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Serap Cetinkaya, Havva Sert
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fat phobia levels and attitudes towards obese person among university students to determine their correlation with healthy lifestyle behaviour. METHODS: The knowledge, attitude and practice study was conducted at Sakarya University, Turkey, between May and December 2015, and comprised students of either gender. Data was collected by using the socio-demographic form, fat phobia scale, attitudes toward obese persons scale, and health-promoting lifestyle profile II scale...
September 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Nataliya Titova, Oleg Levin, Elena Katunina, K Ray Chaudhuri
'Levodopa Phobia' is under-recognised in Parkinson's disease but can cause profound detrimental clinical complications if left to continue. Several types can be encountered in clinical practice and can be driven by a misplaced fear of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, other gastrointestinal side effects and also the theoretical notion that levodopa may be toxic to dopaminergic neurons in the brain. The condition can be underpinned by a sense of strong influence from the physicians or carers who are unwilling to prescribe or consider levodopa, and also high levels of anxiety or even impulsive compulsive traits in patients who have been influenced by available literature or social media-based information...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
David R Watson, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Daniel Willmott, Katherine Wong, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley
OBJECTIVE: Spider phobia is a common form of anxiety disorder for which exposure therapy is an effective first-line treatment. Motivated by the observed modulation of threat processing by afferent cardiac signals; we tested the hypothesis that interoceptive information concerning cardiovascular arousal can influence the outcomes of computerised exposure therapy for spider phobia. METHOD: Fifty-three normal healthy participants with high spider phobia scores underwent one of three modified computerised exposure protocols, defined by the timing of exposure to brief spider stimuli within the cardiac cycle: Systole (during afferent baroreceptor firing); Diastole (during baroreceptor-quiescent interbeat interval); Random (non-contingent on cardiac cycle)...
October 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
José A Crippa, Francisco S Guimarães, Alline C Campos, Antonio W Zuardi
Background: Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana. Objectives: The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry. Methods: A non-systematic search was performed for studies dealing with therapeutic applications of CBD, especially performed by Brazilian researchers. Results: CBD was shown to have anxiolytic, antipsychotic and neuroprotective properties...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Harri Halonen, Jenna Nissinen, Heli Lehtiniemi, Tuula Salo, Pirkko Riipinen, Jouko Miettunen
Background: A growing amount of evidence suggests that dental anxiety is associated with other psychiatric disorders and symptoms. A systematic review was conducted to critically evaluate the studies of comorbidity of dental anxiety with other specific phobias and other Axis I psychiatric disorders. Objective: The aim of the review was to explore how dental anxiety is associated with other psychiatric disorders and to estimate the level of comorbid symptoms in dental anxiety patients...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Emily Carl, Aliza T Stein, Andrew Levihn-Coon, Jamie R Pogue, Barbara Rothbaum, Paul Emmelkamp, Gordon J G Asmundson, Per Carlbring, Mark B Powers
Trials of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety-related disorders have proliferated in number and diversity since our previous meta-analysis that examined 13 total trials, most of which were for specific phobias (Powers & Emmelkamp, 2008). Since then, new trials have compared VRET to more diverse anxiety and related disorders including social anxiety disorder (SAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia. With the availability of this data, it is imperative to re-examine the efficacy of VRET for anxiety...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Andreas Ströhle, Jochen Gensichen, Katharina Domschke
BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are the most common type of mental illness in Europe, with a 12-month prevalence of 14% among persons aged 14 to 65. Their onset is usually in adolescence or early adulthood. The affected patients often develop further mental or somatic illnesses (sequential comorbidity). METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. RESULTS: The group of anxiety disorders includes generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), phobic disorders, panic disorders, and two disorders that are often restricted to childhood-separation anxiety and selective mutism...
