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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506124/fluid-intelligence-a-brief-history
#1
Phillip Kent
The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed...
May 16, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479971/reliability-validity-and-psychometric-properties-of-the-greek-translation-of-the-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-scale
#2
Konstantinos Kontoangelos, Sofia Tsiori, Garyfalia Poulakou, Konstantinos Protopapas, Ioannis Katsarolis, Vissaria Sakka, Dimitra Kavatha, Antonios Papadopoulos, Anastasia Antoniadou, Charalambos C Papageorgiou
The Greek version of the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS) was developed to respond to the need of Greek-speaking individuals. The translated questionnaire was administered to 128 HIV outpatients (aged 37.1±9.1) and 166 control patients (aged 32.4±13.4). In addition to the DTS Greek scale, subjects were assessed with two other scales useful for assessing validity. For each factor analyses two components were extracted, based on Cattell's scree test. The two components solution accounted for 55.34% of the total variation in case of frequency variables and 61...
March 22, 2017: Mental Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456351/synthesis-of-novel-chlorhexidine-spheres-with-controlled-release-from-a-udma-hema-resin-using-ultrasound
#3
Dong Luo, Saroash Shahid, Gleb B Sukhorukov, Michael J Cattell
OBJECTIVE: Establish the release kinetics of new chlorhexidine particles incorporated in a dental resin, and with the application of ultrasound. METHODS: Spherical chlorhexidine particles (SCP) were synthesized (5wt%), freeze dried and incorporated into UDMA-HEMA resins. Chlorhexidine diacetate (CDP) (5wt%) was similarly incorporated in separate resins. Resin discs were immersed in deionized water, and a release profile established (650h). Ultrasound was used to trigger chlorhexidine (CHX) release from the resin discs at specific durations (10-30s) and time intervals (1-425h)...
April 26, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374453/construct-validity-of-the-wechsler-intelligence-scale-for-children-fourth-uk-edition-with-a-referred-irish-sample-wechsler-and-cattell-horn-carroll-model-comparisons-with-15-subtests
#4
Gary L Canivez, Marley W Watkins, Rebecca Good, Kate James, Trevor James
BACKGROUND: Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV(UK) ; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability and validity studies of the WISC-IV(UK) standardization sample have not yet been reported. Watkins et al. (2013, International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 1, 102) found support for a bifactor structure with a large sample (N = 794) of Irish children who were administered the 10 WISC-IV(UK) core subtests in clinical assessments of learning difficulties and dominance of general intelligence...
April 3, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317044/an-intuitive-method-of-duct-to-mucosa-pancreaticojejunostomy-after-pancreaticoduodenectomy-use-of-one-step-circumferential-interrupted-sutures
#5
Moonwhan Kim, Woo Young Shin, Keon-Young Lee, Seung-Ik Ahn
Pancreaticoenteric anastomosis is the origin of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF). Although a variety of methods have been proposed to decrease the POPF rate, randomized controlled trials performed so far have failed to demonstrate superiority of any particular method to the others. Cattell-Warren duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) is a widely practiced procedure. Their method is challenging, especially when the pancreatic duct is small. We assumed that the difficulty resides in the pancreatic duct becoming difficult to access when the posterior row is tied before suturing the anterior row...
February 2017: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269669/pca-criterion-for-svm-mlp-classifier-for-flavivirus-biomarker-from-salivary-sers-spectra-at-febrile-stage
#6
A R M Radzol, Khuan Y Lee, W Mansor, I S Omar
Non-structural protein (NS1) has been conceded as one of the biomarkers for flavivirus that causes diseases with life threatening consequences. NS1 is an antigen that allows detection of the illness at febrile stage, mostly from blood samples currently. Our work here intends to define an optimum model for PCA-SVM with MLP kernel for classification of flavivirus biomarker, NS1 molecule, from SERS spectra of saliva, which to the best of our knowledge has never been explored. Since performance of the model depends on the PCA criterion and MLP parameters, both are examined in tandem...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264589/minimally-invasive-spinal-surgery-for-the-management-of-symptomatic-spinal-metastasis
#7
Abdulkader Hamad, Leonidas Vachtsevanos, Andrew Cattell, Matthew Ockendon, Birender Balain
INTRODUCTION: Symptomatic metastatic spinal disease is on the increase. Minimally invasive spinal surgery has been associated with a lower complication profile when compared to traditional open methods; however there is paucity of literature evaluating the place of percutaneous pedicle screw fixation (PPSF) in the management of spinal metastases. The purpose of the study is to assess the efficacy of Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MISS) using PPSF with or without mini-decompression in the management of symptomatic spinal metastases...
