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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517553/-the-production-of-the-fetus-as-a-subject-of-rights-qualitative-analysis-of-medical-catholic-discourses-in-chile
#1
Claudia Calquín Donoso, Jennifer Cerda Guinez, Cristopher Yáñez-Urbina
This article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying and analyzing the discursive construction of the fetus as a subject of rights on the part of medical-religious institutions in the discussion of the decriminalization of abortion due to three causes in Chile during the 2013-2016 period. To this end, a triangulation was carried out based on an analysis of thematic content and an analysis of certain discursive strategies from the critical discourse analysis perspective using a textual corpus composed of 16 documents...
July 2018: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517506/-spanish-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-institutional-review-board-researcher-assessment-tool-irb-rat
#2
Joel Christian Roque-Henriquez, Juan Carlos Bazo-Alvarez, Agueda Muñoz Del Carpio Toia, Wilfredo Mormontoy-Laurel
OBJECTIVE.: To assess the reliability and validity of the translated and culturally-adapted Institutional Review Board Researcher Assessment Tool (IRB-RAT) for Peruvian research ethics committees (RECs). MATERIALS AND METHODS.: The IRB-RAT is an instrument that determines how RECs are perceived by researchers based on eight factors, using two formats: 1) importance in the work of the researcher and 2) descriptive of the REC being evaluated. Its original English version was translated and culturally adapted into Spanish, with the support of experts and representatives of the target population...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517358/trauma-and-early-blood-transfusion-the-challenging-hemorrhage-management-in-jehovah-s-witnesses
#3
Giacomo Lamarão Lima, Jonas Byk
The management of patients, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, who refuse to receive blood transfusions, is often a medical challenge, not only because of the ethical dilemma, but also because it creates a major obstacle to rapid hemorrhage control in a setting of trauma. This article explores the reasons for this conflict between the physician's duty of care and the respect for the patient's autonomy, and draws a panorama of the main understandings of the Judiciary on the subject. Finally, it is concluded that the manifestation of the patient's will, although free, is not enough to release the doctor from his (her) duty of care...
November 29, 2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517307/precision-medicine-changing-the-way-we-think-about-healthcare
#4
Gustavo Rosa Gameiro, Viktor Sinkunas, Gabriel Romero Liguori, José Otavio Costa Auler-Júnior
Health care has changed since the decline in mortality caused by infectious diseases as well as chronic and non-contagious diseases, with a direct impact on the cost of public health and individual health care. We must now transition from traditional reactive medicine based on symptoms, diagnosis and treatment to a system that targets the disease before it occurs and, if it cannot be avoided, treats the disease in a personalized manner. Precision Medicine is that new way of thinking about medicine. In this paper, we performed a thorough review of the literature to present an updated review on the subject, discussing the impact of the use of genetics and genomics in the care process as well as medical education, clinical research and ethical issues...
December 3, 2018: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517273/evaluation-of-the-sensitivity-of-the-psychosocial-scale-of-facial-appearance-in-peripheral-facial-paralysis
#5
Mabile Francine Ferreira Silva, Stela Verzinhasse Peres, Paulo Roberto Lazarini, Maria Claudia Cunha
PURPOSE: To investigate the sensitivity and internal consistency of the Psychosocial Scale of Facial Appearance (PSFA) based on the comparison between its results and those from other facial functional assessment instruments: House-Brackmann scale (HBS) and Facial Grading System - and the psychosocial implications measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). METHODS: The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the aforementioned Institution under protocols no...
November 29, 2018: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517268/effects-of-cochlear-implantation-on-adulthood
#6
Sheila de Souza Vieira, Giselle Dupas, Brasilia Maria Chiari
PURPOSE: To understand the benefits of cochlear implantation in adulthood under the perspective of users. METHODS: Qualitative study using Symbolic Interactionism and Straussian Grounded Theory as theoretical and methodological frameworks, respectively. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the aforementioned Institution (Opinion no. 482,019). Sixteen adult cochlear implant (CI) users aged 28-58 years participated in the study. The data collection instrument was a semi-structured interview with questions about changes caused by CI in the social relations, communication, family system, and personal, academic and professional spheres of life of users...
