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Imported malaria

Hanwei Fang, Ana Rita Gomes, Natacha Klages, Paco Pino, Bohumil Maco, Eloise M Walker, Zenon A Zenonos, Fiona Angrisano, Jake Baum, Christian Doerig, David A Baker, Oliver Billker, Mathieu Brochet
In malaria parasites, evolution of parasitism has been linked to functional optimisation. Despite this optimisation, most members of a calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) family show genetic redundancy during erythrocytic proliferation. To identify relationships between phospho-signalling pathways, we here screen 294 genetic interactions among protein kinases in Plasmodium berghei. This reveals a synthetic negative interaction between a hypomorphic allele of the protein kinase G (PKG) and CDPK4 to control erythrocyte invasion which is conserved in P...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Ahmed Dahiru Balami, Salmiah Md Said, Nor Afiah Mohd Zulkefli, Bachok Norsa'adah, Bala Audu
BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of malaria among pregnant women and its associated complications, the level of compliance with insecticide-treated nets (ITN) remains very low. Motivation and self-efficacy have been reported as important determinants of health behaviour, and may be important factors to consider in developing health intervention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, motivation and self-efficacy of ITN use, and their association with its practice, among pregnant women in a secondary health centre in Maiduguri...
October 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Lesa A Thompson, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Wageh S Darwish, Yared B Yohannes, Johan J van Vuren, Victor Wepener, Nico J Smit, Atnafu G Assefa, Ahmed Tharwat, Walaa Fathy Saad Eldin, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
The objective of this study was to identify potential mRNA expression changes in chicken livers associated with environmental exposure to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs). In particular, we focused on genes relating to the immune system and metabolism. We analyzed liver samples from free-ranging chickens in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for contamination by DDTs. This area predominantly uses DDT in its malaria control program, and homes are sprayed annually with the pesticide...
2018: PloS One
Thomas Faunce, Andrew Ray, Christie Gardiner, Thomas Preiss, Gaetan Burgio
Recent technological breakthroughs in ribonucleic acid (RNA) research and the creation of synthetic gene drives using CRISPR/Cas9 have increased attention on the ethical and legal regulation of this field. RNA is now perceived as not merely a passive carrier of DNA information but especially through its propensity to mutate as a computation engine of cell biology, developmental biology and evolution. Synthetic Gene drives have been hailed as a potential strategy to reduce climate-change-mediated biosecurity threats such as spreading malaria and have attracted significant investment, with the Gates Foundation pledging US$75 million and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency awarding US$65 million...
October 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Kavita Singh, Paushali Mukherjee, Ahmad Rushdi Shakri, Ankita Singh, Gaurav Pandey, Meenakshi Bakshi, Geetanjali Uppal, Rajender Jena, Ankita Rawat, Purnima Kumar, Rukmini Bhardwaj, Syed Shams Yazdani, Dhiraj Hans, Shantanu Mehta, Ajay Srinivasan, K Anil, R L Madhusudhan, Jaya Patel, Amit Singh, Rajeshwar Rao, Santosh Gangireddy, Rudrappa Patil, Swarnendu Kaviraj, Sanjay Singh, Darrick Carter, Steve Reed, David C Kaslow, Ashley Birkett, Virander S Chauhan, Chetan E Chitnis
Reticulocyte invasion by Plasmodium vivax requires interaction of the Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP) with host Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARCs). The binding domain of PvDBP maps to a cysteine-rich region referred to as region II (PvDBPII). Blocking this interaction offers a potential path to prevent P. vivax blood-stage growth and P. vivax malaria. This forms the rationale for development of a vaccine based on PvDBPII. Here we report results of a Phase I randomized trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant PvDBPII formulated with glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE)...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Benedict R Halbroth, Sarah Sebastian, Hazel C Poyntz, Migena Bregu, Matthew G Cottingham, Adrian V S Hill, Alexandra J Spencer
Despite promising progress in malaria vaccine development, an efficacious subunit vaccine against P. falciparum remains to be licensed and deployed. This study aimed to improve on the immunogenicity of the leading liver-stage vaccine candidate (ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP), known to confer protection by eliciting high levels of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. We previously showed fusion of ME-TRAP to the human MHC class II invariant chain (Ii) could enhance CD8+ T cell responses in non-human primates, but did not progress to clinical testing due to potential risk of auto-immunity by vaccination of humans with a self-antigen...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michele Spinicci, Fabio Macchioni, Simona Gabrielli, David Rojo, Herlan Gamboa, Ana Liz Villagrán, Yolanda Vallejos, Marianne Strohmeyer, Mimmo Roselli, Gabriella Cancrini, Piero Olliaro, Antonio Montresor, Alessandro Bartoloni
Tropical anemia can have multiple causes, whether socioeconomic, dietary, or infectious. In the Bolivian Chaco, soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), malaria, and Chagas disease are potential infectious causes of anemia among school-aged children (SAC). Following years of preventive chemotherapy with mebendazole, the prevalence of STH among SAC living in that area is now negligible, whereas protozoan infections are still highly prevalent (81%); Hymenolepis nana is the most frequent intestinal helminth (∼13%)...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anjana M D S Delpe Acharige, Mark P C Brennan, Kate Lauder, Fiona McMahon, Adesola O Odebunmi, Marcus C Durrant
During the red blood cell phase of their life cycle, malaria parasites digest their host's haemoglobin, with concomitant release of potentially toxic iron(iii) protoporphyrin IX (FePPIX). The parasites' strategy for detoxification of FePPIX involves its crystallization to haemozoin, such that the build-up of free haem in solution is avoided. Antimalarial drugs of both historical importance and current clinical use are known to be capable of disrupting the growth of crystals of β-haematin, which is the synthetic equivalent of haemozoin...
