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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882597/morphological-analyses-in-fragility-of-pili-torti-with-bj%C3%A3-rnstad-syndrome
#1
Yuki Marubashi, Takeshi Yanagishita, Jun Muto, Nobuhiko Taguchi, Kazumitsu Sugiura, Yoshiyuki Kawamoto, Masashi Akiyama, Daisuke Watanabe
Pili torti is an extremely rare hair phenotype characterized by short length of hairs with hair shafts being easily broken. However, the mechanism of fragility in pili torti is unclear. In this study, we examined the underlying morphological features responsible for pili torti formation using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We used pili torti samples from a patient with Björnstad syndrome and normal hairs from a healthy subject as a comparison. The macroscopic morphological features of the samples agreed with the results of a previous study showing that pili torti is twisted, flattened, thin and with partial trichorrhexis...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866708/mutations-in-three-genes-encoding-proteins-involved-in-hair-shaft-formation-cause-uncombable-hair-syndrome
#2
F Buket Ü Basmanav, Laura Cau, Aylar Tafazzoli, Marie-Claire Méchin, Sabrina Wolf, Maria Teresa Romano, Frederic Valentin, Henning Wiegmann, Anne Huchenq, Rima Kandil, Natalie Garcia Bartels, Arzu Kilic, Susannah George, Damian J Ralser, Stefan Bergner, David J P Ferguson, Ana-Maria Oprisoreanu, Maria Wehner, Holger Thiele, Janine Altmüller, Peter Nürnberg, Daniel Swan, Darren Houniet, Aline Büchner, Lisa Weibel, Nicola Wagner, Ramon Grimalt, Anette Bygum, Guy Serre, Ulrike Blume-Peytavi, Eli Sprecher, Susanne Schoch, Vinzenz Oji, Henning Hamm, Paul Farrant, Michel Simon, Regina C Betz
Uncombable hair syndrome (UHS), also known as "spun glass hair syndrome," "pili trianguli et canaliculi," or "cheveux incoiffables" is a rare anomaly of the hair shaft that occurs in children and improves with age. UHS is characterized by dry, frizzy, spangly, and often fair hair that is resistant to being combed flat. Until now, both simplex and familial UHS-affected case subjects with autosomal-dominant as well as -recessive inheritance have been reported. However, none of these case subjects were linked to a molecular genetic cause...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837565/cryopreservation-of-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hap-stem-cells-maintains-differentiation-and-hair-growth-potential
#3
Robert M Hoffman, Satoshi Kajiura, Wenluo Cao, Fang Liu, Yasuyuki Amoh
Hair follicles contain nestin-expressing pluripotent stem cells which originate above the bulge area of the follicle, below the sebaceous gland. We have termed these cells hair follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells. We have established efficient cryopreservation methods of the hair follicle that maintain the pluripotency of HAP stem cells as well as hair growth. We cryopreserved the whole hair follicle by slow-rate cooling in TC-Protector medium or in DMSO-containing medium and storage in liquid nitrogen or at -80 °C...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766696/clinical-ultrasonographic-and-arthroscopic-characteristics-of-hair-shafts-within-synovial-structures-of-seven-horses
#4
Jessica L Partlow, Meghann Lustgarten, W Rich Redding
To the authors' knowledge, the ultrasonographic appearance of hair shafts within a synovial structure of the horse has not been described previously. The purpose of this descriptive study was to illustrate the clinical, ultrasonographic, and arthroscopic characteristics of confirmed hair shafts within synovial structures of seven horses. A review of medical records of the Farm and Equine Veterinary Medical Center at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine identified seven horses with clinical signs suspicious for inflammatory or septic synovitis/tenosynovitis that had hair shafts identified within those structures ultrasonographically...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746630/isolation-and-quantification-of-glycosaminoglycans-from-human-hair-shaft
#5
Eleni Maniatopoulou, Stefanos Bonovas, Nikolaos Sitaras
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. METHODS: Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9)...