November 29, 2018: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516707/the-cno-us-healthcare-immersion-program-part-2-expanding-the-footprint-of-professional-nursing
#7
Dawna L Cato, John R Bowles, Veronica Carmack, Fuyang Liu, Mary T McFadden
As global leaders, US nurses will have an increasingly recognized role and responsibility in shaping health care in all countries. They should be at the forefront of changing and improving health systems to achieve universal health. Currently, a major health care reform is underway that requires a shift in the professional nursing footprint of China's nurse leaders. These leaders must garner knowledge capital to reinforce ethics, regulations, and standards; use current best practices; implement a comprehensive performance evaluation process; and capture the spirit of caring within their health care environments...
January 2019: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516606/ethical-considerations-in-end-of-life-care-in-the-face-of-clinical-futility
#8
Joseph S Kass, Ariane Lewis, Michael A Rubin
Management of patients with terminal brain disorders can be medically, socially, and ethically complex. Although a growing number of feasible treatment options may exist, there are times when further treatment can no longer meaningfully improve either quality or length of life. Clinicians and patients should discuss goals of care while patients are capable of making their own decisions. However, because such discussions can be challenging, they are often postponed. These discussions are then conducted with patients' health care proxies after patients lose the capacity to make their own decisions...
December 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516517/clinical-ethics-committees-overview-of-the-european-experience
#9
N Pitskhelauri
Making appropriate medical decisions in the best interest of the patient and in a line with the patient's autonomy, rights, dignity and plurality of values, are very important. In order to reach those goals and develop patient-oriented health service, Clinical Ethics Committees (CECs) support could make a great contribution. European countries (Netherland, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Norway, UK) are experiencing an exponential rise in the number of CECs as a mechanism to address the new ethical dilemmas in clinical settings, however the practice of CECs are facing barriers in transitional countries in central, eastern, and southeastern Europe...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516243/validation-of-an-in-vivo-medical-image-based-young-human-lumbar-spine-finite-element-model
#10
Matthew Mills, Nesrin Sarigul-Klijn
Mathematical models of the human spine can be used to investigate spinal biomechanics without the difficulties, limitations and ethical concerns associated with physical experimentation. Validation of such models is necessary to ensure the modeled system behavior accurately represents the physics of the actual system. The goal of this work was to validate a medical image-based nonlinear lumbosacral spine finite element model of a healthy 20-year-old female subject under physiological moments. Range of motion, facet joint forces, and intradiscal pressure were compared with experimental values and validated finite element models from the literature...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515680/a-clinically-structured-and-partnered-approach-to-genetic-testing-in-trinidadian-women-with-breast-cancer-and-their-families
#11
Talia Donenberg, Sophia George, Jameel Ali, Gabriela Bravo, Karen Hernandez, Navin Sookar, Kimlin Tam Ashing, Steven A Narod, Mohammad R Akbari, Judith Hurley
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer (BC) is the leading cause of cancer death in Caribbean women. Across the Caribbean islands, the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer among unselected breast cancer patients ranges from 5 to 25%. Moreover, the prevalence of BC among younger women and the high mortality in the Caribbean region are notable. This BC burden presents an opportunity for cancer prevention and control that begins with genetic testing among high-risk women. Measured response to positive genetic test results includes the number of preventive procedures and cascade testing in family members...
December 4, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515613/abdominal-ct-a-radiologist-driven-adjustment-of-the-dose-of-iodinated-contrast-agent-approaches-a-calculation-per-lean-body-weight
#12
Moreno Zanardo, Fabio Martino Doniselli, Anastassia Esseridou, Stefania Tritella, Chiara Mattiuz, Laura Menicagli, Giovanni Di Leo, Francesco Sardanelli
BACKGROUND: The contrast agent (CA) dose for abdominal computed tomography (CT) is typically based on patient total body weight (TBW), ignoring adipose tissue distribution. We report on our experience of dosing according to the lean body weight (LBW). METHODS: After Ethics Committee approval, we retrospectively screened 219 consecutive patients, 18 being excluded for not matching the inclusion criteria. Thus, 201 were analysed (106 males), all undergoing a contrast-enhanced abdominal CT with iopamidol (370 mgI/mL) or iomeprol (400 mgI/mL)...
December 5, 2018: European radiology experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515436/functional-movement-disorders-and-placebo-a-brief-review-of-the-placebo-effect-in-movement-disorders-and-ethical-considerations-for-placebo-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Bonnie M Kaas, Casey Jo Humbyrd, Alexander Pantelyat
Background: Functional movement disorders are common and disabling neurologic conditions. Patients with functional neurologic disorders represent a large proportion of neurology clinic referrals, and limited availability of subspecialty care creates a considerable burden for the healthcare system. These conditions are currently treated with a combination of physical therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, with variable success. Methods: We searched the Medline database for studies on the epidemiology and physiology of functional movement disorders, as well as those on the placebo effect in movement disorders...
