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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633753/tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-alopecia-alternative-pathology-and-therapy
#1
Jeremy Udkoff, Philip R Cohen
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are used to treat Crohn disease and psoriasis. Although they are typically well tolerated, adverse effects include the development of alopecia, and paradoxically, psoriatic lesions. We recently described a woman with Crohn disease who developed alopecia and scalp psoriasis during infliximab therapy. After discontinuing infliximab and beginning oral and topical therapies, her alopecia completely resolved. We compared our experience with that of the Craddock et al. who described a woman with Crohn disease and alopecia secondary to adalimumab therapy...
June 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614369/unlocking-the-vital-role-of-host-cells-in-hair-follicle-reconstruction-by-semi-permeable-capsules
#2
Zhexiang Fan, Yong Miao, Qian Qu, Shune Xiao, Jin Wang, Lijuan Du, Bingcheng Liu, Zhiqi Hu
Organ regeneration is becoming a promising choice for many patients; however, many details about the mechanisms underlying organ regeneration remain unknown. As regenerative organs, hair follicles offer a good model to study the mechanisms associated with regenerative medicine. The relevant studies have mainly focused on donor cells, and there are no systematic studies involving the effect of host factors on hair follicle reconstruction. Thus, we intend to explore the effect of host cells on hair follicle reconstruction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585352/a-rab27a-duplication-in-several-cases-of-griscelli-syndrome-type-2-an-explanation-for-cases-lacking-a-genetic-diagnosis
#3
Virginie Grandin, Fernando E Sepulveda, Nathalie Lambert, Mofareh Al Zahrani, Eman Al Idrissi, Hamoud Al-Mousa, Fahd Almanjomi, Abdulaziz Al-Ghonaium, Murad K Habazi, Hamza A Alghamdi, Capucine Picard, Christine Bole-Feysot, Patrick Nitschke, Gael Ménasché, Geneviève de Saint Basile
Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is a rare and often fatal autosomal recessive, hyperinflammatory disorder. It is associated with hypopigmentation of the skin and the hair, resulting in the characteristic pigment accumulation and clumping in the hair shaft. Loss-of function mutations in RAB27A, resulting from point mutations, short indel or large deletions, account for all the cases reported to date. However, several GS2 cases originating from Saudi Arabia lack a genetic diagnosis. Here, we report on a new RAB27A genetic anomaly, observed in seven Saudi Arabia families that had remained negative after extensive molecular genomic DNA testing...
June 6, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544375/proteomic-analysis-of-hair-shafts-from-monozygotic-twins-expression-profiles-and-genetically-variant-peptides
#4
Pei-Wen Wu, Katelyn E Mason, Blythe P Durbin-Johnson, Michelle Salemi, Brett S Phinney, David M Rocke, Glendon J Parker, Robert H Rice
Forensic association of hair shaft evidence with individuals is currently assessed by comparing mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of reference and casework samples, primarily for exclusionary purposes. Present work tests and validates more recent proteomic approaches to extract quantitative transcriptional and genetic information from hair samples of monozygotic twin pairs, which would be predicted to partition away from unrelated individuals if the datasets contain identifying information. Protein expression profiles and polymorphic, genetically variant hair peptides were generated from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins...
May 22, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541264/basement-membrane-matrix-promotes-the-efficiency-of-hair-follicle-reconstruction-in-vivo-and-is-a-cell-delivery-vehicle-for-follicle-regeneration
#5
Shune Xiao, Yong Miao, Jin Wang, Bojie Lin, Zhiqi Hu
BACKGROUND: The efficiency of hair follicle (HF) reconstruction is decreased by extensive apoptotic remodeling that occurs soon after grafting. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a basement membrane matrix (matrix) to improve the efficiency of HF reconstruction and serve as a cell delivery vehicle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newborn mouse skin cells were suspended in a matrix and transplanted in a chamber assay. The viability and proliferation of mouse dermal papilla cells seeded in the matrix were tested...
June 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536317/-hair-follicle-stem-cells
#6
Shun Sawatsubashi
The hair follicle is a complex miniorgan of the skin and undergoes cycles of growth(anagen), apoptosis-mediated regression(catagen)and rest(telogen). Regeneration of the new hair shaft dependent on the activation of hair follicle stem cells(HFSCs), harboured in the bulge region. Using a hair follicle model, some molecular players that control the balance between HFSC maintenance and ageing-associated HFSC dysfunction have been identified. Here, we reviewed and discussed the recent findings of molecular characterization of HFSCs biology and pathology...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528735/analysis-of-trichoscopic-signs-observed-in-24-patients-presenting-tinea-capitis-hypotheses-based-on-physiopathology-and-proposed-new-classification
#7
Y Bourezane, Y Bourezane
INTRODUCTION: Trichoscopy (hair dermoscopy) is a non-invasive and very useful technique for the diagnosis and follow-up of hair and scalp disorders. In tinea capitis, specific aspects of the hair shaft have been described, with the main ones being: comma hair, corkscrew hair, bar code-like hair (BCH) and zigzag hair (ZZH). METHOD: Herein we report on a retrospective study of 24 patients with tinea capitis (TC). All patients underwent trichoscopic examination and mycological culture...
