball task. Methods: Oddball visual event-related potentials (ERPs), reaction time, and pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were examined in a cohort of twenty-two 12- to 18-year-old T1D patients without diabetic retinopathy at normal glycemia and in nineteen 10- to 21-year-old healthy controls...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sean M Mooney-Leber, Thomas J Gould
During adolescence, the brain continues to undergo vital developmental processes. In turn, complex behavioral and cognitive skills emerge. Unfortunately, neurobiological development during adolescence can be influenced by environmental factors such as drug exposure. Engaging in drug use during adolescence has been a long-standing health concern, especially how it predicts or relates to drug using behavior later in life. However, recent findings suggest that other behavioral domains, such as learning and memory, are also vulnerable to adolescent drug use...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
Michael E Bodner, Pauline Lyna, Truls Østbye, Terrill Bravender, Stewart C Alexander, James A Tulsky, Pao-Hwa Lin, Kathryn I Pollak
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the accuracy and congruence of recall of weight topics during clinical encounters between adolescent patients with overweight/obesity and physicians (randomized to Motivational Interviewing education vs. control arm). METHODS: We audio recorded 357 clinic encounters and coded topics of weight, physical activity (PA), breakfast, and fast food. We assessed recall accuracy/congruence. Generalized estimation equation modeling assessed associations between selected factors and recall accuracy...
July 26, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Widyatuti, Fajar Tri Waluyanti, Budi Mulyadi, Astuti Yuni Nursasi
OBJECTIVE: There are many adolescent health problems in Indonesia, particularly problems related to reproductive health. If adolescent reproductive health is not given adequate attention, this can lead to other adolescent health problems. Aside from parents, school staff also plays an important role in overcoming this health concern because educational staff is closer to adolescents than their parents. Teachers and friends can act as a resource for adolescents, providing them with reproductive health information...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Horace C W Choi, Mark Jit, Gabriel M Leung, Kwok-Leung Tsui, Joseph T Wu
BACKGROUND: Although routine vaccination of females before sexual debut against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been found to be cost-effective around the world, its cost-benefit has rarely been examined. We evaluate both the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of routine female adolescent nonavalent HPV vaccination in Hong Kong to guide its policy, and by extension that of mainland China, on HPV vaccination. One major obstacle is the lack of data on assortativity of sexual mixing. Such difficulty could be overcome by inferring sexual mixing parameters from HPV epidemiologic data...
August 17, 2018: BMC Medicine
Lisa Littman
PURPOSE: In on-line forums, parents have been reporting that their children are experiencing what is described here as "rapid-onset gender dysphoria," appearing for the first time during puberty or even after its completion. The onset of gender dysphoria seemed to occur in the context of belonging to a peer group where one, multiple, or even all of the friends have become gender dysphoric and transgender-identified during the same timeframe. Parents also report that their children exhibited an increase in social media/internet use prior to disclosure of a transgender identity...
2018: PloS One
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