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Bruce C Koppen, Patrick P G Mulder, Leonie de Boer, Martijn Riool, Jan W Drijfhout, Sebastian A J Zaat
Antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation are the major reasons for failure in treatment of bacterial infections. We therefore aimed to identify synergistic combinations of conventional antibiotics and novel Synthetic Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Peptides (SAAPs) inspired by the structures of the natural human cationic peptides LL-37 and thrombocidin-1 (TC-1). The LL-37-inspired lead peptide SAAP-148 was combined with antibiotics of different classes against Staphylococcus aureus and showed synergy with teicoplanin...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Zhengxin Xie, Jun Tang, Xiangwei Wu, Xuede Li, Rimao Hua
The antibiotic tetracycline (TC) is widespread in surface waters, but few data are available regarding its adverse effects on aquatic insects. In this study, we investigated the bioconcentration, metabolism, and effects of TC on Chironomus riparius larvae exposed to different concentrations of TC (1.83, 18.5 and 174 μg L-1 ) for 48 h. The bioconcentration factors were 3.65, 0.74 and 0.23 in larvae with exposure to 1.83, 18.5 and 174 μg L-1 TC, respectively. High concentration ratios of the metabolites anhydrotetracycline (0...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Young Seob Kim, Hyun Jin Park, Jung Hwa Park, Eun Ji Hong, Gun-Young Jang, In Duk Jung, Hee Dong Han, Seung-Hyun Lee, Manh-Cuong Vo, Je-Jung Lee, Andrew Yang, Emily Farmer, T-C Wu, Tae Heung Kang, Yeong-Min Park
Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccines are recognized as a promising immunotherapeutic strategy against cancer. Various adjuvants are often incorporated to enhance the modest immunogenicity of DC vaccines. More specifically, many of the commonly used adjuvants are derived from bacteria. In the current study, we evaluate the use of apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API5), a damage-associated molecular pattern expressed by many human cancer cells, as a novel DC vaccine adjuvant. We showed that API5 can prompt activation and maturation of DCs and activate NFkB by stimulating the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Yuki Fukushima, Masanori Someya, Kensei Nakata, Masakazu Hori, Mio Kitagawa, Tomokazu Hasegawa, Takaaki Tsuchiya, Toshio Gocho, Hikaru Ikeda, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Toshihiko Torigoe, Shintaro Sugita, Tadashi Hasegawa, Tetsuo Himi, Koh-Ichi Sakata
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate influences of proteins involved with tumor immunity on outcomes of radiotherapy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical staining to examine expressions of p16 and proteins involved with tumor immunity in 92 OPSCC patients treated with radiotherapy. RESULTS: Patients with abundant infiltrating CD8-positive cells had the significantly better overall survival (OS) rate than patients with fewer CD8-positive cells (p = 0...
September 21, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Ho-Young Jang, Baek-Sang Han, Byungsuk Kwon, Jeong-Im Sin
The role of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor immunotherapy is still controversial. In this study, we test using a TC-1 tumor model whether gemcitabine plus E7 peptide vaccine regimens (E7 peptides+CpG-ODN+anti-4-1BB Abs) may result in tumor cure in mice with large established tumors, with a focus on their effects on Ag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and myeloid-derived suppressor cell levels. Gemcitabine inhibited tumor growth by its direct cytotoxicity to tumor cells in vivo. E7 peptide vaccine regimens enhanced Ag-specific CTL lytic and antitumor therapeutic activity...
October 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Olena Sapega, Romana Mikyšková, Jana Bieblová, Blanka Mrázková, Zdeněk Hodný, Milan Reiniš
Cellular senescence is the process of the permanent proliferative arrest of cells in response to various inducers. It is accompanied by typical morphological changes, in addition to the secretion of bioactive molecules, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines [known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP)]. Thus, senescent cells may affect their local environment and induce a so-called 'bystander' senescence through the state of SASP. The phenotypes of senescent cells are determined by the type of agent inducing cellular stress and the cell lineages...
November 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jin Qiu, Shiwen Peng, Andrew Yang, Ying Ma, Liping Han, Max A Cheng, Emily Farmer, Chien-Fu Hung, T-C Wu
Purpose : Mucosal immunization is suggested to be crucial for controlling tumors in the mucosal region; however, therapeutic DNA vaccination with electroporation in various mucosal sites has yet to become clinically adaptable. Since tumor-draining lymph nodes (tdLNs) have been suggested as immune-educated sites that can be utilized to mount a potent antitumor immune response, we examined whether intramuscular DNA vaccination with electroporation at sites that target the mucosal tdLNs could elicit mucosal immune response to restrict tumor growth...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Xin Lu, Beibei Tang, Qi Zhang, Lizhu Liu, Ruqin Fan, Zhenhua Zhang
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption characteristics of tetracycline (TC), and the interactive effects of copper (Cu) on the adsorption of TC onto water hyacinth roots. TC removal efficiency by water hyacinth roots was ranging from 58.9% to 84.6%, for virgin TC, 1:1 TC-Cu and 1:2 TC-Cu. The Freundlich isotherm model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted the adsorption data well. Thermodynamics parameters ΔG ⁰ for TC were more negative in the TC plus Cu than the TC-only treatments, indicating the spontaneity of TC adsorption increased with increasing of Cu concentrations...
