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Infants and bacteria

Erik Snesrud, Patrick McGann, Edward Walsh, Ana Ong, Rosslyn Maybank, Yoon Kwak, Jean Campbell, Anthony Jones, Kelly Vore, Mary Hinkle, Emil Lesho
Elizabethkingia spp are Gram-negative bacteria associated with neonatal meningitis. In 2015-2016, an outbreak of Elizabethkingia anophelis infection that involved 63 patients and 18 deaths occurred in Wisconsin. Despite a multistate investigation, as of September 2016 the source remained undetermined, and experts warned of reemergence. We describe here the first cases of E anophelis infection in New York, including the case of a healthy infant without previous healthcare contact.
August 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Elizabeth Mannino Avila, Erin Stucky Fisher, Kyung Rhee
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine patient history as well as clinical and laboratory features associated with true bacteremia versus false bacteremia in previously healthy febrile children ages 0 to 36 months in the era of polyvalent conjugate pneumococcal immunization. METHODS: Using retrospective chart review, we examined history, physical examination, and laboratory characteristics associated with true and false bacteremia. We included subjects under 3 years old, with a positive blood culture obtained in the emergency department or clinic from July 2011 to July 2013, and fever defined as a temperature of greater than or equal to 100...
August 13, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Yingzhu Feng, Chien-Sheng Chen, Jessica Ho, Donna Pearce, Shaohui Hu, Bochu Wang, Prashant Desai, Kwang Sik Kim, Heng Zhu
Bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants is an acute lethal disease and occurs in response to microbial exploitation of the blood brain barrier (BBB), resulting in the intracranial inflammation. Several pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), can cause this devastating disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these pathogens exploit the BBB remain incompletely understood. To identify important players on both the pathogen and host sides that govern the E. coli-BBB cell interactions, we took advantage of the E...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
David J Hackam, Chhinder P Sodhi
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the leading cause of death from gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and attacks the most fragile patients at a time when they appear to be the most stable. Despite significant advances in our overall care of the premature infant, NEC mortality remains stubbornly high. There is no specific treatment for NEC beyond broad-spectrum antibiotics and intestinal resection, and current efforts have focused on preventive strategies. Over the past decade, we have proposed a unifying hypothesis to explain the pathogenesis of NEC in premature infants that suggests that NEC develops in response to an imbalance between exaggerated proinflammatory signaling in the mucosa of the premature gut leading to mucosal injury, which is not countered effectively by endogenous repair processes, and in the setting of impaired mesenteric perfusion leads to intestinal ischemia and disease development...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jack C Yu, Hesam Khodadadi, Aneeq Malik, Brea Davidson, Évila da Silva Lopes Salles, Jatinder Bhatia, Vanessa L Hale, Babak Baban
Many important events occur at birth. The fetus is suddenly removed from a protected intra-uterine environment that is aquatic, warm, and nearly sterile, to the dry, cold external world laden with microbes. To survive, the neonate must interact with many organisms, making use of some, while vigorously defending against the others like a nation conducting trade with friendly countries and guarding against hostile ones from invading it, waging wars if necessary. Although, the neonatal immune system is plastic, however, it is highly tolerant which is due to both the fetal development during gestation as well as significant sudden changes in fetal environment and enormous exposure to the new antigens and intestinal bacteria and their products...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
María Fernández-Ibieta
Case Report  An 11-month-old female infant presented on the first postoperative (PO) day following an elective pyeloplasty, a dark bluish erythema of her lumbotomy wound, plus a satellite lesion of the same characteristics. Fever and sepsis developed, and despite broad spectrum antibiotics (meropenem and vancomycin) were started, a diagnosis of necrotizing soft-tissue infection (NSTI or necrotizing fasciitis) was established. Surgical debridement of both lesions was performed on day 3 PO, and a surgical contamination (ring retractor blade) was suspected, due to the particular geography of the lesion...
