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Amir K Bigdeli, Emre Gazyakan, Volker J Schmidt, Christoph Bauer, Günter Germann, Christian A Radu, Ulrich Kneser, Christoph Hirche
BACKGROUND:  Vascular occlusion after free flap surgery has become a rare complication but still poses a major challenge. It necessitates urgent re-exploration, but the logistic challenge to provide sufficient resources for the emergency intervention remains. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term outcome after successful lower extremity free flap salvage. METHODS:  A single-center retrospective study including long-term follow-up was approved by the local ethics committee...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Daiki Takekawa, Tetsuya Kushikata, Masahiro Akaishi, Yoshikazu Nikaido, Kazuyoshi Hirota
BACKGROUND: The orexinergic (OXergic) system contributes to the defense system. It has also been reported that the degeneration of OXergic neurons occurs during sepsis. Thus, the decline of OXergic activity may contribute to impairment of the defense system in sepsis. In this study, we determined whether: (i) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) reduces the brain orexin A (OXA) content and (ii) the OXergic system contributes to survival from sepsis in rats. METHODS: With approval of our protocol by our University Animal Ethics Committee, OX neuron-ablated (OX/ataxin-3 transgenic [OX/AT3 TG]) and wild-type Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-350 g, were used...
October 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Yusuke Seto, Mototsugu Eiraku
Humans have a large and gyrencephalic brain. The higher intellectual ability of humans is dependent on the proper development of the brain. Brain malformation is often associated with cognitive dysfunction. It is thus important to know how our brain grows during development. Several animal species have been used as models to understand the mechanisms of brain development, and have provided us with basic information in this regard. It has been revealed that mammalian brain development basically proceeds through a similar process by common mechanisms, including neural stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis...
October 13, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Matthew DeCamp, Lisa Soleymani Lehmann, Pooja Jaeel, Carrie Horwitch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Chester B Good, N Randall Kolb, Lindsay Nakaishi, Mark Meyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Mitch Brinks, Justin Denny, Sara Schwanke Khilji
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Riley G Jones
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jörg Gross, Margarita Leib, Theo Offerman, Shaul Shalvi
Corruption is often the product of coordinated rule violations. Here, we investigated how such corrupt collaboration emerges and spreads when people can choose their partners versus when they cannot. Participants were assigned a partner and could increase their payoff by coordinated lying. After several interactions, they were either free to choose whether to stay with or switch their partner or forced to stay with or switch their partner. Results reveal that both dishonest and honest people exploit the freedom to choose a partner...
October 16, 2018: Psychological Science
P F Day, E Petherick, J Godson, J Owen, G Douglas
Birth cohort initiatives, such as 'Born in Bradford', provide a unique opportunity to study the influence of socio-economic and environmental factors acting in pregnancy, birth and infancy on the development of dental caries in later life. This paper describes a feasibility study which established the processes required, and outcomes of, successful linkage of oral health data collected by the 2013 three-year-old national dental epidemiology survey with the Born in Bradford birth cohort database. The necessary processes included achieving research permissions and ethical approval; creation of a data sharing agreement; ensuring data security and encrypted data transfer...
October 16, 2018: Community Dental Health
Jenny Gray
The substantial and urgent threats to the prosperity of individual nonhuman animals and the survival of species necessitate a changed approach to conservation. The current practice of seeing conservation and animal welfare as contradictory goals is not helpful. It is proposed that the approach should bring together parties to address the common root causes and to find innovative ways to accommodate multiple interests by translating beautifully written and ethically complex theories into pragmatic tools. Compassionate conservation provides a contemporary framework for animal welfare professionals and ecologists to develop new approaches...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Ron Kagan, Stephanie Allard, Scott Carter
Animal welfare concerns have plagued the professional zoo and aquarium field for decades. Societal differences remain concerning the well-being of animals, but it appears a shift is emerging. Scientific studies of animal welfare have dramatically increased, establishing that many previous concerns were not misguided public empathy or anthropomorphism. As a result, both zoo and aquarium animal welfare policy and science are now at the center of attention within the world's professional zoos and aquariums. It is now possible to view a future that embraces the well-being of individual captive exotic animals, as well as that of their species, and one in which professional zoos and aquariums are dedicated equally to advancing both...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Jessica Pierce, Marc Bekoff
Discussions on the welfare of nonhuman animals in zoos tend to focus on incremental improvements without addressing the underlying problem of captivity. But alterations to the conditions of zoo captivity are irrelevant for animals. Real zoo reform will involve working to completely change the landscape. We offer six necessary reforms to bring zoos into a more ethical future: (1) Shut down bad zoos, now; (2) stop exhibiting animals who cannot and never will do well in captivity; (3) stop killing healthy animals; (4) stop captive breeding; (5) stop moving animals around from one zoo to another; and (6) use the science of animal cognition and emotion on behalf on animals...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Kenneth Shapiro
As a founding coeditor of the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science and a member of the International Advisory Committee of the Center for Zoo Animal Welfare and Ethics (CZAWE), I welcome this opportunity to publish for the third time (see earlier issues Volume 16, Number 4 [2013] and Volume 18, Supplement [2015]) selected proceedings from the Fourth Global Animal Welfare Congress of the Detroit Zoological Society's CZAWE. I have the honor of presenting a brief overview of the congress, entitled "Zoos and Aquariums as Welfare Centers: Ethical Dimensions and Global Commitment," which was held May 3, 2017, through May 6, 2017...
