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Infants and bacteria

Sercan Karav, Giorgio Casaburi, Steven A Frese
Mucin glycoproteins play an important role in protecting the gut epithelium by keeping gut microbes from direct contact with the gut epithelium while allowing for diffusion of small molecules from the lumen to the epithelium. The mucin glycocalyx can be degraded by gut bacteria such as Bacteroides and Akkermansia , but other bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp . Infantis , cannot consume mucin glycans. Untargeted mass spectrometry profiles were compared to microbiome profiles to assess how different gut microbiomes affect colonic mucin degradation...
October 2018: FEBS Open Bio
S Graspeuntner, S Waschina, S Künzel, N Twisselmann, T K Rausch, K Cloppenborg-Schmidt, J Zimmermann, D Viemann, E Herting, W Göpel, J F Baines, C Kaleta, J Rupp, C Härtel, J Pagel
Background: Gut dysbiosis has been suggested as a major risk factor for the development of late-onset sepsis (LOS), a main cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to assess specific signatures of the gut microbiome including metabolic profiles in preterm infants <34 weeks of gestation preceding LOS. Methods: In a single center cohort fecal samples of preterm infants were prospectively collected during the period of highest vulnerability for LOS (day 7, 14, 21 of life)...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hui Wang, Yujun Jiang, Yashuo Zhang, Ziwei Zhang, Xinyan Yang, Md Aslam Ali, Edward M Fox, Kari S Gobius, Chaoxin Man
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been widely applied because of their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little research has been done to evaluate their effects on Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen usually infecting infants and having a high fatality rate. The aims of this work were to investigate the antibacterial property of novel, synthesized, positively charged silver nanoparticles against C. sakazakii and to discuss the potential antibacterial mechanisms involved...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Se Jin Kim, Ga Eun Kim, Jae Hyun Park, Sang Lak Lee, Chun Soo Kim
Purpose: This study was undertaken to investigate the clinical features and prognostic factors of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records was conducted in a NICU of a university hospital over a 7.5-year period (Jan 2010-Jun 2017). Results: During the study period, there were 45 (1.2%) episodes of EOS in 3,862 infants. The most common pathogen responsible for EOS was Streptococcus group B (GBS) in 10 cases (22...
September 27, 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Sampan Attri, Rishi Mahajan, Gunjan Goel
Background/Aims: The initial microbial colonization is a crucial step for the healthy development of an infant. Previous studies from India reported the dominance of target microbial species among Indian infants without any analysis on the diversity of target groups. This is the first study from India with an objective to investigate the establishment and diversity of lactic acid producing bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria in vaginally delivered, full term, breastfed infants for the first 4 months after birth...
October 10, 2018: Intestinal Research
David E Kerr, Cory Bergfalk, Philip T Feldsine, Lisa John
The TRANSIA® PLATE Staphylococcal Enterotoxins enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was validated according to AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines for validating qualitative binary chemistry and microbiological methods. Five food matrixes were analyzed to determine the probability of detection (POD) for staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE), including SEA, SEB, SEC1 , SEC₂, SEC₃, SED, and SEE, by the TRANSIA PLATE Staphylococcal Enterotoxins EIA. The food matrixes tested were food types implicated in staphylococcal enterotoxin outbreaks and included raw milk cheese, liquid infant formula, eclairs, ready-to-eat ham, and canned mushrooms...
September 28, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Siel Daelemans, Linde Peeters, Bruno Hauser, Yvan Vandenplas
A newborn brings joy to the family. Crying belongs to the spectrum of normal behaviour of young infants. However, although it occurs in about 20% of all infants, unsoothable and persistent crying in young infants distresses the family, although it is usually benign. The aetiology of infantile colic remains unknown, although an unbalanced gastro-intestinal microbiome, increased intestinal permeability, and chronic inflammation are involved, as well as behavioural factors, including over- and under-stimulation...
