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Imported malaria

P Chellapandi, R Prathiviraj, A Prisilla
Malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, continues to be one of the leading parasitic diseases to humans. It is urgent to discover novel targets for the development of antimalarial drugs. The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (IspD) in 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate pathway has been considered as a second in vivo off-target to discover novel antimalarial drugs for its essentiality in malarial parasites and devoid in mammals. Our aim is to rationalize the basis of its functional parts by studying molecular diversity, origin and evolution across malarial parasites...
August 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Sofi Imtiyaz Ali, B Gopalakrishnan, V Venkatesalu
Vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes cause globally important diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis. The incidence of these diseases can be reduced through mosquito control programs but these control programs currently rely on synthetic insecticides that can impact the environment, and has selected widespread mosquito resistance. Environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides discovered in plants offer an alternative approach to mosquito control. Here, we investigated extracts from root or aerial parts of Chicory (Cichorium intybus) and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) against the early 4th instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Aedes aegypti (dengue fever vector), and Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis vector)...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology International
Pengby Ngor, Lisa J White, Jeremy Chalk, Yoel Lubell, Cecelia Favede, Phaik-Yeong Cheah, Chea Nguon, Po Ly, Richard J Maude, Siv Sovannaroth, Nicholas P Day, Susanna Dunachie
Background: Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) are lay people trained to provide a valuable role in frontline testing and treatment of malaria in rural villages in Cambodia. Emergence of artemisinin-resistant malaria highlights the essential role of such VMWs in surveillance and early treatment of malaria. Smartphone technology offers huge potential to support VMWs in isolated and resource-poor settings.  Methods: We investigated the feasibility of issuing established VMWs with a smartphone, bespoke Android application and solar charger to support their role...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Hobart Lee, Sara Halverson, Ngozi Ezinwa
Mosquito-borne diseases have become more common as previously geographically isolated diseases have spread globally. Chikungunya, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, West Nile, yellow fever, and Zika are a few of the common and emerging viral diseases spread by mosquitoes. A thorough patient history, physical, and knowledge of diagnostic testing based on symptom duration is important to make a quick and accurate diagnosis. Because the treatment for many of these diseases is supportive, the emphasis is on reducing risk and spread of infection...
September 2018: Primary Care
Anis Fadhilah Zulkipli, Nor Munirah Zakaria, Mohamed Hussein Abdikarim, Maryam Azlan, Nurulasma Abdullah, Norazmi Mohd Nor, Rapeah Suppian
Macrophage apoptosis exerts an efficient mechanism in controlling intracellular infection during innate immune response against various pathogens including malaria parasites. This study was carried out to determine the apoptosis activity in mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 infected with a Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) clone and a recombinant BCG clone expressing the C-terminus of merozoite surface protein-1 (BCG-MSP1C) of Plasmodium falciparum for 48 h. In this study, a parent BCG cells was used as a control...
July 2018: Tropical Life Sciences Research
Alison Roth, Swamy R Adapa, Min Zhang, Xiangyun Liao, Vishal Saxena, Raaven Goffe, Suzanne Li, Ratawan Ubalee, Gagandeep S Saggu, Zarna R Pala, Shilpi Garg, Silas Davidson, Rays H Y Jiang, John H Adams
Malaria parasites transmitted by mosquito bite are remarkably efficient in establishing human infections. The infection process requires roughly 30 minutes and is highly complex as quiescent sporozoites injected with mosquito saliva must be rapidly activated in the skin, migrate through the body, and infect the liver. This process is poorly understood for Plasmodium vivax due to low infectivity in the in vitro models. To study this skin-to-liver-stage of malaria, we used quantitative bioassays coupled with transcriptomics to evaluate parasite changes linked with mammalian microenvironmental factors...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Młgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE OF THE ARTICLE: This is for the year 2016 subsequent annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland as part of the Epidemiological Chronicle of the Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to summarize the collective incidence of infectious diseases and to indicate potential threats to the health of populations from communicable diseases occurring in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The basic source of epidemiological information for this summary is a summary of data from reports of the State Sanitary Inspection, contained in the annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisoning in Poland in 2016” and “Protective Vaccination in Poland in 2016” (1, 2)...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Dillon Charles Adam, Chau Minh Bui, Anita Elizabeth Heywood, Mohana Kunasekaran, Mohamud Sheikh, Padmanesan Narasimhan, Chandini Raina MacIntyre
OBJECTIVE: Compare the adoption and adherence to health protection behaviours prior to and during travel among international Australian travellers who return to Australia with notified chikungunya or malaria infection. This information could inform targeted health promotion and intervention strategies to limit the establishment of these diseases within Australia. RESULTS: Seeking travel advice prior to departure was moderate (46%, N = 21/46) yet compliance with a range of recommended anti-vectorial prevention measures was low among both chikungunya and malaria infected groups (16%, N = 7/45)...