October 2016: Annals of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741315/a-high-yield-two-hour-protocol-for-extraction-of-human-hair-shaft-proteins
#6
Sing Ying Wong, Ching Chin Lee, Ali Ashrafzadeh, Sarni Mat Junit, Nazirahanie Abrahim, Onn Haji Hashim
Proteome analysis of the human hair remains challenging due to the poor solubility of hair proteins and the difficulty in their extraction. In the present study, we have developed a rapid extraction protocol for hair shaft protein using alkaline-based buffer. The new protocol accelerated the procedure by reducing the extraction time from at least a day to less than two hours and showed a protein recovery of 47.3 ± 3.72%. Further analyses of the extracted protein sample through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis unveiled a total of 60 proteins, including 25 that were not previously reported...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718775/breaking-the-cycle-of-hair-breakage-pearls-for-the-management-of-acquired-trichorrhexis-nodosa
#7
Alessandra Haskin, Shawn G Kwatra, Crystal Aguh
Acquired trichorrhexis nodosa is a common cause of hair loss for patients of all ethnicities. It is especially prevalent in black patients with tightly curled hair types and can present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges due to structural differences in these hair types and the combination of various hair care and styling practices that contribute to hair damage. While scalp biopsies can help rule out other etiologies of hair loss, there is a paucity of histologic findings in acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, making this primarily a clinical diagnosis...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676122/2-photon-microscopy-for-intra-cutaneous-imaging-of-stem-cell-activity-in-mice
#8
Sixia Huang, Panteleimon Rompolas
The adult skin is a typical example of a highly regenerative tissue. Terminally differentiated keratinocytes are shed from the external layers of the epidermis or extruded from the skin as part of the growing hair shaft on a daily basis. These are effectively replenished through the activity of skin-resident stem cells. Precise regulation of stem cell activity is critical for normal skin homeostasis or wound healing and irregular stem cell proliferation or differentiation can lead to skin disease. The scarcity and dynamic nature of stem cells presents a major challenge for elucidating their mechanism of action...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651556/acute-poisoning-in-a-child-following-topical-treatment-of-head-lice-pediculosis-capitis-with-an-organophosphate-pesticide
#9
Muddathir H Hamad, Ahmed Awad Adeel, Ali Abdu N Alhaboob, Ahmed M Ashri, Mustafa A Salih
This is a case report of acute organophosphate poisoning in a child treated with topical application of Diazinon-60 (WHO Class II toxicity) for head lice (pediculosis capitis). The patient presented with neurological symptoms and signs. After emergency respiratory and circulatory resuscitation the patient underwent dermal decontamination and was treated with atropine, high flow oxygen and pralidoxime. Scanning electron micrographs of scalp hair specimens revealed both viable and empty head lice nits (lice eggs that attach to the hair shaft)...
2016: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625564/characterization-of-ovine-dermal-papilla-cell-aggregation
#10
Agnes Rosarina Prita Sari, Nicholas Wolfgang Rufaut, Leslie Norman Jones, Rodney Daniel Sinclair
CONTEXT: The dermal papilla (DP) is a condensation of mesenchymal cells at the proximal end of the hair follicle, which determines hair shaft size and regulates matrix cell proliferation and differentiation. DP cells have the ability to regenerate new hair follicles. These cells tend to aggregate both in vitro and in vivo. This tendency is associated with the ability of papilla cells to induce hair growth. However, human papilla cells lose their hair-inducing activity in later passage number...
July 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617598/yellow-hair-following-sequential-application-of-bacitracin-zinc-and-selenium-sulfide-report-of-acquired-xanthotrichosis-and-review-of-yellow-hair-discoloration
#11
Christopher S Crowley, Philip R Cohen
BackgroundAcquired yellow hair (xanthotrichosis) can result from the deposition of pigmented compounds on the hair shaft or from chemical modification of hair pigment and protein molecules.PurposeA white-haired 77-year-old woman who developed xanthotrichosis of her scalp hair following the sequential application of bacitracin zinc ointment and selenium sulfide 2.5% lotion is described and the causes of yellow hair discoloration are reviewed.Materials and methodsThe clinical features of a woman with acquired yellow hair discoloration are presented...
2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613970/trixy-homogeneous-genetic-sexing-of-highly-degraded-forensic-samples-including-hair-shafts
#12
Maria-Bernadette Madel, Harald Niederstätter, Walther Parson
Sexing of biological evidence is an important aspect in forensic investigations. A routinely used molecular-genetic approach to this endeavour is the amelogenin sex test, which is integrated in most commercially available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kits for human identification. However, this assay is not entirely effective in respect to highly degraded DNA samples. This study presents a homogeneous PCR assay for robust sex diagnosis, especially for the analysis of severely fragmented DNA. The introduced triplex for the X and Y chromosome (TriXY) is based on real-time PCR amplification of short intergenic sequences (<50bp) on both gonosomes...
September 3, 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603779/demonstration-of-protein-based-human-identification-using-the-hair-shaft-proteome
#13
Glendon J Parker, Tami Leppert, Deon S Anex, Jonathan K Hilmer, Nori Matsunami, Lisa Baird, Jeffery Stevens, Krishna Parsawar, Blythe P Durbin-Johnson, David M Rocke, Chad Nelson, Daniel J Fairbanks, Andrew S Wilson, Robert H Rice, Scott R Woodward, Brian Bothner, Bradley R Hart, Mark Leppert
Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601867/scanning-electron-microscopy-study-of-hair-shaft-damage-secondary-to-cosmetic-treatments-of-the-hair
#14
Feroze Kaliyadan, B B Gosai, Walid Naief Al Melhim, Kaberi Feroze, Habib Ahmad Qureshi, Sayed Ibrahim, Joel Kuruvilla
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND: Cosmetic procedures for hair, such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening, are commonly used around the world. It has been suggested that excessive use of such procedures can cause damage to the hair shaft. We aimed to assess hair shaft changes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in female volunteers who frequently use hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening. METHODS: A cross-sectional, controlled study in a sample of 25 female volunteers (19 study group and 6 controls) in the age group of 18-45 years...