2018: F1000Research
Claire Masson, Constance Minebois, Catherine Braux, Isabelle Pelloux, Leïla Marcus, Valérie Belin, Fabrice Cneude, Béatrice Prillard, Thierry Debillon, Caroline Landelle, Marie Reine Mallaret
This study analyzes the bacteriological quality of breast milk samples destined to direct milk donation to preterm infants under 34 Gestational Weeks (GW) hospitalized in a neonatology and a neonatal intensive care unit of a French university hospital. All samples of breast milk destined to direct milk donation between April 2007 and December 2016 were included. A sample was defined as compliant if its total flora was less than 106 Colony Forming Units per milliliter (CFU/mL) and in the absence of Staphylococcus aureus and other pathogens...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Brigette Lee, Ramya Vangipuram, Erik Petersen, Stephen K Tyring
Intimate body piercings involving the nipple and genitalia have increased in prevalence in both men and women. Despite this increase, there is a deficiency in the literature regarding the short and long-term complications of body piercings, including an increased risk of infection, malignancy, and structural damage to the associated tissue. Breast abscesses associated with nipple piercing can be mistaken as inflammatory carcinoma. Male genital piercings have been associated with urethral rupture, paraphimosis, urethral obstruction, scar formation, and squamous cell carcinoma, whereas female genital piercings may lead to a higher risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections...
July 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
Zhutian Zeng, Bas G J Surewaard, Connie H Y Wong, Christopher Guettler, Bjӧrn Petri, Regula Burkhard, Madeleine Wyss, Hervé Le Moual, Rebekah Devinney, Graham C Thompson, Jaime Blackwood, Ari R Joffe, Kathy D McCoy, Craig N Jenne, Paul Kubes
Females have an overall advantage over males in resisting Gram-negative bacteremias, thus hinting at sexual dimorphism of immunity during infections. Here, through intravital microscopy, we observed a sex-biased difference in the capture of blood-borne bacteria by liver macrophages, a process that is critical for the clearance of systemic infections. Complement opsonization was indispensable for the capture of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in male mice; however, a faster complement component 3-independent process involving abundant preexisting antibodies to EPEC was detected in female mice...
October 2018: Nature Immunology
Shelease C OʼBryant, Jonathan D Lewis, Andrea T Cruz, Brent A Mothner
The last 3 decades have seen a shift in the epidemiology of epiglottitis. Epiglottitis was once most commonly associated with Haemophilus influenzae type B. However, with the implementation of the H. influenzae type B vaccine in 1985, the incidence has drastically declined. There are now new emerging pathogens-bacteria, viruses, and fungi-causing epiglottitis. Here, we report the first case of epiglottitis secondary to influenza A in a former full-term, vaccinated infant who presented with cough, fever, stridor, pursed lip breathing, and progressive respiratory distress and eventual respiratory failure...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Samanta Michelini, Biju Balakrishnan, Silvia Parolo, Alice Matone, Jane A Mullaney, Wayne Young, Olivier Gasser, Clare Wall, Corrado Priami, Rosario Lombardo, Martin Kussmann
BACKGROUND: Weaning is a period of marked physiological change. The introduction of solid foods and the changes in milk consumption are accompanied by significant gastrointestinal, immune, developmental, and microbial adaptations. Defining a reduced number of infections as the desired health benefit for infants around weaning, we identified in silico (i.e., by advanced public domain mining) infant gut microbes as potential deliverers of this benefit. We then investigated the requirements of these bacteria for exogenous metabolites as potential prebiotic feeds that were subsequently searched for in the natural product space...
September 21, 2018: Microbiome
Daniel Klotz, Stefanie Jansen, Corinna Gebauer, Hans Fuchs
Background: Breast milk (BM) for premature infants is subjected to multiple steps of processing, storage and distribution. These steps may influence the quality and safety of BM. Guidelines concerning the use of mother's own milk are either not available or limited to specific aspects of BM handling and are based on evidence of variable strength. This may result in diverse BM handling routines by health care professionals. Objective: We surveyed neonatal units to increase the knowledge about the current practice of BM handling routines of mother's own milk and to identify controversial aspects that could give directions for future research...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Katri Korpela, Anne Salonen, Brandon Hickman, Clemens Kunz, Norbert Sprenger, Kaarina Kukkonen, Erkki Savilahti, Mikael Kuitunen, Willem M de Vos
One of the most abundant components in human milk is formed by oligosaccharides, which are poorly digested by the infant. The oligosaccharide composition of breast milk varies between mothers, and is dependent on maternal secretor (FUT2) genotype. Secretor mothers produce milk containing α1-2 fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides, which are absent in the milk of non-secretor mothers. Several strains of bacteria in the infant gut have the capacity to utilise human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). Here we investigate the differences in infant gut microbiota composition between secretor (N = 76) and non-secretor (N = 15) mothers, taking into account birth mode...
