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Javiera P Oyarzún, Estela Càmara, Sid Kouider, Lluis Fuentemilla, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
INTRODUCTION: It has long been posited that threat learning operates and forms under an affective and a cognitive learning system that is supported by different brain circuits. A primary drawback in exposure-based therapies is the high rate of relapse that occurs when higher order areas fail to inhibit responses driven by the defensive circuit. It has been shown that implicit exposure of fearful stimuli leads to a long-lasting reduction in avoidance behavior in patients with phobia. Despite the potential benefits of this approach in the treatment of phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder, implicit extinction is still underinvestigated...
December 4, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Johanna Alexopoulos, Christian Steinberg, Nora Ellen Liebergesell-Kilian, Berit Hoeffkes, Stephan Doering, Markus Junghöfer
Biased motivated attention towards phobia-relevant pictures is a typical finding in specific phobia. In the visual system, the allocation of motivated attention is indexed by two event-related potential components - the Early Posterior Negativity and the Late Positive Potential. Enhanced Early Posterior Negativity and Late Positive Potential amplitudes are reliably observed in specific phobia such as, for instance, snake, spider or blood-injection-injury phobia and to some extent also in dental phobia. However, regarding dental phobia results are sparse and its theoretical concept is not undisputed...
December 1, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ricardo de Oliveira-Souza
The psychological and psychiatric literature has seldom appreciated the clinical fact that fears of ghosts and kindred supernatural worries may be a cause of intense discomfort, poor sleep, and socio-occupational impairment. In the present article, this claim is illustrated by the clinical features of six patients who developed intense anxiety when they had to sleep alone at night. The fears were first noticed in childhood and persisted into adolescence and adulthood. At these times, they were overwhelmed by images of ghosts and haunted houses often experiencing a vivid impression that an immaterial being not perceivable by the ordinary senses was hovering around...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Dongying Li, Linda Larsen, Yan Yang, Lan Wang, Yujia Zhai, William C Sullivan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing developmental disorder in countries across the world. Although recent studies have demonstrated the health benefits of nature for typically developing children and children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, it is unclear whether these benefits extend to children with ASD. In this study, we investigated whether benefits associated with exposure to nature could be observed by parents of children diagnosed with ASD. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 parents and caregivers of children on the spectrum from two cities in China...
November 29, 2018: Health & Place
Gabriel A Radvansky, Connie Svob
Six studies explored the preponderance of people who experience third-person perspective observer memories during autobiographical memory retrieval. The concept of first-person field versus observer memories has been extensively used in the areas of cognitive, social, and clinical psychology. An implicit assumption is the idea that most people use both of these perspectives. What varies are the circumstances that bias people to use one perspective over another for a given autobiographical memory. We challenge that assumption across six studies by showing that, while there are some people who report to regularly have observer memories, there are also those that report to rarely or never have them...
November 29, 2018: Memory
Evgenia Stefanopoulou, David Lewis, Matthew Taylor, James Broscombe, Jan Larkin
Digital interventions for anxiety disorders have been well-researched over the past two decades. However, reviews to date have focused on internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT), whereas other psychological interventions have received less attention. The aim of this review was therefore to evaluate the effectiveness of digitally delivered psychological therapies (CBT, Attention Bias Modification, Exposure Therapy, Applied Relaxation, Bibliotherapy, Psychodynamic Therapy, Mindfulness, Behavioural Stress Management, Counselling) compared with control conditions and/or other psychological interventions for anxiety disorders (Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), Health Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Specific Phobias, Panic Disorder (PD), Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)]...
November 28, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Hanna Wersebe, Roselind Lieb, Andrea H Meyer, Marcel Miche, Thorsten Mikoteit, Christian Imboden, Jürgen Hoyer, Klaus Bader, Martin Hatzinger, Andrew T Gloster
Background/Objective : Lower levels in well-being have been observed in individuals with Major Depression (MDD) and Social Phobia (SP), but well-planned direct comparisons with control individuals, not suffering from a mental disorder, are lacking. Furthermore, MDD is highly comorbid with anxiety disorders, and SP with depressive disorders. This study is among the first to examine differences in well-being in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of MDD or SP compared to individuals with no such diagnosis and to test differences in well-being within the combined diagnostic categories respective with and without anxiety-depressive comorbidity...
September 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP
Sinan Alper, Elif Oyku Us, Dicle Rojda Tasman
Popular culture has many examples of evil characters having vertically pupilled eyes. Humans have a long evolutionary history of rivalry with snakes and their visual systems were evolved to rapidly detect snakes and snake-related cues. Considering such evolutionary background, we hypothesised that humans would perceive vertical pupils, which are characteristics of ambush predators including some of the snakes, as threatening. In seven studies (aggregate N = 1458) conducted on samples from American and Turkish samples, we found that vertical pupils are perceived as more threatening on both explicit (Study 1) and implicit level (Studies 2-7) and they are associated with physical, rather than social, threat (Study 4)...
November 28, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Alexander Richards, John Horwood, Joseph Boden, Martin Kennedy, Ruth Sellers, Lucy Riglin, Sumit Mistry, Hannah Jones, Daniel J Smith, Stanley Zammit, Michael Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Gordon T Harold
BACKGROUND: Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.AimsWe examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia...
November 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Sevda Korkmaz, Aslı Kazgan, Tuba Korucu, Murat Gönen, M Zülfü Yilmaz, Murad Atmaca
OBJECTIVE: Although migraine patients experience more psychological problems when compared to the general population, they are usually not treated. The reasons for non-treatment of these problems are not clear. The anxiety and concern of migraine patients about stigmatization may also prevent them to express psychological symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the attitudes and behavior of migraine patients about receiving psychological help and their concerns about stigmatization...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Juan P Sánchez-Navarro, José M Martínez-Selva, Enrique F Maldonado, Eduvigis Carrillo-Verdejo, Sara Pineda, Ginesa Torrente
OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to study the salivary flow and other autonomic reactions -heart rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR)- in blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia and snake phobia participants, under the assumption that exposure to blood-related pictures in BII phobia will provoke an increase in parasympathetic activity that, in turn, will lead to a greater saliva production than other affective contents. METHODS: We selected 18 BII phobia and 14 snake phobia participants along with 22 non-phobia individuals...
