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Infants and bacteria

Kunal Batabyal, Abhiroop Banerjee, Susmita Pal, Samir Dey, Siddhartha Narayan Joardar, Indranil Samanta, Devi Prasad Isore, Abhishek Dharm Singh
Background: Milk is considered as complete food and an important part of human diet throughout the world including India. Bacterial contamination of milk such as Escherichia coli due to unhygienic condition and poor udder health can cause infections, especially in infants and elders or in immunocompromised persons. Possession of antimicrobial resistance genes by commensal bacteria present in milk makes the issue more serious. Aim: The study was aimed to isolate and characterize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Lillian Matamala-Valdés, Kimberly Sánchez-Alonzo, Cristian Parra, Katia Sáez, Alejandro Aguayo-Reyes, Apolinaria García
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the stool of newborns and in the yeast that colonizes the oral cavity of this age group. However, there is a lack of research to confirm it. This study proposes to determine the existence of the bacteria at an early age, specifically in newborns. OBJECTIVE: To identify intracellular H. pylori in oral yeasts and to detect antigens of the bacteria in newborn stools. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional and descriptive study...
October 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Gang Liu, Laidi Ding, Bo Han, Sofie Piepers, S Ali Naqvi, Herman W Barkema, Tariq Ali, Sarne De Vliegher, Siyu Xu, Jian Gao
Escherichia coli is a major udder pathogen causing clinical mastitis in dairy cattle and its heat stable endotoxin in powdered infant formula milk is a potential risk factor in neonatal infections. Cephalosporins are frequently used for treatment of mastitis caused by mastitis; however, use of these antimicrobials may induce antimicrobial resistance in E. coli . The objective of this study was to explore the in vitro effect of subminimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MIC) of cefalotin (CF) and ceftazidime (CAZ) on the morphology, antimicrobial resistance, and endotoxin releasing characteristics of 3 E...
2018: BioMed Research International
Amal A Al Hazzani, Reham A B Bawazeer, Afaf I Shehata
Group B streptococcal infection ( Streptococcus agalactiae ) is one of the leading causes of life-threatening disease in the early neonatal period, resulting in sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. During invasive infections, an excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokine, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), thus IL-6 gene is significant, as a diagnostic marker of systemic infection of the newborns. The present study aimed to describe the epidemiology diagnostic of GBS disease in neonatal by phenotypic and genotypic methods...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Pourya Gholizadeh, Majid Mahallei, Ali Pormohammad, Mojtaba Varshochi, Khudaverdi Ganbarov, Elham Zeinalzadeh, Bahman Yousefi, Milad Bastami, Asghar Tanomand, Suhad Saad Mahmood, Mehdi Yousefi, Mohammad Asgharzadeh, Hossein Samadi Kafil
Recent studies have been considered to symbiotic interactions of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and human lifestyle-related disorders. The human gastrointestinal microbiota continuously stimulates the immune system against opportunistic and pathogen bacteria from infancy. Changes in gastrointestinal microbiota have been associated with numbers of human diseases such as allergic diseases, autoimmune encephalitis, atherosclerosis, colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes etc. In this review article, we evaluate studies on the roles of human gastrointestinal microbiota and interference pathogenicity in allergic diseases, obesity, and diabetes...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Amy S Paller, Heidi H Kong, Patrick Seed, Shruti Naik, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Richard L Gallo, Thomas Luger, Alan D Irvine
As an interface with the environment, the skin is a complex ecosystem, colonized by many microorganisms that coexist in an established balance. The cutaneous microbiome inhibits colonization with pathogens such as S. aureus and is a crucial component for function of the epidermal barrier. Moreover, crosstalk between commensals and the immune system is now recognized, as microorganisms can modulate innate, as well as adaptive, immune responses. Host-commensal interactions also have an impact on the developing immune system in infants and subsequently the occurrence of diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Patrycja Zalas-Więcek, Krzysztof Czyżewski, Tomasz Bogiel, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska, Mariusz Wysocki
Enterobacterales represent a serious threat to transplant patients due to their increase frequency of carbapenem resistance and wide spreading. We present a case of an infant with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Before transplantation an unusual double colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with extremely resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains producing metallo-beta-lactamase was diagnosed. Respective epidemiological management was implemented, based on the strict reverse isolation in patient-protective environment, and intensified antimicrobial surveillance...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Leónides Fernández, Lorena Ruiz, Josué Jara, Belén Orgaz, Juan M Rodríguez
