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Sedin Habibović
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July 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Giulia Concina, Marco Cambiaghi, Annamaria Renna, Benedetto Sacchetti
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are essential for discriminating between harmful and safe stimuli. The primary auditory cortex (Te1) sends projections to both sites, but if and how it interacts with these areas during fear discrimination is poorly understood. Here we show that in male rats that can differentiate between a new tone and a threatening one, the selective optogenetic inhibition of Te1 axon terminals into the prelimbic cortex (PL) shifted discrimination to fear generalization...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
T Donker, S Van Esveld, N Fischer, A Van Straten
BACKGROUND: Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be as effective as traditional forms of in vivo exposure therapy for the treatment of specific phobias. However, as with in vivo exposure, VRET still involves relatively high costs and limited accessibility which makes it prohibitive for a large part of the population. Innovative methods using smartphone applications (apps) may improve accessibility and scalability of VRET. The aim of this study is to evaluate 0Phobia, a gamified self-guided VRET for acrophobia that is delivered through a smartphone app in combination with rudimentary cardboard virtual reality (VR) goggles...
August 9, 2018: Trials
Katie H Walsh, Ravi K Das, Michael E Saladin, Sunjeev K Kamboj
BACKGROUND: Consolidated memories can undergo enduring modification through retrieval-dependent treatments that modulate reconsolidation. This represents a potentially transformative strategy for weakening or overwriting the maladaptive memories that underlie substance use and anxiety/trauma-related disorders. However, modulation of naturalistic maladaptive memories may be limited by 'boundary conditions' imposed on the reconsolidation process by the nature of these memories. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of behavioural and pharmacological studies examining retrieval-dependent modulation of reward- and threat-related memories in (sub) clinical substance use and anxiety/trauma, respectively...
August 8, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Jeff Tarrant, Jeremy Viczko, Hannah Cope
While previous research has established that virtual reality (VR) can be successfully used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, including phobias and PTSD, no research has examined changes in brain patterns associated with the use of VR for generalized anxiety management. In the current study, we compared a brief nature-based mindfulness VR experience to a resting control condition on anxious participants. Self-reported anxiety symptoms and resting-state EEG were recorded across intervals containing quiet rest or the VR intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ralf C Buckley
Emotions are a signaling system, evolved by providing selective advantage through enhanced survival and reproduction. The selective advantage conferred by thrill or exhilaration, however, remains unknown. Hypotheses, as yet untested, include overcoming phobias or honing physical skills as juveniles, or exhibiting desirability during mate selection. Extreme sports can provide an ethically and experimentally feasible tool to analyze thrill. To use this tool, extreme sports must first be defined in a non-circular way, independent of participant psychology...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Fulei Geng, Yingxin Liang, Xuliang Shi, Fang Fan
Natural disaster exposure is associated with increased risk of mental health problems. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, course, and risk factors of probable psychiatric disorders among 1,573 adolescents following the May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), conduct disorder (CD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed at 6 and 18 months postearthquake using a battery of standardized measures...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Seung Yeon Song, Sun-Young Jung, Eun Young Kim
Objective The aim of this study was to assess steroid phobia among general users of topical corticosteroids and to analyze factors associated with steroid phobia. Methods A cross-sectional nationwide survey was conducted using an online panel with participants stratified by age, sex, and region. Those aged 18-65 years with experience of topical steroid use within the past 1 year were included. Results Of the 3000 respondents included, 929 (31%) had steroid phobia. Among those with steroid phobia, 322 (35%) reported that their fear developed after obtaining information from the media...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Katie Runyon, Steven R Chesnut, Hansel Burley
BACKGROUND: The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) is a commonly used instrument that evaluates anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents. METHODS: This meta-analysis examined the psychometric properties of the SCARED instrument, including total instrument and subscale internal reliabilities for the parent and child versions, test-retest reliabilities, and the extent to which responses from the parent version correspond with responses from the child version...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Hyoun S Kim, David C Hodgins, Albina R Torres, Leonardo F Fontenelle, Maria Conceição do Rosário, Maria Alice de Mathis, Ygor A Ferrão, Euripedes C Miguel, Hermano Tavares
AIM: The present research assessed the rates as well as the demographic, clinical, and psychiatric correlates associated with comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and compulsive buying disorder (CBD). METHOD: Participants were drawn from a large (N = 993) multi-center study of people seeking treatment for their OCD. The diagnoses of psychiatric disorders were made using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM by registered psychologists and psychiatrists...
July 29, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Spyridon N Vasdekis, Sotiria Mastoraki, Andreas Lazaris, Konstantinos G Moulakakis
Acute thrombosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a rare and often devastating complication with high morbidity and mortality. In some cases, however, it may be associated with a silent course without signs of acute limb ischemia. The aim of this report is to describe an unusual case of acute thrombosis of AAA without signs of acute limb ischemia. Preoperative anxiety, stress, and phobia for surgery may be factors predisposing to acute thrombosis of an AAA.