March 6, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236298/mental-association-testing-individual-differences-before-binet
#8
Annette Mülberger
This paper challenges the historiographical discontinuity established between earlier "anthropometric testing" and the arrival of "psychological testing" with Binet and Simon's intelligence test in 1905. After some conceptual clarifications, it deals with "word association": a kind of psychological experimentation and testing which became popular over the last two decades of the 19th century. First Galton's exploration are presented, followed by experiments performed at the Leipzig laboratory by Trautscholdt, and then Cattell and Bryant's collective testing...
March 2017: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227928/pca-criterion-for-svm-mlp-classifier-for-flavivirus-biomarker-from-salivary-sers-spectra-at-febrile-stage
#9
A R M Radzol, Khuan Y Lee, W Mansor, I S Omar, A R M Radzol, Khuan Y Lee, W Mansor, I S Omar, Khuan Y Lee, A R M Radzol, I S Omar, W Mansor
Non-structural protein (NS1) has been conceded as one of the biomarkers for flavivirus that causes diseases with life threatening consequences. NS1 is an antigen that allows detection of the illness at febrile stage, mostly from blood samples currently. Our work here intends to define an optimum model for PCA-SVM with MLP kernel for classification of flavivirus biomarker, NS1 molecule, from SERS spectra of saliva, which to the best of our knowledge has never been explored. Since performance of the model depends on the PCA criterion and MLP parameters, both are examined in tandem...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221074/earl-busby-hunt-1933-2016
#10
Anthony G Greenwald
Presents an obituary for Earl Busby Hunt-known to family, friends, and colleagues as Buz-who died at home in Bellevue, Washington, on April 12, 2016. Buz specialized in artificial intelligence (AI) and had a main focus in cognitive psychology. In fact he was editor of Cognitive Psychology from 1974-1987. Buz's honors include the Lifetime Achievement Award from the International Society for Intelligence Research (2009) and the Cattell Award from the Association for Psychological Science (2011) for lifetime contributions...
February 2017: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187122/overt-and-covert-anxiety-as-a-toxic-factor-in-ischemic-heart-disease-in-women-the-link-between-psychological-factors-and-heart-disease
#11
Alicja Nasiłowska-Barud, Tomasz Zapolski, Małgorzata Barud, Andrzej Wysokiński
BACKGROUND Long-term clinical observations have shown that anxiety disorders influence the etiopathogenesis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of the structure of overt and covert anxiety, and to examine the impact of the severity of anxiety on five personality traits as described Costa and McCrae. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study involved 50 women aged 37 to 74 years, who were treated because of IHD that was confirmed by angiographic examination of the coronary vessels...
February 10, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152390/fluid-reasoning-predicts-future-mathematical-performance-among-children-and-adolescents
#12
Chloe T Green, Silvia A Bunge, Victoria Briones Chiongbian, Maia Barrow, Emilio Ferrer
The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine whether fluid reasoning (FR) plays a significant role in the acquisition of mathematics skills above and beyond the effects of other cognitive and numerical abilities. Using a longitudinal cohort sequential design, we examined how FR measured at three assessment occasions, spaced approximately 1.5years apart, predicted math outcomes for a group of 69 participants between ages 6 and 21years across all three assessment occasions. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the direct and indirect relations between children's previous cognitive abilities and their future math achievement...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122970/deciphering-the-routes-of-invasion-of-drosophila-suzukii-by-means-of-abc-random-forest
#13
Antoine Fraimout, Vincent Debat, Simon Fellous, Ruth A Hufbauer, Julien Foucaud, Pierre Pudlo, Jean-Michel Marin, Donald K Price, Julien Cattel, Xiao Chen, Marindia Deprá, Pierre François Duyck, Christelle Guedot, Marc Kenis, Masahito T Kimura, Gregory Loeb, Anne Loiseau, Isabel Martinez-Sañudo, Marta Pascual, Maxi Polihronakis Richmond, Peter Shearer, Nadia Singh, Koichiro Tamura, Anne Xuéreb, Jinping Zhang, Arnaud Estoup
Deciphering invasion routes from molecular data is crucial to understanding biological invasions, including identifying bottlenecks in population size and admixture among distinct populations. Here, we unravel the invasion routes of the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii using a multi-locus microsatellite dataset (25 loci on 23 worldwide sampling locations). To do this, we use approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which has improved the reconstruction of invasion routes, but can be computationally expensive...