August 14, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Nathalie Amvongo-Adjia, Emmanuela L Wirsiy, Jacob M Riveron, Winston P Chounna Ndongmo, Peter A Enyong, Flobert Njiokou, Charles S Wondji, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: The epidemiological profiles of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, are strongly associated with landscape components. The reduction of malaria burden in endemic and epidemic regions mainly depends on knowledge of the malaria-transmitting mosquito species, populations and behavioural characteristics, as well as malaria exposure risks. This work aimed at carrying out a holistic study in order to characterise Anopheles species in relation to human malaria in seven wetlands along the lower section of the volcanic chain of Cameroon...
August 14, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Susan Elaine Greni, Bruna Demari-Silva, Tatiane Marques Porangaba de Oliveira, Lincoln Suesdek, Gabriel Zorello Laporta, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
Nyssorhynchus strodei (Root) is an understudied species of potential epidemiological importance, having been found naturally infected in Brazil with Plasmodium falciparum Welch, Plasmodium vivax Grassi & Feletti, and Plasmodium malariae Feletti & Grassi. It belongs to the strodei subgroup that includes Nyssorhynchus albertoi (Unti), Nyssorhynchus arthuri (Unti), Nyssorhynchus rondoni (Neiva & Pinto), Nyssorhynchus striatus (Sant'Ana & Sallum), and three unnamed species, Nyssorhynchus arthuri B, Nyssorhynchus arthuri C, and Nyssorhynchus arthuri D...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Roland Bamou, Lili Ranaise Mbakop, Edmond Kopya, Cyrille Ndo, Parfait Awono-Ambene, Timoleon Tchuinkam, Martin Kibet Rono, Joseph Mwangangi, Christophe Antonio-Nkondjio
BACKGROUND: Increased use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) over the last decade has considerably improved the control of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is still a paucity of data on the influence of LLIN use and other factors on mosquito bionomics in different epidemiological foci. The objective of this study was to provide updated data on the evolution of vector bionomics and malaria transmission patterns in the equatorial forest region of Cameroon over the period 2000-2017, during which LLIN coverage has increased substantially...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Fatalmoudou Tandina, Ogobara Doumbo, Alpha Seydou Yaro, Sékou F Traoré, Philippe Parola, Vincent Robert
Mosquito-borne diseases cause major human diseases in almost every part of the world. In West Africa, and notably in Mali, vector control measures help reduce the impact of mosquito-borne diseases, although malaria remains a threat to both morbidity and mortality. The most recent overview article on mosquitoes in Mali was published in 1961, with a total of 88 species. Our present review focuses on mosquitoes of medical importance among which the Anopheles vectors of Plasmodium and filaria, as well as the Culex and Aedes vectors of arboviruses...
August 13, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Rashid A Khatib, Prosper P Chaki, Duo-Quan Wang, Yeromin P Mlacha, Michael G Mihayo, Tegemeo Gavana, Ning Xiao, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Salim Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Malaria is an important public health problem in Tanzania. The latest national malaria data suggests rebound of the disease in the country. Anopheles arabiensis, a mosquito species renowned for its resilience against existing malaria vector control measures has now outnumbered the endophagic and anthrophilic Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto as the dominant vector. Vector control measures, prophylaxis and case management with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) are the main control interventions...
August 13, 2018: Malaria Journal
Asmamaw Malede, Kassahun Alemu, Mulugeta Aemero, Sirak Robele, Helmut Kloos
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, malaria has declined in the last decade; only a small number of cases have been reported, primarily from hotspots. The contribution of house proximity to water bodies and the role of migration in malaria transmission has not yet been examined in detail in northwest Ethiopia. Individual and household-level environmental and socio-demographic drivers of malaria heterogeneity were explored contextually in meso-endemic villages around Lake Tana, northwest Ethiopia...
