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Imported malaria

Yijun Zhong, Ling Li, Xiaolong Hao, Xueqing Fu, Yanan Ma, Lihui Xie, Qian Shen, Sadaf Kayani, Qifang Pan, Xiaofen Sun, Kexuan Tang
Artemisinin is well known for its irreplaceable curative effect on the devastating parasitic disease, Malaria. This sesquiterpenoid is specifically produced in Chinese traditional herbal plant Artemisia annua. Earlier studies have shown that phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in increasing the artemisinin content, but how ABA regulates artemisinin biosynthesis is still poorly understood. In this study, we identified that AaABF3 encoded an ABRE (ABA-responsive elements) binding factor. qRT-PCR analysis showed that AaABF3 was induced by ABA and expressed much higher in trichomes where artemisinin is synthesized and accumulated...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joana Marques, João C R Cardoso, Rute C Felix, Rosa A G Santana, Maria das Graças Barbosa Guerra, Deborah Power, Henrique Silveira
Mosquito breeding depends on the supply of fresh vertebrate blood, a major bottleneck for large-scale production of Anopheles spp. Feeding alternatives to fresh blood are thus a priority for research, outdoor large-cage trials and control interventions. Several artificial meal compositions were tested and Anopheles oogenesis, egg laying and development into the next generation of adult mosquitoes were followed. We identified blood-substitute-diets that supported ovarian development, egg maturation and fertility as well as, low progeny larval mortality, and normal development of offspring into adult mosquitoes...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sita Nirupama Nishtala, Avish Arora, Jorge Reyes, Myles H Akabas
Infection with Plasmodium species parasites causes malaria. Plasmodium parasites are purine auxotrophic. They import purines via an equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT). In P. falciparum , the most virulent species, the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (PfENT1) represents the primary purine uptake pathway. This transporter is a potential target for the development of antimalarial drugs. In the absence of a high-resolution structure for either PfENT1 or a homologous ENT, we used the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM) to investigate the membrane-spanning domain structure of PfENT1 to identify potential inhibitor-binding sites...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
David Sebba, Alexander G Lastovich, Melody Kuroda, Eric Fallows, Joshua Johnson, Ambroise Ahouidi, Anna N Honko, Henry Fu, Rex Nielson, Erin Carruthers, Cyrille Diédhiou, Doré Ahmadou, Barré Soropogui, John Ruedas, Kristen Peters, Miroslaw Bartkowiak, N'Faly Magassouba, Souleymane Mboup, Yanis Ben Amor, John H Connor, Kristin Weidemaier
Hemorrhagic fever outbreaks such as Ebola are difficult to detect and control because of the lack of low-cost, easily deployable diagnostics and because initial clinical symptoms mimic other endemic diseases such as malaria. Current molecular diagnostic methods such as polymerase chain reaction require trained personnel and laboratory infrastructure, hindering diagnostics at the point of need. Although rapid tests such as lateral flow can be broadly deployed, they are typically not well-suited for differentiating among multiple diseases presenting with similar symptoms...
December 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Jeffrey G Shaffer, Seydou O Doumbia, Daouda Ndiaye, Ayouba Diarra, Jules F Gomis, Davis Nwakanma, Ismaela Abubakar, Abdullahi Ahmad, Muna Affara, Mary Lukowski, Clarissa Valim, James C Welty, Frances J Mather, Joseph Keating, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Developing and sustaining a data collection and management system (DCMS) is difficult in malaria-endemic countries because of limitations in internet bandwidth, computer resources and numbers of trained personnel. The premise of this paper is that development of a DCMS in West Africa was a critically important outcome of the West African International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research. The purposes of this paper are to make that information available to other investigators and to encourage the linkage of DCMSs to international research and Ministry of Health data systems and repositories...
November 16, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Augustina Frimpong, Laty Gaye Thiam, Benjamin Arko-Boham, Ewurama Dedea Ampadu Owusu, George O Adjei
BACKGROUND: About 80% of all reported sickle cell disease (SCD) cases in children anually are recorded in Africa. Although malaria is considered a major cause of death in SCD children, there is limited data on the safety and effectiveness of the available antimalarial drugs used for prophylaxis. Also, previous systematic reviews have not provided quantitative measures of preventive effectiveness. The purpose of this research was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine the safety and effectiveness of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis used in SCD patients...