July 2018: Surgery Journal
Hongping Li, Jun Wang, Lijuan Wu, Jun Luo, Xia Liang, Bin Xiao, Yuanfang Zhu
This study investigated the effects of different delivery modes on oral microflora in healthy newborns immediately post-partum, and provided evidence for microbial colonization disruption induced by medical procedures. Eighteen infants delivered by cesarean section and 74 by vaginal delivery were included in the study. High-throughput sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA was performed on oral samples collected immediately after birth. All data were analyzed using bioinformatics approaches. Our results indicated that different oral bacteria were found between infants delivered by cesarean section compared to vaginal delivery group...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katri Korpela, Willem M de Vos
Microbes colonising the infant intestine, especially bacteria, are considered important for metabolic and immunological programming in early life, potentially affecting the susceptibility of the host to disease. We combined published data to provide a global view of microbiota development in early life. The results support the concept that the microbiota develops with age in an orchestrated manner, showing common patterns across populations. Furthermore, infants are colonised at birth by specific, selected maternal faecal bacteria and likely their bacteriophages...
August 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Shinya Fushinobu
The lacto-N-biose I (Galβ1-3GlcNAc; LNB) disaccharide is present as a core unit of type-1 blood group antigens of animal glycoconjugates and milk oligosaccharides. Type-1 antigens often serve as cell-surface receptors for infection by pathogens. LNB in human milk oligosaccharides functions as a prebiotic for bifidobacteria and plays a key role in the symbiotic relationship of commensal gut microbes in infants. Protein Data Bank (PDB) entries exhibiting the LNB unit were investigated using the GlycoMapsDB web tool...
August 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Adebukunola Mobolaji Omemu, Uchechukwu Ifeoma Okafor, Adewale O Obadina, Mobolaji O Bankole, Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye
Maize was cofermented with pigeon pea for ogi production and evaluated for microbiological qualities. White maize and pigeon pea were mixed at ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50, respectively, with 100:0 serving as the control. Mixtures were cofermented for 96 h at 27 ± 2°C, and microbiological and sensory qualities analyzed were carried out using analysis of variance. Values were significant at p  ≤ .05. Results showed that there was a gradual decrease in the pH and increase in total titratable acidity (TTA), respectively, during fermentation in all the samples...
July 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Haitao Yu, Xiuliang Ding, Lijun Shang, Xiangfang Zeng, Hongbin Liu, Ning Li, Shuo Huang, Yuming Wang, Gang Wang, Shuang Cai, Meixia Chen, Crystal L Levesque, Lee J Johnston, Shiyan Qiao
Poison of intestinal induce severe health problems in human infants and young animals due to contaminating foods and feedstuffs. With the emergence of public health concerns and high-speed diffuse of drug-opposition of bacteria, the adoption of antimicrobial peptides as potential candidates in treating pathogen infections raised up. Nature Microcin J25 (MccJ25), a class of lasso peptides separated from a fecal strain of E. coli , has been replied to display powerful antimicrobial behavior. Herein, the study was to assess the usefulness of biogenic MccJ25 in the prophylaxis of ETEC K88 infection in IPEC-J2 cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ruggiero Francavilla, Fernanda Cristofori, Maria Elena Tripaldi, Flavia Indrio
The symbiotic relationship between microbes and human is fundamental for a physiological development and health. The microbiome of the newborn undergoes to dramatic changes during the process of birth and in the first thousand days of life. Mother Nature provided us with the best possible start to achieve eubiosis: vaginal delivery to receive our mother's microbiome and breast milk that favours the establishment of beneficial bacteria. Infants deprived of one or both of these evolutionary gifts undergo to important modification of the microbial communities leading to a state of dysbiosis enhancing the chance of the emergence of a variety of immune, inflammatory and metabolic disorders...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Ravinder Nagpal, Yuichiro Yamashiro
Our gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in our health and disease. The microbial colonization of human gut begins immediately at birth and is an indispensable natural process that modulates our physiology and immunity. Recent studies are elegantly revealing how and when these microbes colonize the gut and what elements could potentially influence this natural phenomenon. The vertical mother-to-baby transmission of microbes is a crucial factor for normal development and maturation of newborn's immune, metabolic as well as neurological health...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Natalie Suff, Rajvinder Karda, Juan Antinao Diaz, Joanne Ng, Julien Baruteau, Dany Perocheau, Mark Tangney, Peter W Taylor, Donald Peebles, Suzanne M K Buckley, Simon N Waddington
Preterm birth is a serious global health problem, being the leading cause of death in infants under five years of age. At least 40% of cases are associated with infection. It is thought that the most common way for pathogens to access the uterine cavity is by ascending from the vagina. Bioluminescent pathogens have revolutionized the understanding of infectious diseases. We hypothesized that bioluminescent E. coli can be used to track and monitor ascending vaginal infection in pregnant mice. Two different strains of bioluminescent E...