October 9, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Fiona J A van Pul, Jai Ramesar, Ahmad Syibli Othman, Hans Kroeze, Jun Miao, Liwang Cui, Kim C Williamson, Robert W Sauerwein, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Two members of 6-cysteine (6-cys) protein family, P48/45 and P230, are important for gamete fertility in rodent and human malaria parasites and are leading transmission blocking vaccine antigens. Rodent and human parasites encode a paralog of P230, called P230p. While P230 is expressed in male and female parasites, P230p is expressed only in male gametocytes and gametes. In rodent malaria parasites this protein is dispensable throughout the complete life-cycle; however, its function in P. falciparum is unknown...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mallika Imwong, Wanassanan Madmanee, Kanokon Suwannasin, Chanon Kunasol, Thomas J Peto, Rupam Tripura, Lorenz von Seidlein, Chea Nguon, Chan Davoeung, Nicholas P J Day, Arjen M Dondorp, Nicholas J White
Background: In Southeast Asia, Plasmodium knowlesi, a parasite of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis), is an important cause of human malaria. Plasmodium cynomolgi also commonly infects these monkeys, but only one naturally acquired symptomatic human case has been reported previously. Methods: Malariometric studies involving 5422 subjects (aged 6 months to 65 years) were conducted in 23 villages in Pailin and Battambang, western Cambodia. Parasite detection and genotyping was conducted on blood samples, using high-volume quantitative PCR (uPCR)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Andrew Wang, Sarah C Huen, Harding H Luan, Kelly Baker, Henry Rinder, Carmen J Booth, Ruslan Medzhitov
Sickness behaviors are a conserved set of stereotypic responses to inflammatory diseases. We recently demonstrated that interfering with inflammation-induced anorexia led to metabolic changes that had profound effects on survival of acute inflammatory conditions. We found that different inflammatory states needed to be coordinated with corresponding metabolic programs to actuate tissue-protective mechanisms. Survival of viral inflammation required intact glucose utilization pathways, whereas survival of bacterial inflammation required alternative fuel substrates and ketogenic programs...
October 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Suheyla Ekemen, Ant Uzay, Nuray Bassullu, Emel Dikicioglu-Cetin, Kyoko Matsuda, Umit Ince, Cevayir Coban
BACKGROUND: Malaria is known to cause acute and deadly complications. However, malaria can cause unforeseen pathologies due to its chronicity. It increases the risk of endemic Burkitt Lymphoma development by inducing DNA damage in germinal centre (GC) B cells, and leading higher frequency of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in GCs. EBV is well known for its tropism for B cells. However, less is known about EBV's interaction with T cells and its association with T cell lymphoma...
October 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Hongmei Liu, Luhong Liu, Peng Cheng, Xiaodan Huang, Maoqing Gong
BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis is an important vector for the spread of malaria in China. Olfactory-related behaviours, particularly oviposition site seeking, offer opportunities for disrupting the disease-transmission process. RESULTS: This is the first report of the identification and characterization of AsinOrco and AsinOR10 in An. sinensis. AsinOrco and AsinOR10 share 97.49% and 90.37% amino acid sequence identity, respectively, with related sequences in Anopheles gambiae...