September 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amir Hossein Mohseni, Vadood Razavilar, Hossein Keyvani, Mohammad Reza Razavi, Ramazan Ali Khavari-Nejad
The ORFs of both native and codon-optimized E7 genes were successfully fused to SPusp45 signal peptide and expressed by a nisin-controlled gene expression system (NICE) in NZ9000 strains of Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant strains were confirmed by Western blot analysis. To measure immune responses against the E7 antigen, specific-pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with L. lactis harboring pNZ8123-rE7 by oral gavage. Then, specific antibodies and cytokines were measured by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, respectively...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Ana C R Moreno, Bruna F M M Porchia, Roberta L Pagni, Patrícia da Cruz Souza, Rafael Pegoraro, Karine B Rodrigues, Tácita B Barros, Luana R de Melo Moraes Aps, Eliseu F de Araújo, Vera L G Calich, Luís C de Souza Ferreira
Immunotherapy has become an important ally in the fight against distinct types of cancer. However, the metabolic plasticity of the tumor environment frequently influences the efficacy of therapeutic procedures, including those based on immunological tools. In this scenario, immunometabolic adjuvants arise as an alternative toward the development of more efficient cancer therapies. Here we demonstrated that the combination of melatonin, a neuroimmunomodulator molecule, and an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor (1-methyl-DL-tryptophan, DL-1MT) improves the efficacy of an immunotherapy (gDE7) targeting human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tumors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shunsuke Tomomori, Yukiko Nakano, Hidenori Ochi, Yuko Onohara, Akinori Sairaku, Takehito Tokuyama, Chikaaki Motoda, Hiroya Matsumura, Michitaka Amioka, Naoya Hironobe, Yousaku Ookubo, Shou Okamura, Hiroshi Kawazoe, Kazuaki Chayama, Yasuki Kihara
INTRODUCTION: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2106261 in the transcription factor gene ZFHX3 (16q22), a major regulator of inflammation, has been reported linking to atrial fibrillation (AF) by genome-wide association studies. Inflammation is known to be a strong predictor of atrial fibrillation recurrence after ablation, so we examined the association of the ZFHX3 SNP rs2106261 to inflammation marker expression and recurrence after AF ablation. METHODS: We genotyped ZFHX3 SNP rs2106261 and compared the minor (T) allele frequency between 362 paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and 627 non-AF controls...
2018: PloS One
Gabriele Galliverti, Mélanie Tichet, Sonia Domingos-Pereira, Sylvie Hauert, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger, Melody A Swartz, Douglas Hanahan, Stephan Wullschleger
Treatment of patients bearing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers with synthetic long-peptide (SLP) therapeutic vaccines has shown promising results in clinical trials against premalignant lesions, whereas responses against later stage carcinomas have remained elusive. We show that conjugation of a well-documented HPV-E7 SLP to ultra-small polymeric nanoparticles (NP) enhances the antitumor efficacy of therapeutic vaccination in different mouse models of HPV+ cancers. Immunization of TC-1 tumor-bearing mice with a single dose of NP-conjugated E7LP (NP-E7LP) generated a larger pool of E7-specific CD8+ T cells with increased effector functions than unconjugated free E7LP...
August 21, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
Jung Min Shin, Seok Ho Song, N Vijayakameswara Rao, Eun Sook Lee, Hyewon Ko, Jae Hyung Park
Background: Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which eliminate target cells bearing antigenic peptides presented by surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, play a key role in cancer immunotherapy. However, the majority of tumors are not immunologically rejected since they express self-antigens which are not recognized by CTLs as foreign. To foreignize these tumors for CTL-mediated immunological rejection, it is essential to develop carriers that can effectively deliver foreign antigens to cancer cells...
