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Aya Narunsky, Nir Ben-Tal, Rachel Kolodny
Present-day protein space is the result of 3.7 billion years of evolution, constrained by the underlying physicochemical qualities of the proteins. It is difficult to differentiate between evolutionary traces and effects of physicochemical constraints. Nonetheless, as a rule of thumb, instances of structural reuse, or focusing on structural similarity, are likely attributable to physicochemical constraints, whereas sequence reuse, or focusing on sequence similarity, may be more indicative of evolutionary relationships...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xiaojia Feng, Huijuan Zhou, Saman Zulfiqar, Xiang Luo, Yiheng Hu, Li Feng, Maria E Malvolti, Keith Woeste, Peng Zhao
Common walnut ( Juglans regia L.) is an economically important hardwood tree species cultivated worldwide for its high quality wood and edible nuts. It is generally accepted that after the last glaciation J . regia survived and grew in almost completely isolated stands in Asia, and that ancient humans dispersed walnuts across Asia and into new habitats via trade and cultural expansion. The history of common walnut in China is a matter of debate, however. We estimated the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of 31 walnut populations sampled across its Chinese range using 22 microsatellite markers (13 neutral and 9 non-neutral)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yutian Zhang, Zhuo Wang, Diying Li, Wanting Zang, Hai Zhu, Pengyu Wu, Yuxia Mei, Yunxiang Liang
A polysaccharide (termed ACPS-1) from mycelia of Antrodia cinnamomea under submerged culture was purified by hot water extraction and successive DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and structurally characterized by FTIR, NMR, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and GC-MS. ACPS-1 (MW 2.296 × 104  Da) was composed primarily of Man, Xyl, Ara, Fuc and Rha with a molar ratio of 31.27:1.77:1.44:1.34:1.00, and its backbone consisted of repeating α-(1 → 3), α-(1 → 6), α-(1 → 2), and α-(1 → 4) glycosidic linkages...
September 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michelle L Litchman, Dana Lewis, Lesly A Kelly, Perry M Gee
BACKGROUND: Patient-driven innovation in diabetes management has resulted in a group of people with type 1 diabetes who choose to build and share knowledge around a do-it-yourself (DIY) open source artificial pancreas systems (OpenAPS). The purpose of this study was to examine Twitter data to understand how patients, caregivers, and care partners perceive OpenAPS, the personal and emotional ramifications of using OpenAPS, and the influence of OpenAPS on daily life. METHODS: Qualitative netnography was used to analyze #OpenAPS on Twitter over a two-year period...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Rebekah Brennan, John S G Wells, Marieclaire Van Hout
This study reports on an empirically underdocumented practice in contemporary aesthetic enhancement culture, the self-injection of unregulated DIY Botox and dermal filler kits purchased online. Data were collected from 4 online discussion forums containing disclosures in relation to use of DIY kits and analyzed using ethnographic content analysis. Motivation to source DIY Botox and dermal fillers online was grounded in desire to avoid financial cost of professional services and a lack of confidence in practitioners...
August 2018: Plastic Surgery
Sara Paparini, Will Nutland, Tim Rhodes, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Jane Anderson
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral medication is an effective, evidence-based option for HIV prevention. In England, issues of cost-effectiveness and of responsibility for commissioning prevention services have so far led National Health Service (NHS) England to decide not to commission PrEP. Given the significant lag between the awareness of PrEP efficacy and the opportunity to obtain PrEP through traditional health care routes, many gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have turned to 'DIY PrEP', purchasing generic formulations of PrEP for themselves on the internet or via other alternative routes...
2018: PloS One
Chenyang Cai, Hermes E Escalona, Liqin Li, Ziwei Yin, Diying Huang, Michael S Engel
Cycads, unlike modern wind-pollinated conifers and Ginkgo, are unusual in that they are an ancient group of gymnosperms pollinated by insects [1-3]. Although it is well documented that cycads were diverse and abundant during the mid-Mesozoic, little is known about their biogeography and pollination before the rise of angiosperms. Direct fossil evidence illuminating the evolutionary history of cycads is extremely rare [4, 5]. Here we report a specialized beetle-mediated pollination mode from the mid-Cretaceous of Myanmar, wherein a new boganiid beetle, Cretoparacucujus cycadophilus, with specialized pollen-feeding adaptations in its mouthparts and legs, was associated with many pollen grains of Cycadopites...
September 10, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Teuta Pilizota, Ya-Tang Yang
With the emergence of inexpensive 3D printing technology, open-source platforms for electronic prototyping and single-board computers, "Do it Yourself" (DIY) approaches to the cultivation of microbial cultures are becoming more feasible, user-friendly, and thus wider spread. In this perspective, we survey some of these approaches, as well as add-on solutions to commercial instruments for synthetic and system biology applications. We discuss different cultivation designs, including capabilities and limitations...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sisi Li, Diying Shen, Xiaoping Guo, Chan Liao, Yongmin Tang
Antibody-targeting therapy has drawn great interests to the hematologists and oncologists. 3A4, a novel antibody recognizing human CD45RA antigen, is a new target molecule for leukemias and holds a therapeutic potential for myeloid lineage leukemias. However, murine antibodies cannot be safely used in patients because of their strong immune reaction, humanization of the antibodies interested will be an important development step for therapeutic purpose. The aim of this study was to engineer the mouse 3A4 and to investigate the biological activity of its chimeric form...
