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Mario Luciano, Corrado De Rosa, Gaia Sampogna, Valeria Del Vecchio, Vincenzo Giallonardo, Michele Fabrazzo, Francesco Catapano, George Onchev, Jiri Raboch, Anastasia Mastrogianni, Zahava Solomon, Algirdas Dembinskas, Petr Nawka, Andrzej Kiejna, Francisco Torres-Gonzales, Lars Kjellin, Kallert Thomas, Fiorillo Andrea
BACKGROUND: The decision to adopt forced medication in psychiatric care is particularly relevant from a clinical and ethical viewpoint. The European Commission has funded the EUNOMIA study in order to develop European recommendations for good clinical practice on coercive measures, including forced medication. METHODS: The recommendations on forced medication have been developed in 11 countries with the involvement of national clinical leaders, key-professionals and stakeholders' representatives...
August 14, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Christina N Nona, Christian S Hendershot, Anh Dzung Lê
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is an increasingly prevalent disorder that contributes significantly to the global burden of disease. According to the incentive sensitization theory (IST) of addiction, repeated alcohol exposure produces persistent neuroadaptations that promote the craving, relapse, and drug-taking characteristic of addiction. Critical to the IST model is the prediction that stimulant or hedonic drug effects become more pronounced with repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization). While there is an extensive body of preclinical alcohol sensitization research, there have been few studies examining this aspect of the incentive sensitization model in human alcohol research...
August 14, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Seyed Mohsen Dehghani, Afsaneh Nazari, Hazhir Javaherizadeh
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection which plays a major role in the etiology of chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcers in children and adults is one of the commonest chronic infection worldwide. Cure of the infection leads to healing of gastric inflammation and prevention of peptic ulcer. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the sequential therapy for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 40 children with symptoms of H...
April 2018: Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú
Stacey Crane, Joan E Haase, Susan E Hickman
PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: Pediatric oncology phase 1 clinical trials (P1Ts) are essential to developing new anticancer therapies; however, they raise complex ethical concerns about balancing the need for this research with the well-being of participating children. The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize and appraise the evidence of how P1T participation, which begins with consent and ends with the transition off the P1T, can affect the well-being (either positively or negatively) of children with cancer...
September 1, 2018: Oncology Nursing Forum
Sabhyta Sabharwal, Jason W Mitchell, Victoria Y Fan
With advances in antiretroviral therapies, perinatally infected children are now living with HIV well beyond adolescence. Parents and health care practitioners thus face the challenge of deciding how best to disclose positive serostatus to children living with HIV. Although many adolescents living with HIV are sexually active, parents often delay disclosure, which presents US physicians with an ethical dilemma because there is no legal requirement to follow clinical guidelines recommending disclosure prior to adolescence...
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
James L Bernat, Nathaniel M Robbins
Organ donation after the circulatory determination of death (DCDD) accounts for a growing percentage of deceased organ donations. Although hospital DCDD protocols stipulate donor death determination, some do not adhere to national guidelines that require mechanical, not electrical, asystole. Surrogate decisions to withdraw life-sustaining therapy should be separated from decisions to donate organs. Donor families should be given sufficient information about the DCDD protocol and its impact on the dying process to provide informed consent, and donors should be given proper palliative care during dying...
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Katherine Gentry, Aaron Wightman
Here we present a case of a patient in terminal respiratory failure refusing to consent to emergent tracheostomy in the setting of an anticipated difficult intubation. We examine ethical concerns that arise from deviations from the standard of care in the operative setting and the anesthesiologist's sense of culpability. Finally, we will review the ethical arguments and guidelines that support anesthesiologists' participation in palliative operative procedures when limitations on resuscitation are in place.
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Mona Saleh, Phoebe Friesen, Veronica Ades
According to the World Health Organization, female genital cutting affects millions of girls and women worldwide, particularly on the African continent and in the Middle East. This paper presents a plausible, albeit hypothetical, clinical vignette and then explores the legal landscape as well as the ethical landscape physicians should use to evaluate the adult patient who requests re-infibulation. The principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, and autonomy are considered for guidance, and physician conscientious objection to this procedure is discussed as well...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Lisa Eckstein, Donald Chalmers, Christine Critchley, Ruthie Jeanneret, Rebekah McWhirter, Jane Nielsen, Margaret Otlowski, Dianne Nicol
The regulation of genomic data sharing in Australia is a confusing mix of common law, legislation, ethical guidelines, and codes of practice. Beyond privacy laws, which only apply to genomic data that meets the definition of personal information, the key regulatory lever is the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) National Statement for Ethical Conduct in Human Research ("National Statement") (2007). Compliance with the National Statement is a requirement for institutions to apply to the NHMRC for funding, and includes-among other things-requirements for review of most genomic research by Human Research Ethics Committees...