December 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Patricia Schlagenhauf, Dipti Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Qubekani M Moyo, Martin Besser, Roderick Lynn, Andrew M L Lever
Background: The UK documented a fall of over 30% in imported cases of malaria annually between 1996-2003 however there are still around 1700 cases and 5-10 deaths each year. Prophylaxis health messages focus on families returning to their country of origin as being at particular risk. Methods: We reviewed 225 paper records including demographic data of patients seen in Addenbrooke's hospital (Cambridge University Hospital Foundation Trust - CUHFT) a tertiary referral centre in Cambridge, England...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sédami Gnidehou, Catherine J Mitran, Eliana Arango, Shanna Banman, Angie Mena, Evelyn Medawar, Barbara A S Lima, Justin Doritchamou, Jahanara Rajwani, Albert Jin, Kenneth Gavina, Francis Ntumngia, Patrick Duffy, David Narum, Nicaise Tuikue Ndam, Morten A Nielsen, Ali Salanti, Flora S Kano, Luzia H Carvalho, John H Adams, Amanda Maestre, Michael F Good, Stephanie K Yanow
Background: In pregnancy, Plasmodium falciparum parasites express the surface antigen VAR2CSA, which mediates adherence of red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta. VAR2CSA antibodies are generally acquired during infection in pregnancy and are associated with protection from placental malaria. We observed previously that men and children in Colombia also had antibodies to VAR2CSA, but the origin of these antibodies was unknown. Here, we tested whether infection with Plasmodium vivax is an alternative mechanism of acquisition of VAR2CSA antibodies...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Radheshyam Maurya, Parna Bhattacharya, Ranadhir Dey, Hira L Nakhasi
Leptin, a pleiotropic protein has long been recognized to play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and other physiological functions through its effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and encoded by the obese ( ob ) gene. Leptin acts as a central mediator which regulates immunity as well as nutrition. Importantly, leptin can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Leptin deficiency/resistance is associated with dysregulation of cytokine production, increased susceptibility toward infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, malnutrition and inflammatory responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Per Fevang, Kirsten Havemann, Børre Fevang, Arne T Høstmark
Background: The relationship between protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and malaria is controversial. While most studies demonstrate that PEM is associated with greater malaria morbidity, some indicate that PEM may in fact have a protective effect. PEM is differentiated into three subgroups: kwashiorkor (marked protein deficiency), marasmus (calorie deficiency), and kwashiorkor/marasmus. None of the studies concerning PEM and malaria seem to distinguish between these subgroups, and significant differences in susceptibility to malaria between these subgroups may have been overlooked...
2018: Malaria Research and Treatment
Codou Ndiaye, Hubert Bassene, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult, Cheikh Sokhna
Aside from malaria, infectious diseases are an important cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa and continue to pose major public health problems in African countries, notably pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups. The skin is one of the main infection sites followed by the oropharynx. The skin carriage of certain pathogenic bacteria such as S. pneumoniae is often ignored or under-diagnosed. Finally, the mode of transmission of these infections remains uncertain...
December 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Clarence Maikuri Mang'era, Ahmed Hassanali, Fathiya M Khamis, Martin K Rono, Wilber Lwande, Charles Mbogo, Paul O Mireji
Plant-based constituents have been proposed as eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides for control of mosquito vectors of malaria. In this study, we first screened the effects of methanolic leaf extracts of curry tree (Murraya koenigii) growing in tropical (Mombasa, Malindi) and semi-arid (Kibwezi, and Makindu) ecological zones of Kenya on third instar An. gambiae s.s. larvae. Extracts of the plant from the semi-arid region, and particularly from Kibwezi, led to high mortality of the larvae. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plants from Kibwezi was then undertaken and the most active fraction (20 fold more potent than the crude extract) was then analyzed by Liquid chromatography quadruple time of flight coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-QtoF-MS) and a number of constituents were identified, including a major alkaloid constituent, Neplanocin A (5)...