August 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mtakai Ngara, Mia Palmkvist, Sven Sagasser, Daisy Hjelmqvist, Åsa K Björklund, Mats Wahlgren, Johan Ankarklev, Rickard Sandberg
The malaria parasite has a complex lifecycle, including several events of differentiation and stage progression, while actively evading immunity in both its mosquito and human hosts. Important parasite gene expression and regulation during these events remain hidden in rare populations of cells. Here, we combine a capillary-based platform for cell isolation with single-cell RNA-sequencing to transcriptionally profile 165 single infected red blood cells (iRBCs) during the intra-erythrocyte developmental cycle (IDC)...
August 7, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Bonnie Phillips, Koen K A Van Rompay, Jennifer Rodriguez-Nieves, Clarisse Lorin, Marguerite Koutsoukos, Mark Tomai, Christopher B Fox, Josh Eudailey, Maria Dennis, S Munir Alam, Michael Hudgens, Genevieve Fouda, Justin Pollara, Anthony Moody, Xiaoying Shen, Guido Ferrari, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Towards the goal of developing an effective HIV vaccine that can be administered in infancy to protect against postnatal and life-long sexual HIV transmission risks, the current pilot study was designed to compare the effect of novel adjuvants on the induction of HIV Env-specific antibody responses in infant macaques. Aligning our studies with the adjuvanted proteins evaluated in a prime-boost schedule with ALVAC in the ongoing HVTN 702 efficacy trial, we selected the bivalent clade C Env immunogens gp120 C...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virology
Fumika Mi-Ichi, Yasunobu Miyake, Vo Kha Tam, Hiroki Yoshida
Amoebiasis is caused by Entamoeba histolytica infection, a protozoan parasite belonging to the phylum Amoebozoa. This parasite undergoes a fundamental cell differentiation process from proliferative trophozoite to dormant cyst, termed "encystation." The cysts formed by encystation are solely responsible for the transmission of amoebiasis; therefore, Entamoeba encystation is an important subject from both biological and medical perspectives. Here, we have established a flow cytometry strategy for not only determining the percentage of formed cysts but also for monitoring changes in cell populations during encystation...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Rasha Hassan Soliman, Patricia Garcia-Aranda, Sherine Mohamed Elzagawy, Boshra El-Sayed Hussein, Wael Wahid Mayah, Alexandra Martin Ramirez, Thuy-Huong Ta-Tang, José Miguel Rubio
BACKGROUND: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is seeking malaria eradication. Malaria transmission has been very low over the last few years. Discovered cases of Plasmodium falciparum infection are assigned a treatment protocol of artemisinin-based combination therapy, which consists of artesunate in addition to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine rather than the traditional chloroquine, which has high resistance rates worldwide. This study aims to investigate the presence of different gene mutations concerning anti-malarial drug resistance (pfdhfr, pfdhps, pfmdr1, pfcrt, pfcytb, pfketch13) to identify whether drug-resistant alleles are present in this area of the Kingdom and whether the country's treatment protocol is still suitable for Plasmodium bearing a resistance mutation...
August 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Katherine M McClure, Charlotte Lawrence, A Marm Kilpatrick
Vector abundance plays a key role in transmission of mosquito-borne disease. In Hawaii, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito, has been implicated in locally-transmitted dengue outbreaks, while Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), the southern house mosquito, is the primary vector of avian malaria, a wildlife disease that has contributed to declines and extinctions of native Hawaiian birds. Despite the importance of these introduced species to human and wildlife health, little is known about the local-scale drivers that shape mosquito abundance across lowland Hawaii, where forest, agricultural, and residential land uses are prevalent...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Jianing Liu, Xiaoxu Wu, Chenlu Li, Sen Zhou
Malaria is an important vector-borne disease which is widespread in tropical and subtropical areas worldwide as well as in south China. Previous research has separately focused on the association between malaria incidence and meteorological variables or between malaria incidence and anti-malaria intervention measures in China, especially in Yunnan Province. Therefore, a typical county, Tengchong County, in Yunnan Province with high malaria incidence was selected as the study area to investigate the integrated influence of climate variance and anti-malaria intervention measures...
July 23, 2018: Environmental Research
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