February 2018: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
Claire Brutocao, Feras Zaiem, Mouaz Alsawas, Allison S Morrow, M Hassan Murad, Asma Javed
PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common disorder affecting up to 15% of women in the reproductive age. Prior studies suggest that PCOS can be associated with mood and psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder in women with PCOS. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus through February 08, 2017 for studies that examined the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder in adolescents or adults with a clinical or biochemical diagnosis of PCOS...
July 31, 2018: Endocrine
Leah Marley, Suresh Navadgi, Simon Banting, Adrian Fox, Michael Hii, Brett Knowles
BACKGROUND: Extended venothromboprophylaxis (eVTP) after abdominal surgery for hepatobiliary (HPB) and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) malignancies is recommended. Safety, efficacy and compliance within this group of surgical patients are not well described. The primary aim was to assess safety and compliance of post-operative administration of eVTP with low molecular weight heparin. Secondary aim was to assess barriers to treatment and monitor the rate of post-operative venous thromboembolism...
July 30, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Elmedin Bajric, Sedin Kobaslija, Amina Huseinbegovic, Mediha Selimovic-Dragas, Amra Arslanagic Muratbegovic, Nina Markovic
Background: Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) are present worldwide globally, as well as in children. These psychological clinical entities in its progressive phase lead to avoiding of dentists and dental appointments, and consequtive impairments of oral health. If we ignore these facts, we would have the strenghtening of this relationship in a way of further oral health impairments and lost of dental hard and soft tissues, as well as appearance of dental phobia as the most negative form of psychological reaction to dental stimuli...
June 2018: Medical Archives
William W Eaton, O Joseph Bienvenu, Beyon Miloyan
Anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders, but the subcategory of specific phobias has not been well studied. Phobias involve both fear and avoidance. For people who have specific phobias, avoidance can reduce the constancy and severity of distress and impairment. However, these phobias are important because of their early onset and strong persistence over time. Studies indicate that the lifetime prevalence of specific phobias around the world ranges from 3% to 15%, with fears and phobias concerning heights and animals being the most common...
August 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Mengühan Araz Altay, Işık Görker
Introduction: In this study, the frequency of psychiatric comorbidity in children and adolescents who were diagnosed with specific learning disorder, the factors that affect the frequency of comorbidity, the subtypes of specific learning disorder and the effects on cognitive profile have been investigated. Methods: Our study was performed among 80 cases with the age range 6-15 years who diagnosed with specific learning disorder Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Department between January and June 2015...
2018: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
Josefa Canals, Núria Voltas, Carmen Hernández-Martínez, Sandra Cosi, Victoria Arija
Anxiety Disorders (AD) are the most prevalent mental disorders in children and adolescents and a relevant public health problem. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of ADs, the comorbidity, the sociodemographic correlates, and the functional impairment in Spanish school children. The initial sample included 1514 subjects (720 boys; mean age = 10.2), who filled out the Screen for Children's Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). In a second phase, 562 subjects at risk and not-at-risk of anxiety were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents to obtain DSM-5 diagnoses...
July 28, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Renske C Bosman, Ruth C Waumans, Gabriel E Jacobs, Richard C Oude Voshaar, Anna D T Muntingh, Neeltje M Batelaan, Anton J L M van Balkom
BACKGROUND: Following remission of an anxiety disorder or a depressive disorder, antidepressants are frequently discontinued and in the case of symptom occurrence reinstated. Reinstatement of antidepressants seems less effective in some patients, but an overview is lacking. This systematic review aimed to provide insight into the magnitude and risk factors of response failure after reinstatement of antidepressants in patients with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
July 24, 2018: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Volkan Susam, Marie Friedel, Patrizia Basile, Paola Ferri, Loris Bonetti
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: procedural pain is a significant issue for paediatric patients. In particular, needle pain is amongst the most stressful for children. Studies revealed that a large number of children do not receive adequate pain prevention during the procedures. Neglecting the prevention of needle pain can cause several psychological effects such as anxiety and phobias, and increase perceptions of pain in the future. We aimed to verify the efficacy of Buzzy System in reducing pain during venipuncture...
July 18, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Ghazal Zahed, Marjan Shakiba, Kimia Seifi
Objective: As there were a few studies on the mental disorders resulting from diabetes in children, this study aimed at investigating the prevalence of psychological disorders among children. Materials & Methods: We enrolled 323 children with diabetes type 1 aged 5-12 yr old referring to Endocrinology Clinic of Mofid Hospital, Tehran, Iran in 2014-2015. In addition, 317 healthy children were considered as control group. The materials used for data analysis were information form and questionnaire CSI-4 filled out by their parents...
2018: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
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