Studies carried in the last years have revealed that human milk contains a site-specific microbiota and constitutes a source of potentially beneficial bacteria to the infant gut. Once in the infant gut, these bacteria contribute to the assembly of a physiological gut microbiota and may play several functions, contributing to infant metabolism, protection against infections, immunomodulation or neuromodulation. Many preterm neonates are fed with pasteurized donor's human milk (DHM) or formula and, therefore, are devoid of contact with human milk microbes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohammed Abdellatif, Sherief Ghozy, Mohamed Gomaa Kamel, Sameh Samir Elawady, Mohamed Mohy Eldeen Ghorab, Andrew Wassef Attia, Truong Thi Le Huyen, Diep Trong Vien Duy, Kenji Hirayama, Nguyen Tien Huy
Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics with a broad spectrum of activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze the association between infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) and macrolides. Nine databases were searched systematically for studies with information on the association between macrolides and IHPS. We combined findings using random effects models. Our study revealed 18 articles investigating the association between macrolides and IHPS...
November 23, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Angelica Dessì, Despina Briana, Sara Corbu, Stavroula Gavrili, Flaminia Cesare Marincola, Sofia Georgantzi, Roberta Pintus, Vassilios Fanos, Ariadne Malamitsi-Puchner
Breast milk is the gold standard of nutrition for newborns. Its composition is tailored to the nutritional needs of the infant and varies between mothers. In recent years, several bioactive molecules have been discovered in addition to the main nutrients, such as multipotent stem cells, hormones, immunoglobulins, and bacteria. Furthermore, the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) seem to exert several important protective biological functions. According to the HMOs' composition, breast milk can be classified as a secretory or non-secretory phenotype...
November 20, 2018: Metabolites
Pei-Pei Lin, You-Miin Hsieh, Cheng-Chih Tsai
PURPOSE: Consumption of refined foods and beverages high in sugar make the teeth susceptible to the formation of biofilm and may lead to dental caries. The aim of the present study was to determine the ability of selected probiotics to inhibit growth and biofilm formation by the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Strains of latic acid bacteria (LAB) (n = 120) from the Bioresources Collection and Research Center (BCRC), saliva of healthy adults and infant stool were screened...
2018: Oral Health & Preventive Dentistry
Zahide Yalaki, Medine Ayşin Taşar, Eren Yıldız, Tuğba Zengin, Ergin Çiftçi, Yıldız Bilge Dallar
In infants, tuberculosis usually progresses as hilar lymphadenopathy and parenchyma changes in lungs; associating cavitary lesions are rare. A six-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with fever. Physical examination revealed decreased breathe sounds in the right lung. Chest radiograph showed pneumonic infiltration in the right middle lobe. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of lobar pneumonia and antibiotic treatment was started. On the sixth day, because no clinical improvement was observed in the patient, computerized thorax tomography was performed...
September 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Matthew J Dorman, Theresa Feltwell, David A Goulding, Julian Parkhill, Francesca L Short
Klebsiella pneumoniae infections affect infants and the immunocompromised, and the recent emergence of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae lineages is a critical health care concern. Hypervirulence in K. pneumoniae is mediated by several factors, including the overproduction of extracellular capsule. However, the full details of how K. pneumoniae capsule biosynthesis is achieved or regulated are not known. We have developed a robust and sensitive procedure to identify genes influencing capsule production, density-TraDISort, which combines density gradient centrifugation with transposon insertion sequencing...
November 20, 2018: MBio
Yuko Shigeno, Haolin Zhang, Taihei Banno, Kento Usuda, Tomonori Nochi, Ryo Inoue, Gen Watanabe, Wanzhu Jin, Yoshimi Benno, Kentaro Nagaoka
The development of gut microbiota during infancy is an important event that affects the health status of the host; however, the mechanism governing it is not fully understood. l-Amino acid oxidase 1 (LAO1) is a flavoprotein that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of particular l-amino acids and converts them into keto acids, ammonia, and H2 O2 . Our previous study showed that LAO1 is present in mouse milk and exerts protection against bacteria by its production of H2 O2 . The data led us to consider whether LAO1, H2 O2 , or both could impact infant gut microbiota development via mother's milk consumption in mice...