September 14, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Ginevra Fiori, Tessa Marzi, Francesca Bartoli, Cosimo Bruni, Carlo Ciceroni, Michela Palomba, Michela Zolferino, Elena Corsi, Marcello Galimberti, Alberto Moggi Pignone, Maria Pia Viggiano, Serena Guiducci, Monica Calamai, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of animal-assisted intervention (AAI), a complementary support to traditional therapies focused on the interaction between animals and human beings, in improving psychological trait, anxiety and pain in a cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. METHODS: 42 SSc patients, undergoing iloprost intravenous infusion, were divided in three groups: 1) 14 patients submitted to 20 AAI sessions; 2) 14 patients engaged in alternative social activity (control group 1 - C1); and 3) 14 patients without any alternative activity (control group 2 - C2)...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Jacqueline M Arnone, Denise Rizzolo, Richard P Conti
Celiac disease (CD) is a T-cell mediated genetically inherited autoimmune disease affecting approximately 1% of the population. Research suggests that CD impacts executive functioning (EF) and social phobia (SP). However, most of the literature in this area focuses on age groups outside of the traditional college age range and has never measured EF and SP together. This descriptive study compared traditional age female college students with CD to age- and sex-matched college students without CD on measures of EF and SP...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
Gabriele Berger, Thomas Waldhoer, Irene Barrientos, Daniela Kunkel, Birgit M Rami-Merhar, Edith Schober, Andreas Karwautz, Gudrun Wagner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically assess the association of insulin-manipulation (intentional under- and/or overdosing of insulin), psychiatric comorbidity and diabetes complications. METHODS: Two diagnostic interviews (Diabetes-Self-Management-Patient-Interview and Children's-Diagnostic-Interview for Psychiatric Disorders) were conducted with 241 patients (age 10-22) with type 1 diabetes (T1D) from 21 randomly selected Austrian diabetes care centers...
September 28, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Iris Lange, Liesbet Goossens, Jindra Bakker, Stijn Michielse, Machteld Marcelis, Marieke Wichers, Jim van Os, Therese van Amelsvoort, Koen Schruers
BACKGROUND: Theoretical models have implicated classical fear conditioning, fear generalization, and extinction learning in the development of anxiety disorders. To date, it is largely unknown to what extent these mechanisms and the underlying neurobiology may be altered in specific phobia, a disorder characterized by focal fears. The current study systematically examined fear conditioning, fear generalization, extinction learning, and extinction recall in a sample of individuals with a specific phobia...
September 25, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Mauricio Scopel Hoffmann, Pedro Mario Pan, Gisele Gus Manfro, Jair de Jesus Mari, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Luis Augusto Rohde, Giovanni Abrahão Salum
Here we evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between temperament and mental disorders in adolescents. Temperament was assessed in a cohort of 1540 youths by the revised self-report Early Adolescence Temperament Questionnaire (EATQ-R) at baseline and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the best empirical model. Mental disorders were assessed by parental interview using the Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Participants were grouped into Typically Developing Comparisons, Phobias, Distress, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD)...
September 26, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Noémie Tardif, Charles-Étienne Therrien, Stéphane Bouchard
The proposed study aims at expanding results from a previous study on mechanisms of change after exposure in virtual reality (VR) and documenting the impact of adding tactile and haptic feedback. It was predicted that change in the severity of spider phobia according to the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) would be significantly predicted by change in dysfunctional beliefs toward spiders and self-efficacy, over and above the variance explained by a physiological measure of fear during exposure (heart rate) and presence during the immersion...
September 25, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Guek Nee Ke, Siew Fan Wong
This article designed and tested a cognitive behavioral-based preventive intervention program for youths with problematic Internet use (PIU) behavior. The program is the Psychological Intervention Program-Internet Use for Youth (PIP-IU-Y). A cognitive-based therapy approach was adopted. A total of 45 secondary students from four schools completed the intervention program that was conducted in a group format by registered school counselors. Three sets of self-reported data on Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ), Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS), and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) were collected at three time points: 1 week before the intervention, immediately after the last intervention session, and 1 month after the intervention...