September 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Katharine D Barnard, Ralph Ziegler, David C Klonoff, Katarina Braune, Bettina Petersen, Til Rendschmidt, Daniel Finan, Aaron Kowalski, Lutz Heinemann
Biomedical outcomes for people with diabetes remain suboptimal for many. Psychosocial care in diabetes does not fare any better. "Artificial pancreas" (also known as "closed-loop" and "automated insulin delivery") systems present a promising therapeutic option for people with diabetes (PWD)-simultaneously improving glycemic outcomes, reducing the burden of self-management, and improving health-related quality of life. In recent years there has emerged a growing movement of PWD innovators rallying behind the mantra #WeAreNotWaiting, developing "do-it-yourself artificial pancreas systems (DIY APS)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Laurent M Arsac, Véronique Deschodt-Arsac
Fractal physiology demonstrated growing interest over the last decades among physiologists, neuroscientists, and clinicians. Many physiological systems coordinate themselves for reducing variability and maintain a steady state. When recorded over time, the output signal exhibits small fluctuations around a stable value. It is becoming increasingly clear that these fluctuations, in most free-running healthy systems, are not simply due to uncorrelated random errors and possess interesting properties, one of which is the property of fractal dynamics...
September 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
Kevin S Paulsen, Yanxiang Deng, Aram J Chung
Complex-shaped microparticles can enhance applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, and structural materials, although techniques to fabricate these particles remain limited. A microfluidics-based process called optofluidic fabrication that utilizes inertial flows and ultraviolet polymerization has shown great potential for creating highly 3D-shaped particles in a high-throughput manner, but the particle dimensions are mainly at the millimeter scale. Here, a next generation optofluidic fabrication process is presented that utilizes on-the-fly fabricated multiscale fluidic channels producing customized sub-100 µm 3D-shaped microparticles...
July 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Jim Kling
In the version of this Technology Feature originally published, André Maia Chagas' lab affiliation was omitted and the name of his institution, The Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, was incorrectly written. This has now been corrected.
August 2018: Lab Animal
Ruizan Shi, Diying Zhu, Zehui Wei, Naijie Fu, Chang Wang, Linhong Liu, Huifeng Zhang, Yueqin Liang, Jianfeng Xing, Xuening Wang, Yan Wang
AIMS: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) was shown to lead to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Baicalein was reported to inhibit epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process that has many regulatory pathways in common with EndoMT. Whether it can attenuate PAH by inhibiting EndoMT remains obscure. MAIN METHODS: PAH was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of MCT (60 mg/kg) in male Sprague Dawley rats...
August 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Morgan Meyer
Do-it-yourself (DIY) biology and medicine are based on various practices and logics: amateur and DIY practices, the ethics of hacking and open source, the drive to domesticate molecular biology and genetics, the ideal of participation and citizen science. The article shows that this democratization is a process that is at once spatial (construction of new spaces), technical (creative workarounds equipment), social (establishment of accessible networks/laboratories) and political. It is therefore through their practices, gestures and questions - tinkering, experimenting, working around, amaterializing, ethicizing, comparing, valuating, etc...
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Mitchell J Geer, Johanna P van Geffen, Piraveen Gopalasingam, Timo Vögtle, Christopher W Smith, Silke Heising, Marijke J E Kuijpers, Bibian M E Tullemans, Gavin E Jarvis, Johannes A Eble, Mark Jeeves, Michael Overduin, Johan W M Heemskerk, Alexandra Mazharian, Yotis A Senis
The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-containing receptor G6b-B has emerged as a key regulator of platelet homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how it mediates its effects. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the ITIM and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM) within the cytoplasmic tail of G6b-B provides a docking site for SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases Shp1 and Shp2, which are also critical regulators of platelet production and function. In this study, we investigate the physiological consequences of uncoupling G6b-B from Shp1 and Shp2...
June 11, 2018: Blood
Brandon G Wong, Christopher P Mancuso, Szilvia Kiriakov, Caleb J Bashor, Ahmad S Khalil
Precise control over microbial cell growth conditions could enable detection of minute phenotypic changes, which would improve our understanding of how genotypes are shaped by adaptive selection. Although automated cell-culture systems such as bioreactors offer strict control over liquid culture conditions, they often do not scale to high-throughput or require cumbersome redesign to alter growth conditions. We report the design and validation of eVOLVER, a scalable do-it-yourself (DIY) framework, which can be configured to carry out high-throughput growth experiments in molecular evolution, systems biology, and microbiology...
August 2018: Nature Biotechnology
Jim Kling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Lab Animal
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: British Dental Journal
Maria P Martinez, Kurunthachalam Kannan
The determination of oxidative stress biomarkers (OSBs) is useful for the assessment of health status and progress of diseases in humans. Whereas previous methods for the determination of OSBs in urine were focused on a single marker, in this study, we present a method for simultaneous determination of biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatization followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) allowed the determination of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), o- o'-dityrosine (diY), malondialdehyde (MDA), and four F2 -isoprostane isomers: 8-iso-prostaglandinF2α (8-PGF2α ), 11β-prostaglandinF2α (11-PGF2α ), 15( R)-prostaglandinF2α (15-PGF2α ), and 8-iso,15( R)-prostaglandinF2α (8,15-PGF2α ) in urine...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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