November 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Mariam Hakobyan, Koen P Dijkman, Sabrina Laroche, Gunnar Naulaers, Monique Rijken, Katerina Steiner, Henrica L M van Straaten, Renate M C Swarte, Hendrik J Ter Horst, Alexandra Zecic, Inge A Zonnenberg, Floris Groenendaal
BACKGROUND: Animal models suggest that neuroprotective effects of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after perinatal asphyxia are reduced in infants with early-onset sepsis. OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcome of infants with perinatal asphyxia, neonatal encephalopathy, and TH in the presence of early-onset sepsis. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort of 1,084 infants with perinatal asphyxia and TH, the outcome of 42 infants (gestational age 36.1-42...
November 12, 2018: Neonatology
María José Gosalbes, Joan Compte, Silvia Moriano-Gutierrez, Yvonne Vallès, Nuria Jiménez-Hernández, Xavier Pons, Alejandro Artacho, M Pilar Francino
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the gut microbiome and the human host is dynamic and we may expect adjustments in microbiome function if host physiology changes. Metatranscriptomic approaches should be key in unraveling how such adjustments occur. METHODS: We employ metatranscriptomic sequencing analyses to study gene expression in the gut microbiota of infants through their first year of life, and of their mothers days before delivery and one year afterwards...
November 8, 2018: EBioMedicine
Alessandro Cassini, Liselotte Diaz Högberg, Diamantis Plachouras, Annalisa Quattrocchi, Ana Hoxha, Gunnar Skov Simonsen, Mélanie Colomb-Cotinat, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Michele Cecchini, Driss Ait Ouakrim, Tiago Cravo Oliveira, Marc J Struelens, Carl Suetens, Dominique L Monnet
BACKGROUND: Infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria are threatening modern health care. However, estimating their incidence, complications, and attributable mortality is challenging. We aimed to estimate the burden of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria of public health concern in countries of the EU and European Economic Area (EEA) in 2015, measured in number of cases, attributable deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). METHODS: We estimated the incidence of infections with 16 antibiotic resistance-bacterium combinations from European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network (EARS-Net) 2015 data that was country-corrected for population coverage...
November 5, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
F Savino, I Galliano, M Garro, A Savino, V Daprà, P Montanari, M Bergallo
Regulatory T cells induce immune homeostasis and the expression of Toll like receptors (TLRs); subsequent inflammatory cytokine release may be involved. Recent studies have shown a microbial imbalance in the gut of colicky infants (with a prevalence of gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli), and accumulating evidence has shown the efficacy of a probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri) in breastfed subjects, but the underlying mechanism remains undefined. The study enrolled 59 infants younger than 60 days, of whom 34 subjects had colic and 25 were healthy controls...
November 8, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Jimin Kim, Yong Jae Kim, Jae Wha Kim
Sialyllactose (SL) is a representative human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) of human breast milk. The roles of SL in infant brain development and immunity have been reported in previous studies. In this study, we identified the impact of SL on innate immunity. Our results showed that the administration of SL had significant efficacy on bacterial clearance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa K -infected mice. We also examined the role of SL in the human THP-1 macrophage-like cell line. SL effectively promoted receptor-mediated endocytosis and phagocytosis...
November 5, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Amanda Gwee, Noel Cranswick, Susan M Donath, Rodney Hunt, Nigel Curtis
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin is frequently used in the treatment of late-onset sepsis in young infants and is routinely administered as intermittent infusions (IIV); however, existing IIV dosing guidelines achieve target vancomycin levels in less than half of infants. Continuous infusions of vancomycin (CIV) are an attractive alternative as adult studies report a higher attainment of target vancomycin levels, simpler drug monitoring and fewer drug side effects. METHODS: This is a multicentre, randomised controlled trial in which 200 young infants (aged 0-90 days) requiring vancomycin will be randomised to CIV or IIV for a duration determined by the treating clinician...
November 3, 2018: BMJ Open
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