2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Taher El-Demerdash, Mohamed Yousef, Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Amal Helmy, Abdelrahman Kobtan, Asem A Elfert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis viruses are not transmitted via gastrointestinal endoscopy except if there are any mistakes in sterilization and disinfection of the endoscope that disrupt the infection control measures. So we aimed to measure the risk of transmitting HCV by GI endoscopy at department of Tropical Medicine and infectious Diseases, in a major University hospital in Egypt. METHODOLOGY: Our study was conducted on four hundred patients with exclusion of those with HCV, HBV, and/or HIV positive antibodies...
October 15, 2018: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Catherine Cook-Cottone, Traci Childress, Jennifer Cohen Harper
This commentary explores the legal and ethical obligations of yoga programs and teachers to uphold both the principles and the spirit of secularism when teaching yoga in schools. Arguing that secularity is essential both to comply with legal mandates and to maximize inclusivity and access, each facet of a secular approach to yoga in schools is explored through an inquiry-based model meant to help the reader gain clarity and make informed choices when developing school-based yoga programming. This article does not address the use of nonsecular yoga for children outside the school setting...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
Gustavo Wandresen, Fernanda Sgarbi, Renato Nisihara
Enhanced health care for patients with Down syndrome (DS) results in improved overall quality of life and longer life expectancy. The main gynecologic complaints of patients with DS and their caregivers relate to menstrual cycles, hygiene and reproductive issues. Certain aspects, such as age of menarche, menstrual cycles, internal genitalia, and hormone profile are similar to those observed in the general population. However, individuals with DS may have a higher incidence of other disorders related to menstruation, such as hypothyroidism, epilepsy and use of anticonvulsants...
October 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Joshua S Everhart, Moneer M Abouljoud, Sarah G Poland, David C Flanigan
PURPOSE: To determine: (1) rates and risk factors for progression of lateral and medial full-thickness cartilage defect size in older adults without severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), and (2) whether risk factors for defect progression differ for knees with Kellgren-Lawrence OA grade 3 (moderate) OA versus grades 0-2 (none to mild) OA. METHODS: Three-hundred and eighty adults enrolled in the Osteoarthritis Initiative were included (43% male, mean age 63.0 SD 9.2 years)...
October 15, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Julio C Jiménez-Chávez, Fernando J Rosario-Maldonado, Jeremy A Torres, Axel Ramos-Lucca, Eida M Castro-Figueroa, Lydia Santiago
Purpose: The community-based participatory research approach has been identified as a great asset in reducing health disparities through the integration of community members in all phases of the research process. It is essential to provide skills to community members to achieve successful research partnerships. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of the community-based participatory research training curriculum for community members. Methods: Using mixed-methods, noncomparative design, eight workshops were developed and tested...
2018: Health Equity
Ilan Gielchinsky, Matthijs J Scheltema, Thomas Cusick, John Chang, Ron Shnier, Daniel Moses, Warick Delprado, Quoc Nguyen, Carlo Yuen, Anne-Maree Haynes, Phillip D Stricker
Introduction: Three percent of all new diagnosed prostate cancer (PC) patients are under the age of 50. Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is considered as increasingly powerful tool for decision-making in diagnosis of PC and in some active surveillance protocols. Since prostate architecture changes with age, we evaluated the sensitivity of mpMRI to detect clinically significant PC in patients under the age of 50 compared to pair-matched older patients. Methods: Data from a prospective collected and ethics approved database were retrospectively analyzed...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Irene Lacal, Rossella Ventura
Parents' stressful experiences can influence an offspring's vulnerability to many pathological conditions, including psychopathologies, and their effects may even endure for several generations. Nevertheless, the cause of this phenomenon has not been determined, and only recently have scientists turned to epigenetics to answer this question. There is extensive literature on epigenetics, but no consensus exists with regard to how and what can (and must) be considered to study and define epigenetics processes and their inheritance...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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