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Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346803/carbapenemase-producing-aeromonas-veronii-disseminated-in-the-environment-of-an-equine-specialty-hospital
#1
Rachael J Adams, Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Andrea Whittle, Joshua B Daniels, Thomas E Wittum
The emergence of bacterial resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is an urgent public health threat. Carbapenem drugs are a last resort treatment option for life-threatening infections. The frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics to treat hospitalized patients provides significant selection pressure favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant organisms, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). CREs have been reported in animal populations, but only rarely in horses. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of CRE in the environment of a referral equine specialty hospital...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345184/spatial-molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-and-new-delhi-metallo-beta-lactamase-blandm-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-from-farmed-piglets-of-india
#2
B S Pruthvishree, O R Vinodh Kumar, D K Sinha, Y P S Malik, Z Dubal, P A Desingu, M Shivakumar, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, B R Singh
AIM: A cross-sectional study was conducted in ten government organized pig farms between 2014 and 2016 representing seven states of India to understand the epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli isolates. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, 673 fecal samples both from non- diarhhoeic (n=501) and diarrhoeic (n=172) piglets were processed for isolation of carbapenem resistant E. coli. Wherein, 112 confirmed E. coli isolates were further subjected for genotypic confirmation of carbapenem resistance and virulence factors...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341979/are-third-generation-cephalosporins-unavoidable-for-empirical-therapy-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adult-patients-who-require-icu-admission-a-retrospective-study
#3
Geoffroy Hariri, Jacques Tankovic, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Vincent Dubée, Guillaume Leblanc, Claire Pichereau, Simon Bourcier, Naike Bigé, Jean-Luc Baudel, Arnaud Galbois, Hafid Ait-Oufella, Eric Maury
BACKGROUND: Third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) are recommended for empirical antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in patients requiring ICU admission. However, their extensive use could promote the emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Our aim was to assess whether the use of 3GCs in patients with CAP requiring ICU admission was justified. METHODS: We assessed all patients with CAP who required ICU admission during a 7-year period...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341427/community-onset-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-tract-infections-in-infancy-following-nicu-hospitalisation
#4
Eleni Vergadi, Maria Bitsori, Sofia Maraki, Emmanouil Galanakis
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in childhood with favourable outcome. However, the recent emergence of UTI caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens, such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), has become a great concern worldwide. CRE are mainly responsible for nosocomial infections and community-onset CRE infections in healthy individuals are rare. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we report a series of infants without substantial genitourinary abnormalities that were admitted with community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and we discuss their aetiology...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340557/development-of-selective-medium-for-imp-type-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-stool-specimens
#5
Norihisa Yamamoto, Ryuji Kawahara, Yukihiro Akeda, Rathina Kumar Shanmugakani, Hisao Yoshida, Hideharu Hagiya, Naohiro Hara, Isao Nishi, Satomi Yukawa, Rumiko Asada, Yumi Sasaki, Kazuhiro Maeda, Noriko Sakamoto, Shigeyuki Hamada, Kazunori Tomono
BACKGROUND: Identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in faecal specimens is challenging. This fact is particularly critical because low-level carbapenem-resistant organisms such as IMP-producing CPE are most prevalent in Japan. We developed a modified selective medium more suitable for IMP-type CPE. METHODS: Fifteen reference CPE strains producing different types of β-lactamases were used to evaluate the commercially available CHROMagar KPC and chromID CARBA as well as the newly prepared MC-ECC medium (CHROMagar ECC supplemented with meropenem, cloxacillin, and ZnSO4) and M-ECC medium (CHROMagar ECC supplemented with meropenem and ZnSO4)...
March 24, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339623/the-molecular-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-and-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-at-4-us-pediatric-hospitals
#6
Danielle M Zerr, Scott J Weissman, Chuan Zhou, Matthew P Kronman, Amanda L Adler, Jessica E Berry, Jaipreet Rayar, Jeff Myers, Wren L Haaland, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Alexis Elward, Jason Newland, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Kaede V Sullivan, Theoklis Zaoutis, Xuan Qin
Objective.: In this report, we aim to describe the epidemiology of extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) and carbapenem-resistant (CR) Enterobacteriaceae infections in children. Methods.: ESC-R and CR Enterobacteriaceae isolates from normally sterile sites of patients aged <22 years from 4 freestanding pediatric medical centers were collected along with the associated clinical data. Results.: The overall frequencies of ESC-R and CR isolates according to hospital over the 4-year study period ranged from 0...