2018: Biomaterials Research
Samaneh Kameli, Ali Mehrizad
Recent improvements based on heterojunction nanocomposites have opened new possibilities in photocatalysis. In this research, an ultrasound assisted co-precipitation method was used to fabricate silver, zinc sulfide, and reduced graphene oxide (Ag-ZnS/rGO) nanocomposite, and characterization results indicated that 3% Ag-ZnS spherical nanoparticles are successfully embedded in rGO matrix. The potential of the Ag-ZnS/rGO, as a visible light active photocatalyst, was assessed through optimizing degradation of Tetracycline (TC) by response surface methodology...
August 14, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Xi Yang, Xianzhong Yu, Yanzhang Wei
Many of the cytokine-based cancer immunotherapies are hindered by the devastating side effects of systemic delivery of the cytokines. To address this problem, we previously described a novel approach to locally achieve high doses of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in tumors and demonstrated that bi-functional fusion protein mIL-12/FasTI expressed by stable clones of TC-1 cells efficiently suppressed tumor proliferation by activating natural killer (NK) cells and other cytolytic killer cells and sending apoptotic signals into tumor cells...
2018: PloS One
Yoshiyuki Hattori, Mari Nakamura, Nozomi Takeuchi, Kyoko Tamaki, Satono Shimizu, Yuki Yoshiike, Masamitsu Taguchi, Hiroaki Ohno, Kei-Ichi Ozaki, Hiraku Onishi
Cationic liposomes composed of dialkyl cationic lipid such as 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) can efficiently deliver siRNA to the lungs following the intravenous injection of cationic liposome/siRNA complexes (lipoplexes). In this study, we examined the effect of cationic lipid of cationic liposomes on siRNA delivery to the lungs after intravenous injection. We used six kinds of cationic cholesterol derivatives and 11 kinds of dialkyl or trialkyl cationic lipids as cationic lipids, and prepared 17 kinds of cationic liposomes composed of a cationic lipid and 1,2-dioleoyl-L-α-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) for evaluation of siRNA biodistribution and in vivo gene silencing effects...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Diana Belén Sánchez-Rodríguez, Jaime Ortega-López, Rosa Elena Cárdenas-Guerra, Gerardo Reséndiz-Cardiel, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Anel Lagunes-Guillen, Rossana Arroyo
Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protist responsible for human trichomoniasis. T. vaginalis has three genes encoding for endogenous cysteine proteinase (CP) inhibitors, known as trichocystatin-1 through trichocystatin-3 (TC-1, TC-2, and TC-3). These inhibitors belong to the cystatin family. In this study, we characterized trichocystatin-3 (TC-3), an endogenous cysteine proteinase (CP) inhibitor of T. vaginalis. TC-3 possesses a signal peptide in the N-terminus and two putative glycosylation sites (typical of family 2, cystatins) but lacks the PW motif and cysteine residues (typical of family 1, stefins)...
September 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Anagh Bhaumik, Ritesh Sachan, Jagdish Narayan
Dimensional fluctuations and magnetic relaxations in high-temperature superconductors are key considerations for practical applications in high-speed electronic devices. We report the creep of trapped magnetic flux and three-dimensional critical fluctuations near the superconducting transition temperature (Tc = 36 K) in B-doped amorphous Q-carbon. The superconducting phase in B-doped Q-carbon is formed by nanosecond pulsed laser melting in a super undercooled state followed by subsequent quenching. Time-dependent magnetic moment measurements in the B-doped Q-carbon follow the Anderson-Kim logarithmic decay model with the calculated value of pinning potential to be 0...
July 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Xiaojie Chu, Yang Li, Weiwei Huang, Xuejun Feng, Pengyan Sun, Yufeng Yao, Xu Yang, Wenjia Sun, Hongmei Bai, Cunbao Liu, Yanbing Ma
Therapeutic vaccine appears to be a potential approach for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tumours, but its efficacy can be dampened by immunosuppressive factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. We sought to investigate whether active immunity against TGF-β1 enhances the anti-tumour immunity elicited by an HPV16 E7-specific vaccine that we developed previously. In this study, virus-like particles of hepatitis B virus core antigen were used as vaccine carriers to deliver either TGF-β1 B cell epitopes or E7 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope...
June 22, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Anthonisamy Devaraj, Ennio Zangrando, Partha Sarathi Mukherjee
Water-soluble Pd12 L6 coordination cage TC-1 was synthesized by coordination-driven self-assembly of symmetrical tetrapyridyl donor L with 90° ditopic acceptor cis-[Pd(NO3 )2 (tmeda)] [tmeda=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethane-1,2-diamine]. The Pd12 L6 coordination assembly is an uncommon example of a coordination cage having triangular orthobicupola-like geometry. It was characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, ESI-MS, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Self-assembly of a tetratopic donor with a cis-blocked 90° ditopic acceptor generally yields tri-/tetra-/hexagonal barrels or closed cubic cages...
September 18, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
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