December 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Sébastien Grenier, Marie-Christine Payette, Bruno Gunther, Sorayya Askari, Frédérique F Desjardins, Béatrice Raymond, Djamal Berbiche
OBJECTIVES: To provide an estimate of 12-month and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in older adults based on published studies on this topic, and to identify the impact of gender and age. METHODS/DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Six databases were searched and manual searches through reference lists of selected articles and reviews were performed. When the information was available, summary effects were calculated for the prevalence of each anxiety disorder and for every age and gender subgroups...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Yuki Tsuji, Sotaro Shimada
Socially anxious tendencies have potential to become social anxiety disorder (SAD), which is characterized by fear of social situations associated with being evaluated or embarrassed by others. In particular, others' gazes induce social anxiety. People with SAD have a negative interpretation bias toward ambiguous emotions in others' faces; however, negative interpretation bias toward ambiguous emotions in others' gazes has not been fully investigated. We used an impression judgment task to examine negative interpretation bias toward others' gazes among people with socially anxious tendencies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Aleksandra Landowska, David Roberts, Peter Eachus, Alan Barrett
Exposure Therapy (ET) has demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of phobias, anxiety and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), however, it suffers a high drop-out rate because of too low or too high patient engagement in treatment. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) is comparably effective regarding symptom reduction and offers an alternative tool to facilitate engagement for avoidant participants. Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that both ET and VRET normalize brain activity within a fear circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jasminka Juretić
BACKGROUND: The aim of this research is to propose new models in understanding the relationship between social anxiety and experiencing positive and negative emotions and satisfaction with life in general. Its main focus is to explore the roles of different types of close relationships in these models. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 521 female students attending University of Rijeka and University of Pula (average age 21.21 years). The participants completed The Big Five Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Scale, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Attitudes Towards Emotional Expression Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form, Satisfaction with Life Scale, Quality of Relationship Inventory and Friendship Quality Questionnaire...
December 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas, Renata Guerra Ribas, Jean de Almeida Nóbrega, Marcília Vieira da Nóbrega, Juliana Azevedo de Andrade Espécie, Murilo Tolêdo Calafange, Clenes de Oliveira Mendes Calafange, Hugo André de Lima Martins
Stress is a response in which an individual wants to have more control over a situation. A constant state of stress is called anxiety. Some patients deny symptoms. An instrument can help arrive at a diagnosis. Objective: Using TQ-7 QEEG, this study aimed to evaluate the association of symptoms of anxiety, insecurity, fear, panic and phobia with hot temporals defined as Beta (15-23 Hz) >17% and High-Beta waves (23-38 Hz) >10% at T3 and T4. Methods: Five hundred and forty-three patients of both genders with ages ranging from 16-59 years were evaluated, divided into two groups: Control (without hot temporals: n=274) and Case Group (with hot temporals: n=269)...
July 2018: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
Abdelrahman M AlOkda, Mostafa M Nasr, Shaimaa N Amin
Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, phobias, and post-traumatic stress disorder are considered of high global prevalence. Currently, a therapeutic approach to treat these disorders using beta-blockers, which antagonize the beta-adrenergic receptors (B1, B2, and B3) is being studied. This approach claims that beta-blockers, such as propranolol, inhibit fear memory reconsolidation. However, there are several studies refuting such claims by discrediting their experimental design and pointing out both the drugs pharmacokinetic properties and confounding factors...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Roxanna Short, Hannah Dickson, Neil Greenberg, Deirdre MacManus
BACKGROUND: A small but significant proportion of military veterans become involved in the criminal justice system (CJS) after leaving service. Liaison and Diversion (L&D) services aim to identify vulnerable offenders in order to provide them with the health/welfare support they need, and (where possible) divert them away from custody. An administrative database of L&D service-users was utilised to compare the needs of veterans with those of non-veteran L&D service-users. METHOD: National data collected from 29 L&D services in 2015-2016 was utilised...
2018: PloS One
Lígia Nunes de Morais Ribeiro, Michelle Franz-Montan, Márcia Cristina Breitkreitz, Gustavo Henrique Rodrigues da Silva, Simone Ramos de Castro, Viviane Aparecida Guilherme, Daniele Ribeiro de Araújo, Eneida de Paula
Background: Local anesthesia in dentistry is by far the most terrifying procedure for patients, causing treatment interruption. None of the commercially available topical formulations is effective in eliminating the pain and phobia associated to the needle insertion and injection. Materials and methods: In this work we prepared a nanostructured lipid-biopolymer hydrogel for the sustained delivery of lidocaine-prilocaine (LDC-PLC) for transbuccal pre-anesthesia. The lipid was composed of optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) loaded with 5% LDC-PLC (NLC/LDC-PLC)...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
L D Khoa, T N Quang, P D Toan, N M T Loc, N T N Diem, V Q Dang, H N A Vu, B W Mol, D J Handelsman
BACKGROUND: Surgical sperm retrieval, requiring local anesthetic injection, is the most frequent surgical procedure in male infertility. However, needle phobia is common and may contribute to negative experiences or refusal of procedures employing needle injection. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the acceptability, safety, and efficacy of needle-free jet anesthetic technique (MadaJet) with conventional needle injection for surgical sperm retrievals in patients with azoospermia...
November 8, 2018: Andrology
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