January 19, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337342/first-indian-report-of-incx3-plasmid-carrying-blandm-7-in-escherichia-coli-from-bloodstream-infection-potential-for-rapid-dissemination
#7
N K Devanga Ragupathi, D P Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, R Gajendiran, J L K Daniel, K Walia, B Veeraraghavan
Enterobacteriaceae with blaNDM-7 is only infrequently observed. Self-transmissible plasmids carrying the blaNDM gene increase the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in developing countries. This study investigates the whole genome sequence of a blaNDM-7-positive Escherichia coli. The isolate was an extended-spectrum β-lactamase producer by combined disc diffusion test and carbapenemase producer by CarbaNP method. Sequencing results revealed the isolate as E. coli ST-167 with IncX3 plasmid carrying blaNDM-7 in addition to blaTEM-1 and blaCMY-42 genes...
May 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333319/wck-4234-a-novel-diazabicyclooctane-potentiating-carbapenems-against-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-and-acinetobacter-with-class-a-c-and-d-%C3%AE-lactamases
#8
Shazad Mushtaq, Anna Vickers, Neil Woodford, David M Livermore
Background: Several diazabicyclooctanes (DBOs) are under development as inhibitors of class A and C β-lactamases. Inhibition of OXA (class D) carbapenemases is variable, with those of Acinetobacter spp. remaining notably resistant. We describe a novel DBO, WCK 4234 (Wockhardt), with distinctive activity against OXA carbapenemases. Methods: MICs of imipenem and meropenem were determined by CLSI agar dilution with WCK 4234 added at 4 or 8 mg/L. Test organisms were clinical Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with carbapenemases or carbapenem resistance via porin loss plus AmpC or ESBL activity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331866/clinical-response-and-outcome-in-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-infections
#9
Masoume Malekolkottab, Lida Shojaei, Hossein Khalili, Mahsa Doomanlou
OBJECTIVE: In this study, frequency and antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms were evaluated in a referral teaching hospital in Iran. METHODS: Patients with MDR Gram-negative pathogens were followed during the course of hospitalization. Demographic data, baseline diseases, type of biological sample, isolated microorganism, type of infection, antibiotic regimen before the availability of the culture result and change in the antibiotic regimen following receiving the antibiogram results, response to the treatment regimen, and duration of hospitalization and patient's outcome were considered variables for each recruited patient...
January 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320724/piperacillin-tazobactam-versus-other-antibacterial-agents-for-treatment-of-bloodstream-infections-due-to-ampc-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#10
Lucy Cheng, Brian C Nelson, Monica Mehta, Nikhil Seval, Sarah Park, Marla J Giddins, Qiuhu Shi, Susan Whittier, Angela Gomez-Simmonds, Anne-Catrin Uhlemann
In vivo induction of AmpC beta-lactamases produces high-level resistance to many beta-lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae, often resulting in the use of carbapenems or cefepime (FEP). The clinical effectiveness of piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP), a weak inducer of AmpC beta-lactamases, is poorly understood. Here we conducted a case-control study of adult inpatients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to Enterobacter, Serratia, or Citrobacter spp. from 2009 to 2015 to assess outcomes following treatment with TZP compared to FEP or meropenem (MEM)...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320716/in-vitro-activity-of-imipenem-relebactam-against-gram-negative-eskape-pathogens-isolated-by-clinical-laboratories-in-the-united-states-in-2015-results-from-the-smart-global-surveillance-program
#11
Sibylle H Lob, Meredith A Hackel, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, James A Karlowsky, Daniel F Sahm
Relebactam (formerly MK-7655) is an inhibitor of class A and C β-lactamases, including Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), and is currently in clinical development in combination with imipenem/cilastatin. Using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) defined broth microdilution methodology, we evaluated the in vitro activities of imipenem-relebactam, imipenem, and seven routinely tested parenteral antimicrobial agents against gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, n = 845; Klebsiella pneumoniae, n = 689; Enterobacter spp...