October 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Yared Debebe, Sharon R Hill, Habte Tekie, Rickard Ignell, Richard J Hopkins
BACKGROUND: Understanding the ecology of exophilic anophelines is a key step toward developing outdoor control strategies to complement existing indoor control tools against malaria vectors. This study was conducted to assess the movement pattern of exophilic Anopheles mosquitoes between blood meal sources and resting habitats, and the landscape factors dictating their resting habitat choice. RESULTS: Resting clay pots were placed at 5 m, 25 m, 50 m, 75 m and 100 m away from isolated focal houses, radiating from them in four directions...
October 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
Nicole Kilian, Jae-Yeon Choi, Dennis R Voelker, Choukri Ben Mamoun
The lifecycle of malaria parasites in both their mammalian host and mosquito vector consists of multiple developmental stages that ensure proper replication and progeny survival. The transition between these stages is fueled by nutrients scavenged from the host and fed into specialized metabolic pathways of the parasite. One such pathway is used by Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most severe form of human malaria, to synthesize its major phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Anatoly V Kondrashin, Lola F Morozova, Ekaterina V Stepanova, Natalia A Turbabina, Maria S Maksimova, Evgeny N Morozov
Presently, many malaria-endemic countries in the world are transitioning towards malaria elimination. Out of the 105 countries with ongoing malaria transmission, 10 countries are classified as being in the pre-elimination phase of malaria control, and 9 countries are in the malaria elimination stage, whereas 7 countries are classified as being in the prevention of introduction phase. Between 2000 and 2015, 17 countries eliminated malaria (i.e., attained zero indigenous cases for 3 years or more). Seven countries were certified by the WHO as having successfully eliminated malaria...
October 4, 2018: Malaria Journal
Michelle D S Boakye, Collins J Owek, Elizabeth Oluoch, Juddy Wachira, Yaw A Afrane
BACKGROUND: Community Case Management of malaria (CCMm) using Community Health Workers (CHWs) is an approach to improve access to timely and effective malaria case management in malaria endemic countries. So far the programme has been shown to be effective in many communities in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain on the sustainability of this programme due to the high dropout cases of CHWs given their modest remuneration. The aim of the study was to identify challenges of achieving sustainable community health services for CCMm...
October 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
Claire Armstrong, David S Richardson, Helen Hipperson, Gavin J Horsburgh, Clemens Küpper, Lawrence Percival-Alwyn, Matt Clark, Terry Burke, Lewis G Spurgin
Island species provide excellent models for investigating how selection and drift operate in wild populations, and for determining how these processes act to influence local adaptation and speciation. Here, we examine the role of selection and drift in shaping genomic and phenotypic variation across recently separated populations of Berthelot's pipit ( Anthus berthelotii ), a passerine bird endemic to three archipelagos in the Atlantic. We first characterized genetic diversity and population structuring that supported previous inferences of a history of recent colonizations and bottlenecks...
February 2018: Evolution Letters
Samuel Hundessa, Gail Williams, Shanshan Li, De Li Liu, Wei Cao, Hongyan Ren, Jinpeng Guo, Antonio Gasparrini, Kristie Ebi, Wenyi Zhang, Yuming Guo
Background: Global climate change is likely to increase the geographic range and seasonality of malaria transmission. Areas suitable for distribution of malaria vectors are predicted to increase with climate change but evidence is limited on future distribution of malaria with climate in China. Objective: Our aim was to assess a potential effect of climate change on Plasmodium vivax ( P . vivax ) and Plasmodium falciparum ( P . falciparum ) malaria under climate change scenarios...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tillmann Utesch, Alejandra de Miguel Catalina, Caspar Schattenberg, Norman Paege, Peter Schmieder, Eberhard Krause, Yinglong Miao, J Andrew McCammon, Vera Meyer, Sascha Jung, Maria Andrea Mroginski
Fungal pathogens kill more people per year globally than malaria or tuberculosis and threaten international food security through crop destruction. New sophisticated strategies to inhibit fungal growth are thus urgently needed. Among the potential candidate molecules that strongly inhibit fungal spore germination are small cationic, cysteine-stabilized proteins of the AFP family secreted by a group of filamentous Ascomycetes. Its founding member, AFP from Aspergillus giganteus , is of particular interest since it selectively inhibits the growth of filamentous fungi without affecting the viability of mammalian, plant, or bacterial cells...
October 3, 2018: MSphere
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