December 7, 2018: Acta Tropica
Jenna E Coalson, Lauren M Cohee, Jenny A Walldorf, Andrew Bauleni, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Mark L Wilson, Miriam K Laufer
Prompt and effective treatment is key to malaria control and prevention, as it reduces disease morbidity and mortality and minimizes the number of transmission reservoirs. Transmission reduction may be particularly important among school-age children (SAC, 5-15 years old), who have the highest prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in southern Malawi. We hypothesized that one factor contributing to this difference in prevalence is that SAC are less likely to seek appropriate treatment for fever than children younger than 5 years...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eeshan Khandekar, Randall Kramer, Abdullah S Ali, Abdul-Wahid Al-Mafazy, Joseph R Egger, Sara LeGrand, Humphrey R Mkali, Michael McKay, Jeremiah M Ngondi
As countries transition toward malaria elimination, malaria programs rely on surveillance-response systems, which are often supported by web- and mobile phone-based reporting tools. Such surveillance-response systems are interventions for elimination, making it important to determine if they are operating optimally. A metric to measure this by is timeliness. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the response time of Zanzibar's malaria elimination surveillance-response system, Malaria Case Notification...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Angel Dillip, Zawadi Mageni Mboma, George Greer, Lena M Lorenz
BACKGROUND: In Tanzania, the roles of men and women are classified based on the local cultural context. While men are usually the breadwinners, women are traditionally responsible for most domestic chores. Particularly for malaria prevention, studies in Africa have revealed women as being responsible for daily up-keep of the net. Using social role theory, this study explored the role of men and women in net care and repair and gender-related motivation and barriers to net care and repair in Tanzania...
December 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Mady Ouédraogo, Sékou Samadoulougou, Toussaint Rouamba, Hervé Hien, John E M Sawadogo, Halidou Tinto, Victor A Alegana, Niko Speybroeck, Fati Kirakoya-Samadoulougou
BACKGROUND: In malaria endemic countries, asymptomatic cases constitute an important reservoir of infections sustaining transmission. Estimating the burden of the asymptomatic population and identifying areas with elevated risk is important for malaria control in Burkina Faso. This study analysed the spatial distribution of asymptomatic malaria infection among children under 5 in 24 health districts in Burkina Faso and identified the determinants of this distribution. METHODS: The data used in this study were collected in a baseline survey on "evaluation of the impact of pay for performance on the quality of care" conducted in 24 health districts in Burkina Faso, between October 2013 and March 2014...
December 7, 2018: Malaria Journal
Jeremy Burrows, Hannah Slater, Fiona Macintyre, Sarah Rees, Anna Thomas, Fredros Okumu, Rob Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Stephan Duparc, Timothy N C Wells
Reaching the overall goal of eliminating malaria requires halting disease transmission. One approach to blocking transmission is to prevent passage of the parasite to a mosquito, by preventing formation or transmission of gametocytes. An alternative approach, pioneered in the veterinary field, is to use endectocides, which are molecules that render vertebrate blood meals toxic for the mosquito vector, also killing the parasite. Field studies and modelling suggest that reducing the lifespan of the mosquito may significantly reduce transmission, given the lengthy maturation process of the parasite...
December 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ulrika Morris, Mwinyi I Msellem, Humphrey Mkali, Atiqul Islam, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Irina Jovel, Shija Joseph Shija, Mwinyi Khamis, Safia Mohammed Ali, Lamija Hodzic, Ellinor Magnusson, Eugenie Poirot, Adam Bennett, Michael C Sachs, Joel Tarning, Andreas Mårtensson, Abdullah S Ali, Anders Björkman
BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA) has the potential to interrupt malaria transmission and has been suggested as a tool for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and safety of two rounds of MDA in Zanzibar, a pre-elimination setting. METHODS: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 16 areas considered as malaria hotspots, with an annual parasite index of > 0.8%. The areas were randomised to eight intervention and eight control clusters...
December 10, 2018: BMC Medicine
Jyotsana Dixit, Arun Zachariah, Sajesh P K, Bathrachalam Chandramohan, Vinoth Shanmuganatham, K Praveen Karanth
Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates. For example, non-human primates harbour several species of malaria causing parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Studies suggest that for a better understanding of the origin and evolution of human malaria parasites it is important to know the diversity and evolutionary relationships of these parasites in non-human primates. Much work has been undertaken on malaria parasites in wild great Apes of Africa as well as wild monkeys of Southeast Asia however studies are lacking from South Asia, particularly India...
December 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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