September 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shu Mei Teo, Howard H F Tang, Danny Mok, Louise M Judd, Stephen C Watts, Kym Pham, Barbara J Holt, Merci Kusel, Michael Serralha, Niamh Troy, Yury A Bochkov, Kristine Grindle, Robert F Lemanske, Sebastian L Johnston, James E Gern, Peter D Sly, Patrick G Holt, Kathryn E Holt, Michael Inouye
Repeated cycles of infection-associated lower airway inflammation drive the pathogenesis of persistent wheezing disease in children. In this study, the occurrence of acute respiratory tract illnesses (ARIs) and the nasopharyngeal microbiome (NPM) were characterized in 244 infants through their first five years of life. Through this analysis, we demonstrate that >80% of infectious events involve viral pathogens, but are accompanied by a shift in the NPM toward dominance by a small range of pathogenic bacterial genera...
September 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Bruno C M Oliveira, Giovanni Widmer
Cryptosporidiosis, a leading cause of diarrhea among infants, is caused by apicomplexan parasites classified in the genus Cryptosporidium The lack of effective drugs is motivating research to develop alternative treatments. With this aim, the impact of probiotics on the course of cryptosporidiosis was investigated. The native intestinal microbiota of specific pathogen-free immunosuppressed mice was initially depleted with orally administered antibiotics. A commercially available probiotic product intended for human consumption was subsequently added to the drinking water...
November 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zaccaria Ricci, Simona Benegni, Jeffrey J Cies, Eleonora Marinari, Roberta Haiberger, Cristiana Garisto, Sara Cairoli, Luca Di Chiara, Bianca Goffredo
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore inter-individual variability of cefoxitin trough levels, predictors of serum cefoxitin concentration, and the probability of target attainment of drug levels above 4 mg/L after pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS: Retrospective study on children scheduled for elective cardiac surgery and having cefoxitin trough levels available up to 24 hours post-surgery. RESULTS: Overall, 68 children (9 neonates, 34 infants, 15 children below or equal to 10 years old and 10 patients above this age) were included...
August 30, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Minna Honkila, Venla Kallinen, Marjo Renko, Jaana Kauppila, Tytti Pokka, Matti Uhari, Terhi Tapiainen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
John S Bradley, Jocelyn Y Ang, Antonio C Arrieta, Kajal B Larson, Matthew L Rizk, Luzelena Caro, Shan Yang, Brian Yu, Matthew G Johnson, Elizabeth G Rhee
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing threat to children; thus new antibiotics are needed to treat infections caused by these pathogens. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is active against many Gram-negative pathogens and is approved for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections in adults, but has not been evaluated in children. METHODS: This phase 1, noncomparative, open-label, multicenter study characterized the pharmacokinetics (by noncompartmental analysis), safety, and tolerability of single intravenous doses of ceftolozane/tazobactam in pediatric patients (birth [7 days postnatal] to < 18 years of age) with proven/suspected Gram-negative infection or receiving perioperative prophylaxis (clinicaltrials...
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Sung Wook Hong, Jong-Hui Kim, Hyo Ju Bae, Jun-Sang Ham, Jae Gyu Yoo, Kun Sub Chung, Mi-Hwa Oh
Lactic acid bacteria were screened for potential probiotics for use as feed additives. We obtained 3,000 isolates from feces of: cattle, dogs, goats, and infants; milk; yogurt; cheese; fermented sausages; Kimchi; and Cheonggukjang and tested their antibacterial activity toward indicator pathogens, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. We further tested their tolerance to artificial gastric juice (1% [w/v] pepsin, pH 2.5) and bile acid (0...
August 27, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
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