March 20, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306563/antimicrobial-resistant-gram-negative-infections-in-neonates-burden-of-disease-and-challenges-in-treatment
#12
Laura Folgori, Julia Bielicki, Paul T Heath, Mike Sharland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the main challenges of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the neonatal population with a special focus on multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative pathogens. RECENT FINDINGS: MDR-Gram-negative bacteria are a great concern in the neonatal population, with a worldwide rise in the reported incidence and with very limited therapeutic options. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been reported as responsible for neonatal ICU outbreaks...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303831/strengths-and-limitations-of-various-screening-methods-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-including-new-method-recommended-by-clinical-and-laboratory-standards-institute-2017-a-tertiary-care-experience
#13
Agila Kumari Pragasam, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Yamuna Devi Bakthavatchalam, Radha Gopi, Raziya Fathima Aslam
Carbapenemase-mediated carbapenem resistance is a major concern across the world. Rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing organisms is of great importance in clinical settings. However, it is essential to have a test with good sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the study was to compare the performance of RAPIDEC® CARBA NP and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline 2017. A total of ninety carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae have been tested...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303449/novel-beta-lactamase-inhibitors-unlocking-their-potential-in-therapy
#14
Darren Wong, David van Duin
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae are amongst the most feared pathogens due to severely limited treatment options. In response to this threat, three novel β-lactamase inhibitors have been developed in an attempt to reinvigorate and sustain our current antimicrobial therapies. Avibactam, vaborbactam, and relebactam are inhibitor agents with high affinity to Ambler class A and C β-lactamases and favorable outcomes in current clinical trials. However, although they do possess key similarities, these agents have unique differences which may have important clinical implications...
March 16, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302376/emerging-trends-in-antibiotic-resistance-implications-for-emergency-medicine
#15
Ali Pourmand, Maryann Mazer-Amirshahi, Gregory Jasani, Larissa May
BACKGROUND: Many bacteria are demonstrating increasing levels of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. While this has implications for the healthcare system as a whole, many patients infected with these resistant organisms will initially present to the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of current trends in infections caused by the most clinically relevant resistant organisms encountered in emergency medicine. METHODS: Bacteria were selected based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, and PubMed database...
March 7, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298454/in-vitro-activity-of-imipenem-against-carbapenemase-positive-enterobacteriaceae-smart-global-surveillance-program-2008-2014
#16
James A Karlowsky, Sibylle H Lob, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Robert E Badal, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, Daniel F Sahm
The Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance program collected 103,960 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from 2008 to 2014. From this isolate collection all ertapenem-non-susceptible isolates (MIC, ≥1 μg/ml; n = 3,428) and 9,371 isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Proteus mirabilis with an ertapenem-susceptible extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive phenotype were assessed for the presence of common carbapenemase genes using the Check-MDR CT101 microarray (Check-Points, Wageningen, the Netherlands) and published multiplex PCR assays...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295617/carbapenemases-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-hospitals-of-two-regions-of-southern-italy
#17
Carla Calia, Carlo Pazzani, Marta Oliva, Maria Scrascia, Piero Lovreglio, Carmen Capolongo, Anna Maria Dionisi, Adriana Chiarelli, Rosa Monno
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are reported with increasing frequency elsewhere in the world, representing a worrying phenomenon for global health. In Italy, there are hotspot data on the diffusion and type of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and K. pneumoniae in particular, with very few data coming from Apulia and Basilicata, two regions of Southern Italy. This study was aimed at characterizing by phenotypic and genotypic methods carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from several Hospitals of Apulia and Basilicata, Southern Italy...
March 15, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294079/carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-a-strategic-roadmap-for-infection-control
#18
N Deborah Friedman, Yehuda Carmeli, Aaron Lea Walton, Mitchell James Schwaber
The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has increased worldwide with great regional variability. Infections caused by these organisms are associated with crude mortality rates of up to 70%. The spread of CRE in healthcare settings is both an important medical problem and a major global public health threat. All countries are at risk of falling victim to the emergence of CRE; therefore, a preparedness plan is required to avoid the catastrophic natural course of this epidemic. Proactive and adequate preventive measures locally, regionally, and nationally are required to contain the spread of these bacteria...
March 15, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288838/routine-ertapenem-prophylaxis-for-transrectal-ultrasound-guided-prostate-biopsy-does-not-select-for-carbapenem-resistant-organisms-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Maxim G Bloomfield, Matthew J Page, Alice G McLachlan, Rodney C Studd, Timothy K Blackmore
PURPOSE: Post-transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy sepsis is an increasing problem in this era of rising antibiotic resistance. Ertapenem prophylaxis has proven very effective at our institution for reducing this, however has raised local and regional antimicrobial stewardship concerns. This study investigated the possible selective effect of single dose ertapenem prophylaxis on fecal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients had a rectal swab taken prior to receiving pre-biopsy ertapenem prophylaxis...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276996/therapeutic-options-for-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-infections
#20
Enrico Maria Trecarichi, Mario Tumbarello
In recent years, carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae has dramatically increased and represents an important threat to global health. The optimal therapeutic management of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections has not been established, because to date, no clinical trials have been performed with this objective. We aimed to summarize in the present review data provided by previous observational clinical studies that have investigated the impact of different treatment strategies on the outcome of CRE infections...
February 8, 2017: Virulence
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