April 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548103/follicle-microstructure-and-innervation-vary-between-pinniped-micro-and-macrovibrissae
#15
Erin E Mattson, Christopher D Marshall
Histological data from terrestrial, semiaquatic, and fully aquatic mammal vibrissa (whisker) studies indicate that follicle microstructure and innervation vary across the mystacial vibrissal array (i.e. medial microvibrissae to lateral macrovibrissae). However, comparative data are lacking, and current histological studies on pinniped vibrissae only focus on the largest ventrolateral vibrissae. Consequently, we investigated the microstructure, medial-to-lateral innervation, and morphometric trends in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) vibrissal follicle-sinus complexes (F-SCs)...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543435/5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-induced-effluvium-via-p53-mediated-cd326-positive-keratinocyte-apoptosis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#16
Kyung-Jun Uh, Woo-Sung Hwang, Ji-Hyun Bae, Da-Eun Jang, Su-Cheong Yeom
Anagen effluvium develops because of disturbances in the hair follicle cycle, leading to acute and severe hair loss in humans. The objective of this study was to establish a mouse model of anagen effluvium by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) treatment, and evaluate the pathological changes and underlying mechanisms. We treated 9-10-day-old pups and 3-7-week-old C57BL/6 mice with BrdU. After successfully inducing hair loss in the neonatal pups, microscopic, immunohistochemical and flow cytometry analyses were conducted...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27533897/hair-plucking-stress-and-urinary-cortisol-among-captive-bonobos-pan-paniscus
#17
Colin M Brand, Klaree J Boose, Erica C Squires, Linda F Marchant, Frances J White, Audra Meinelt, J Josh Snodgrass
Hair plucking has been observed in many captive primate species, including the great apes; however, the etiology of this behavioral pattern is poorly understood. While this behavior has not been reported in wild apes, an ethologically identical behavior in humans, known as trichotillomania, is linked to chronic psychosocial stress and is a predominantly female disorder. This study examines hair plucking (defined here as a rapid jerking away of the hair shaft and follicle by the hand or mouth, often accompanied by inspection and consumption of the hair shaft and follicle) in a captive group of bonobos (N = 13) at the Columbus Zoo and Aquarium in Columbus, Ohio...
September 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531523/panfolliculoma-with-an-endophytic-architecture-resembling-a-hair-follicle-a-report-of-three-cases
#18
Vitaly Terushkin, Shane Meehan, Ladan Shahabi, Nooshin Brinster
Panfolliculoma is a benign follicular tumor comprised of all components of the hair follicle. We report three cases of panfolliculoma with a solid, endophytic architecture, which at scanning magnification had the profile of a hair follicle. The epithelial components included uniform dark blue germinative cells, matrical cells, clear cells and cells containing trichohyaline granules. All the cases also had a central hyperkeratotic horn resembling a hair shaft. Two patients were female and one was male. Two lesions were located on the head and neck, and one was located on the leg...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512211/dermatopathia-pigmentosa-reticularis-report-of-a-new-cases-and-literature-review
#19
Fahad Al Saif
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis (DPR) is a very rare autosomal dominant ectodermal dysplasia caused by mutations in keratin 14 and characterized by the triad of generalized reticulate hyperpigmentation, nonscarring alopecia, and onychodystrophy. We report two Saudi brothers with DPR that had normal hair shafts, as assessed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.
July 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27510894/an-unusual-case-of-white-piedra-due-to-trichosporon-inkin-mimicking-trichobacteriosis
#20
Kaiwen Zhuang, Xin Ran, Yaling Dai, Jiaoqing Tang, Qin Yang, Sushmita Pradhan, Yuping Ran
White piedra is a superficial mycosis characterized by soft, white-to-tan, irregular nodules attached to the hair shafts. A 36-year-old man presented with small lumps in his pubic hair, without any other symptoms. The clinical features were suggestive of trichobacteriosis. Pathology analysis of the infected hair revealed that the concretions surrounding the hair shaft were full of fungal elements, parts of which had invaded into the cuticle. Culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar grew creamy, yellow-white colonies identified as Trichosporon inkin by the sequence of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region...
August 10, 2016: Mycopathologia
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