September 25, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Kenichi Meguro, Satoshi Yamaguchi
INTRODUCTION: Yokukansan is one of the traditional herbal medicines (Kampo medicine in Japan) commonly used in the treatment of the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD). We performed an observational study using yokukansankachimpihange, which contains a nobiletin-rich Citrus reticulata, to determine whether it could improve BPSD as well as cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer disease (NINCDS-ADRDA). METHODS: Forty-six (23 vs. 23) patients were enrolled in the study sample (donepezil group vs...
September 25, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Friederike Raeder, Christian J Merz, Martin Tegenthoff, Oliver T Wolf, Jürgen Margraf, Armin Zlomuzica
Cortisol administration prior to treatment can promote the efficacy of exposure-based treatments in specific phobia: cortisol has been proposed to reduce fear retrieval at the beginning of exposure and to enhance the acquisition and consolidation of corrective information learned during exposure. Whether cortisol exerts a beneficial therapeutic effect when given after exposure, e.g., by targeting the consolidation of new corrective information, has not been addressed so far to date. Here, we examined whether post-exposure cortisol administration promotes fear reduction and reduces return of fear following contextual change in specific phobia...
September 13, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Quincy J J Wong, Junwen Chen, Bree Gregory, Andrew J Baillie, Toshihiko Nagata, Toshiaki A Furukawa, Hisanobu Kaiya, Lorna Peters, Ronald M Rapee
BACKGROUND: Cultural factors influence both the expression of social anxiety and the interpretation and functioning of social anxiety measures. This study aimed to test the measurement equivalence of two commonly used social anxiety measures across two sociocultural contexts using individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) from Australia and Japan. METHODS: Scores on the straightforwardly-worded Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (S-SIAS) and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) from two archival datasets of individual with SAD, one from Australia (n = 201) and one from Japan (n = 295), were analysed for measurement equivalence using a multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) framework...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ora Nakash, Maayan Nagar, Daphne Bentov-Gofrit, Evelyne Md, Rvital Amiaz, Shaul Lev-Ran, Drew Westen
Prototype matching, which involves comparing a patient clinical presentation with a prototype description of the disorder, addresses some of the clinical limitations of categorical approaches. Most research to-date on prototype matching has been conducted with personality disorders. Here, we examined the validity and clinical utility of prototype diagnosis for mood and anxiety disorders. We compared clinicians prototype diagnosis (based on DSM IV and empirically derived) to categorical diagnosis (based on independent SCID interview) in predicting patient global adaptive functioning rated across the clinician, patient and independent interviewer among N = 80 clinicians and N = 170 patients...
September 11, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Maral Jolstedt, Tove Wahlund, Fabian Lenhard, Brjánn Ljótsson, David Mataix-Cols, Martina Nord, Lars-Göran Öst, Jens Högström, Eva Serlachius, Sarah Vigerland
BACKGROUND: Paediatric anxiety disorders are associated with substantial disability and long-term adverse consequences, but only a small proportion of affected children have access to evidence-based treatment. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) could help increase accessibility but needs further rigorous assessment. We aimed to assess the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of ICBT in the treatment of paediatric anxiety disorders. METHODS: We did a single-blind randomised controlled trial in a clinical research unit within the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in Stockholm (Sweden)...
September 18, 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Kimberly A Koester, Xavier A Erguera, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Ifeoma Udoh, Jeffrey H Burack, Robert M Grant, Janet J Myers
The use of HIV serostatus information has played a pivotal role in partner selection norms. A phenomenon known as serosorting is the practice of selecting a partner based on a perception that they are of the same HIV status in order to avoid transmission from one partner to the other. An understudied aspect of serosorting is that it has a divisive effect-one accepts or rejects a potential partner based on a singular characteristic, the partner's HIV status, and thus excludes all others. This division has been formally referred to as the HIV serodivide ...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
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