September 2018: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515119/on-the-development-of-a-computer-based-tool-for-formative-student-assessment-epistemological-methodological-and-practical-issues
#14
Martin J Tomasik, Stéphanie Berger, Urs Moser
Formative assessments in schools have the potential to improve students' learning outcomes and self-regulation skills; they make learning visible and provide evidence-based guidelines for setting up and pursuing individual learning goals. With the recent introduction of the computer-based formative assessment systems for the educational contexts, there is much hope that such systems will provide teachers and students with valuable information to guide the learning process without taking much time from teaching and learning to spend on generating, evaluating and interpreting assessments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514611/provider-perceptions-opinions-and-insights-into-uterine-transplantation-in-canada
#15
Jacques Balayla, Togas Tulandi
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate perceptions and insights regarding uterine transplantation among members of a women's health care national specialty organization in Canada. METHODS: The investigators obtained permission and used an electronic survey developed by Bortoletto et al. to conduct a cross-sectional study of members of the SOGC between April and May 2018. Participants were requested to answer a total of 29 questions grouped into four different categories: personal opinions and attitudes, medical opinions, ethical opinions, and demographics...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514606/-funding-for-national-ethics-committees-for-health-research-in-member-states-of-the-economic-community-of-west-african-states
#16
I Sombié, E Johnson, J Aidam
BACKGROUND: The financing of national research ethics committees for health is a decisive factor in their proper functioning and independence. Little information is available concerning the funding of these committees in West Africa. AIM: To analyze the funding of national research ethic committees for health in the Member States of the Economic Community of West African States. METHODS: A review of the documents from two regional workshops with the participation of the representatives of the national ethics committees of each ECOWAS Member State was carried out...
December 1, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514550/personalised-medicine-and-medical-imaging-opportunities-and-challenges-for-contemporary-health-care
#17
Jerome Atutornu, Christopher M Hayre
This commentary offers a contemporary perspective on personalised medicine (PM) within diagnostic radiography. PM refers to the use of a person's genetic information in tailoring strategies for the detection, treatment, or prevention of disease. Some key issues are raised in light of this new specialty and how it may affect diagnostic imaging. First, technological and commercial drivers are outlined, supported with ethical considerations. The authors then offer some future challenges that remain evident within the literature...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514394/respectful-and-disrespectful-care-in-the-czech-republic-an-online-survey
#18
Cecily Begley, Natalie Sedlicka, Deirdre Daly
BACKGROUND: Respectful maternity care includes treating women with dignity, consulting them about preferences, gaining consent for treatment, respecting their wishes, and giving care based on evidence, not routines. In the absence of any documented evidence, this study aimed to ascertain maternity care-givers' perceptions of respectful care provided for childbearing women in Czech Republic. METHODS: Following ethical approval, an online quantitative survey with qualitative comments was completed by 52 respondents recruited from workshops on promoting normal birth, followed by snowball sampling...
December 4, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514356/factor-xiii-activity-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-ulcerative-colitis-and-active-bleeding-a-prospective-observational-study
#19
Karsten Bernerth, Ingolf Schiefke, Karin Liebscher, Susanne Raczynski, Tanja Kottmann, Niels Teich
OBJECTIVE: Coagulation factor XIII plays a key role in fibrin clot stabilization and epithelial healing. Under chronic inflammatory conditions involving bleeding and an activation of the coagulation cascade, the FXIIIa inversely correlate with disease activity. We assumed that FXIIIa could be a predictor of severity in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Here, we evaluated the course of plasma activity of FXIIIa in 49 patients with mild to moderate UC and active rectal bleeding. Patients with a partial Mayo bleeding subscore > 2 were eligible to participate in our prospective observational study in an outpatient setting...
December 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514353/development-and-evaluation-of-caries-qc-a-caries-specific-measure-of-quality-of-life-for-children
#20
Fiona Gilchrist, Helen D Rodd, Chris Deery, Zoe Marshman
BACKGROUND: Existing paediatric oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures are generic instruments designed to evaluate a range of oral conditions. It has been found that disease-specific measures may be more adept at detecting subtle changes which occur following treatment of the condition in question. Furthermore, existing self-report OHRQoL measures have not involved children at all stages of development of the measure. The aim of this study was to develop a caries-specific measure of quality of life for children...
December 4, 2018: BMC Oral Health
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