May 18, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528395/enhancing-hair-growth-in-male-androgenetic-alopecia-by-a-combination-of-fractional-co2-laser-therapy-and-hair-growth-factors
#8
Yue Huang, Fenglin Zhuo, Linfeng Li
Laser therapy and growth factors have been used as alternative treatments for male androgenetic alopecia (MAA). The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of hair growth factors alone or combined with ablative carbon dioxide (CO2) fractional laser therapy in MAA. Twenty-eight men were enrolled in this randomized half-split study based on a left-head to right-head pattern. Fractional CO2 laser treatment was unilaterally performed; hair growth factors were bilaterally applied. Six sessions with 2-week intervals were performed...
May 21, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525623/the-survey-of-tinea-capitis-and-scalp-dermatophyte-carriage-in-nursing-home-residents
#9
Chien-Yio Lin, Hsiu-Jung Lo, Ming-Gene Tu, Yu-Ming Ju, Yun-Chen Fan, Chih-Chao Lin, Ya-Ting Chiang, Yun-Liang Yang, Kai-Ting Chen, Pei-Lun Sun
Tinea capitis is a contagious dermatophyte infection of scalp and associated hairs. On the other hand, asymptomatic carriage is a status of positive dermatophyte scalp culture, but without signs or symptoms of tinea capitis, and no evidence of hair shaft invasion confirmed by direct microscopy. Tinea capitis and asymptomatic carriage mostly occur in children, but adult females are becoming another population in recent decades. In this study, we focused on the prevalence and related fungi of tinea capitis and asymptomatic carriage in elderly by the shampoo brush method, as well as the source of transmission, in 10 nursing home residents...
May 18, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512235/identifying-the-niche-controlling-melanocyte-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
Manuel Zocco, Cédric Blanpain
Melanocytes present in hair follicles are responsible for their pigmentation. Melanocyte differentiation and hair pigmentation depend on the stem cell factor (SCF)/c-Kit signaling pathway, but the niche that regulates melanocyte differentiation is not well characterized. In this issue of Genes & Development, Liao and colleagues (pp. 744-756) identify Krox20(+)-derived cells of the hair shaft as the niche and the essential source of SCF required for melanocyte maturation. This study delineates the niche factors regulating melanocyte differentiation and hair pigmentation and opens up new avenues to further characterize the cross-talk between the hair follicle and melanocytes that controls melanocyte maintenance and differentiation...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465357/identification-of-hair-shaft-progenitors-that-create-a-niche-for-hair-pigmentation
#11
Chung-Ping Liao, Reid C Booker, Sean J Morrison, Lu Q Le
Hair differentiates from follicle stem cells through progenitor cells in the matrix. In contrast to stem cells in the bulge, the identities of the progenitors and the mechanisms by which they regulate hair shaft components are poorly understood. Hair is also pigmented by melanocytes in the follicle. However, the niche that regulates follicular melanocytes is not well characterized. Here, we report the identification of hair shaft progenitors in the matrix that are differentiated from follicular epithelial cells expressing transcription factor KROX20...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457515/terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism-profiling-of-bacterial-flora-derived-from-single-human-hair-shafts-can-discriminate-individuals
#12
Eiji Nishi, Kota Watanabe, Yukihiro Tashiro, Kenji Sakai
Human hairs are the trace evidence most commonly encountered at many crime scenes. However, they have not been effectively utilized for actual criminal investigations because of the low accuracy of their morphological inspection, low detection rate of short tandem repeat (STR) typing, and the problem of heteroplasmy in mitochondrial DNA analysis. Here, we examined the possibility of individual discrimination by comparing profiles of bacterial flora on hair. We carried out the profiling of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) of the amplified bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene from hair samples...
March 2017: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445731/hair-follicle-terminal-differentiation-is-orchestrated-by-distinct-early-and-late-matrix-progenitors
#13
Arlee L Mesler, Natalia A Veniaminova, Madison V Lull, Sunny Y Wong
During development and regeneration, matrix progenitors undergo terminal differentiation to form the concentric layers of the hair follicle. These differentiation events are thought to require signals from the mesenchymal dermal papilla (DP); however, it remains unclear how DP-progenitor cell interactions govern specific cell fate decisions. Here, we show that the hair follicle differentiated layers are specified asynchronously, with early matrix progenitors initiating differentiation before surrounding the DP...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442869/effect-of-oil-application-age-diet-and-pigmentation-on-the-tensile-strength-and-breaking-point-of-hair
#14
S Kavitha, Karthika Natarajan, G Thilagavathi, C R Srinivas
BACKGROUND: Hair strength depends on various factors such as nutrition, environmental factors, sunlight, oiling, aging, conditioner, etc. AIM: To compare the tensile strength and breaking point of the hair shaft between (1) vegetarian and nonvegetarian. (2) Those who regularly apply and those who do not apply oil. (3) Pigmented and nonpigmented hair, (4) childhood and elderly. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hair fibers were mounted in tensile strength testing machine Zwick/Roell Z010 and gradual force was administered...