April 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099215/prevalence-and-severity-of-depression-and-anxiety-in-patients-with-systemic-sclerosis-an-epidemiologic-survey-and-investigation-of-clinical-correlates
#14
Seyedeh Tahereh Faezi, Pedram Paragomi, Ashraf Shahali, Maryam Akhlaghkhah, Mahmood Akbarian, Maassoomeh Akhlaghi, Masoumeh Kheirandish, Farhad Gharibdoost
BACKGROUND: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem connective tissue disorder with detrimental impact on quality of life. Patients with SSc face emotional distress and frequently meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder. However, the pattern of psychiatric manifestations may vary according to socioethnic background. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms and examined their association with sociodemographic and clinical factors in Iranian SSc patients...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054106/-range-of-variation-of-pancreaticojejunostomy-in-pancreatic-head-resection
#15
F C Popp, C J Bruns
Leakage of pancreaticojejunostomy basically determines the morbidity and mortality of pancreatic head resection. Aggressive pancreatic juice affects the integrity of the anastomosis and the occurrence of local pancreatitis is increased due to manipulation of the pancreas during creation of the anastomosis. A multitude of anastomotic techniques have been developed aimed at minimizing the leakage rate of up to 20%. Ideal would be a simple technique that can be carried out independently of the softness of the pancreas and the diameter of the pancreatic duct...
January 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018566/interfacial-modulus-mapping-of-layered-dental-ceramics-using-nanoindentation
#16
Antonios L Theocharopoulos, Andrew J Bushby, Ken My P'ng, Rory M Wilson, K Elizabeth Tanner, Michael J Cattell
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the modulus of elasticity (E) across the interfaces of yttria stabilized zirconia (YTZP) / veneer multilayers using nanoindentation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: YTZP core material (KaVo-Everest, Germany) specimens were either coated with a liner (IPS e.max ZirLiner, Ivoclar-Vivadent) (Type-1) or left as-sintered (Type-2) and subsequently veneered with a pressable glass-ceramic (IPS e.max ZirPress, Ivoclar-Vivadent). A 5 µm (nominal tip diameter) spherical indenter was used with a UMIS CSIRO 2000 (ASI, Canberra, Australia) nanoindenter system to test E across the exposed and polished interfaces of both specimen types...
December 2016: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018191/hebb-and-cattell-the-genesis-of-the-theory-of-fluid-and-crystallized-intelligence
#17
REVIEW
Richard E Brown
Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to "Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence," which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995065/classification-of-amyloid-status-using-machine-learning-with-histograms-of-oriented-3d-gradients
#18
Liam Cattell, Günther Platsch, Richie Pfeiffer, Jérôme Declerck, Julia A Schnabel, Chloe Hutton
Brain amyloid burden may be quantitatively assessed from positron emission tomography imaging using standardised uptake value ratios. Using these ratios as an adjunct to visual image assessment has been shown to improve inter-reader reliability, however, the amyloid positivity threshold is dependent on the tracer and specific image regions used to calculate the uptake ratio. To address this problem, we propose a machine learning approach to amyloid status classification, which is independent of tracer and does not require a specific set of regions of interest...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992890/personality-traits-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-in-the-context-of-childhood-abuse
#19
Aneta Gerhant, Marcin Olajossy
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. METHODS: The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI)...
October 31, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920750/fluid-intelligence-as-a-mediator-of-the-relationship-between-executive-control-and-balanced-time-perspective
#20
Marcin Zajenkowski, Maciej Stolarski, Joanna Witowska, Oliwia Maciantowicz, Paweł Łowicki
This study examined the cognitive foundations of the balanced time perspective (BTP) proposed by Zimbardo and Boyd (1999). Although BTP is defined as the mental ability to switch effectively between different temporal perspectives, its connection with cognitive functioning has not yet been established. We addressed this by exploring the relationships between time perspectives and both fluid intelligence (measured with Raven's and Cattell's tests) and executive control (Go/No-go and anti-saccade tasks). An investigation conducted among Polish adults (N = 233) revealed that more balanced TP profile was associated with higher fluid intelligence, and higher executive control...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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