August 16, 2018: Human Genetics
Domenico Maurizio Toraldo, Sara Toraldo, Luana Conte
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disorder affecting more than 200 million people around the world, resulting in three million deaths per year. COPD is characterized by the loss of lung tissue and airway remodelling, with chronic inflammation of the airways and progressive destruction of lung parenchyma. The use of stem cells may lead to regenerative processes that address biological damage. However, this approach raises ethical issues that need to be considered in clinical trials using stem cell therapy, such as informed consent, patient recruitment and harm minimization, as well as the inherent uncertainty of these medical procedures on human beings...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Jia Li, Minghui Liu, Xiaojun Li, Xuan Liu, Jingfang Liu
BACKGROUND: Web-based physician reviews are invaluable gold mines that merit further investigation. Although many studies have explored the text information of physician reviews, very few have focused on developing a systematic topic taxonomy embedded in physician reviews. The first step toward mining physician reviews is to determine how the natural structure or dimensions is embedded in reviews. Therefore, it is relevant to develop the topic taxonomy rigorously and systematically. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to develop a hierarchical topic taxonomy to uncover the latent structure of physician reviews and illustrate its application for mining patients' interests based on the proposed taxonomy and algorithm...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Zafar Nazir, Muhammad Arif Mateen Khan, Javaria Qamar
BACKGROUND: Congenital Prepubic Sinus (CPS) is an uncommon urogenital anomaly characterized by a blind tract between the skin over the pubis to anterior of the urinary bladder, Urethra or umbilicus. We report four such cases to emphasize varied clinical presentation and embryological conundrum. METHODS: Following Ethical Review Committee (ERC) approval, medical records of pediatric patients (<16 years) presenting with CPS (identified through operating room records and Hospital Information Management System (HIMS) between 1994 and 2018 were reviewed for demographics, clinical presentation, investigations including histopathology, management and outcome...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Mariyati Achir Yani Syuhaimie Hamid, Novy Helena Catharina Daulima
OBJECTIVE: Patients with violent behavior can harm themselves, others and environment. It can be an indicator for mental health hospital admission. Violent behaviors can be characterized by verbal and physical attacks demonstrated by the individuals intensively. Management of violent behaviors in hospital often uses restraint, but it has physical and psychological effects. This study aimed to explore experience of restraint use among patients with violent behaviors in mental health hospital...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Martha Shawn Morehead, Catherine Scarbrough
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide phenomenon and a global public health crisis. The inappropriate use of antibiotics in the human, animal, food, and agricultural arenas have contributed to the current dilemma. Both gram-positive and gram-negative resistant bacteria have been deemed serious and urgent threats by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The World Health Organization has created a 5-objective global action plan to address antimicrobial resistance and to coordinate numerous international sectors...
September 2018: Primary Care
G Gulati, B D Kelly, D Meagher, H Kennedy, C P Dunne
OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify and review published studies that discuss the ethical considerations, from a physician's perspective, of managing a hunger strike in a prison setting. METHODS: A database search was conducted to identify relevant publications. We included case studies, case series, guidelines and review articles published over a 20-year period. Non-English language publications were translated. RESULTS: The review found 23 papers from 12 jurisdictions published in five languages suitable for inclusion...
June 2018: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
K Ducray, M Pilch
OBJECTIVES: As clinical impartiality is an accepted basic principle of ethical practice, any proactive exercises that may inform selection, training, clinical placements, and other interventions, which promote future positive and equitable professional conduct, thus guarding against future discriminatory attitudes are germane. Within this context, the purpose of this review was to identify trends and patterns in health student, namely future practitioners', regard for substance-using patients using the Medical Condition Regard Scale...
September 2017: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
E Galavan
The collaborative assessment and management of suicide (CAMS) model has been developed over 25 years providing mental health clinicians with a flexible, evidenced-based, collaborative and ethically informed way of addressing suicidality with service users. This paper briefly overviews the CAMS model and its advantages and advocates for its use in mental health services both nationally and internationally.
September 2017: Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine
Joel T Minion, Frances Butcher, Nicholas Timpson, Madeleine J Murtagh
PURPOSE: Recall by genotype (RbG) research recruits on the basis of genetic variation. Increased use of this approach presents an ethical conundrum for cohort studies/biobanks: whether to inform individuals of their genetic information and deviate from standard practice of non-disclosure of results, or mask this information at the level of the individual participant. This paper examines the perspectives of research study participants on RbG research. METHODS: Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with young adult participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)...
2018: PloS One
Andrea Lakatos, Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Szabó, Ágnes Jermendy, Zsolt Bagyura, Péter Barsi, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák
Background and purpose: To develop an evidence-based, standardized structured reporting (SR) method for brain MRI examinations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suitable both for clinical and research use. Methods: SR template development was based on comprehensive review of the pertinent literature with the basic sections and subdivisions of the template defined according to MRI sequences (both conventional and diffusion-weighted, MR-spectroscopy (MRS), and T2*-weighted imaging), and the items targeted on age-related imaging patterns of HIE...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Florence Muheirwe, Said Nuhu
INTRODUCTION: In patriarchal communities, men are in control of health care decisions of their families. As spouses, their health status impacts on the health of their partners and children as well. The participation of men in maternal and child health (MCH) is thus crucial for the reduction of infant and maternal mortality, as spouses and parents. Hence, the government of Uganda has been encouraging male participation in MCH, and healthy facilities have been mandated to implement mandatory male participatory programs such as in antenatal care among others...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
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