October 2016: International Journal of Trichology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437719/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-olanzapine-in-a-single-hair-using-esculetin-as-a-matrix
#15
Hang Wang, Ying Wang, Ge Wang, Lizhi Hong
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometric imaging (MALDI-MSI) for the analysis of intact hair is a powerful tool for monitoring changes in drug consumption. The embedding of a low drug concentration in the hydrophobic hair matrix makes it difficult to extract and detect, and requires an improved method to increase detection sensitivity. In this study, an MSI method using MALDI-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance was developed for direct identification and imaging of olanzapine in hair samples using the positive ion mode...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413121/characterisation-of-cell-cycle-arrest-and-terminal-differentiation-in-a-maximally-proliferative-human-epithelial-tissue-lessons-from-the-human-hair-follicle-matrix
#16
Talveen S Purba, Lars Brunken, Michael Peake, Asim Shahmalak, Asuncion Chaves, Enrique Poblet, Ralf Paus
Human hair follicle (HF) growth and hair shaft formation require terminal differentiation-associated cell cycle arrest of highly proliferative matrix keratinocytes. However, the regulation of this complex event remains unknown. CIP/KIP family member proteins (p21(CIP1), p27(KIP1) and p57(KIP2)) regulate cell cycle progression/arrest, endoreplication, differentiation and apoptosis. Since they have not yet been adequately characterized in the human HF, we asked whether and where CIP/KIP proteins localise in the human hair matrix and pre-cortex in relation to cell cycle activity and HF-specific epithelial cell differentiation that is marked by keratin 85 (K85) protein expression...
April 2, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391141/development-and-validation-of-a-novel-multiplexed-dna-analysis-system-innotyper-%C3%A2-21
#17
Hiromi Brown, Robyn Thompson, Gina Murphy, Dixie Peters, Bobby La Rue, Jonathan King, Anne H Montgomery, Marion Carroll, James Baus, Sid Sinha, Frank R Wendt, Bing Song, Ranajit Chakraborty, Bruce Budowle, Sudhir K Sinha
We report here a novel multiplexed DNA analysis system consisting of 20 Alu markers and Amelogenin for analysis of highly degraded forensic biological samples. The key to the success of the system in obtaining results from degraded samples is the primer design yielding small amplicon size (60-125bp) for all 20 markers. The markers included in the InnoTyper(®) 21 system are bi-allelic, having two possible allelic states (insertion or null) and thus termed INNULs. The markers are short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), a category of retrotransposable elements (REs) which are non-coding genomic DNA repeat sequences, or "mobile insertion elements," comprising approximately 40% of the human genome...
March 18, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381806/arachidonate-12-lipoxygenase-inhibitors-promote-s100a3-citrullination-in-cultured-sw480-cells-and-isolated-hair-follicles
#18
Kenji Kizawa, Takeshi Fujimori, Tomomitsu Kawai
The human hair shaft is covered with multiple scale-like cuticular layers. During the terminal differentiation stage of immature cuticular cells within the hair follicle, cysteine-rich calcium binding S100A3 protein is predominantly translated, and its arginine residues are converted to citrullines by peptidylarginine deiminases (PADI). In this study, we found several naturally occurring compounds (e.g., hinokitiol, escletin, and quercetin) elevate S100A3 citrullination in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480)...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345791/trichoscopic-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-pelodera-strongyloides-infestation-in-a-dog
#19
Rareş G M Căpitan, Chiara Noli
BACKGROUND: Pelodera strongyloides infestation has rarely been reported in dogs. It is a saprophytic free-living nematode, found in moist decaying organic matter, whose L3 larval stages occasionally can invade the skin of dogs and humans. Larvae penetrate the follicular infundibula causing an erythematous and pruritic dermatitis. The disease is usually diagnosed by deep skin scraping or histopathology, with large numbers of parasites readily identified in hair follicles. CASE REPORT: Pelodera strongyloides dermatitis was diagnosed in a six-year-old mixed breed dog presenting with alopecia, erythema and severe pruritus on the ventrum and limbs...
March 27, 2017: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344061/compartmentation-of-mitochondrial-and-oxidative-metabolism-in-growing-hair-follicles-a-ring-of-fire
#20
John J Lemasters, Venkat K Ramshesh, Gregory L Lovelace, John Lim, Graham D Wright, Duane Harland, Thomas L Dawson
Little is known about the energetics of growing hair follicles, particularly in the mitochondrially abundant bulb. Here, mitochondrial and oxidative metabolism was visualized by multiphoton and light sheet microscopy in cultured bovine hair follicles and plucked human hairs. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretory granules were assessed with parameter-indicating fluorophores. In growing follicles, lower bulb epithelial cells had high viability, and mitochondria were polarized...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
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