July 20, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Nikki D Atanasova, Rafik Dey, Candis Scott, Qiaozhi Li, Xiao-Li Pang, Nicholas J Ashbolt
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are phagocytic protozoa found in natural and engineered water systems. They can form disinfectant-resistant cysts, which can harbor various human pathogenic bacteria, therefore providing them with a means of environmental persistence and dispersion through water distribution and other engineered water systems. The association of FLA with human viruses has been raised, but the limited data on the persistence of infectious virions within amoebae leaves this aspect unresolved. Enteroviruses can cause a wide range of illness and replicate in human respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, both of which could be exposed through contact with contaminated waters if virus detection and removal are compromised by virion internalization in free-living protozoa...
July 11, 2018: Water Research
Nicole L Messina, Susie Germano, Rhian Bonnici, Lai-Yang Lee, Andrew J Daley, Andrea Bustamante, Peter Jelfs, Nigel Curtis
A recent shortage in supply of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the live attenuated vaccine given to protect against tuberculosis (TB) caused major disruption to global vaccination programs. In this study, we assessed whether quantification of viable bacteria, could be used to inform the use of the BCG vaccine beyond its manufacturer-assigned expiration date. The viability of a single batch of BCG-Denmark was tested in three independent laboratories. There was high inter-vial and inter-laboratory variability in viability counts, however all three laboratories detected a decrease in BCG viability over time...
July 2018: Tuberculosis
Qi Wang, Wei Li, Danhua Qu, Tong Xin, Peng Gao
RATIONALE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a single-stranded negative-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family of paramyxoviruses. RSV is the most common pathogen that causes acute lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. However, its incidence in immunocompromised adults remains unclear. In the present study, we report an adult patient with chronic nephropathy, who received long-term immunosuppressants and died of rapid respiratory failure due to RSV infection...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fengping He, Dan Liu, Jiancheng Zhai, Le Zhang, Yue Ma, Yanchun Xu, Ke Rong, Jianzhang Ma
BACKGROUND: Ingredients in breast milk can help establish a healthy community of microorganisms in the infant gut, but no research exists regarding the effects of goat milk feeding and breast feeding on the gut microbiome of the Amur tiger, which is one of the most endangered species in the world. METHODS: In this study, we used whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing to analyze the effects of two different feeding patterns, goat milk feeding and breast feeding, on the composition and functional structures of gut microbiota in Amur tiger cubs...
July 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Erik Wejryd, Giovanna Marchini, Veronica Frimmel, Baldvin Jonsson, Thomas Abrahamsson
AIM: This study evaluated if oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 improved enteral feeding tolerance and growth rates in extremely low birth weight infants. METHOD: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comprising 134 extremely low birth weight (<1,000g) infants born before gestational week 28+0. Daily supplementation of L. reuteri (1.25 x 108 bacteria/day) or placebo started within 3 days and continued until gestational week 36+0...
July 12, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
W W Zhu, Z L Li
Objective: To investigate the impact of early antibiotics treatment on intestinal microbiota in preterm infants. Methods: The cohort study was performed from January 2015 to June 2015 in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Peking University Third Hospital. A total of 33 preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 25 were antibiotics-exposure group, and 8 were non-exposure group. Serial stool samples were collected on the first day, 14th and 30th days of life and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. In exposure group, intestinal microbiota was also analyzed at 8 months to 1 year of age...
July 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
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