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Key performance indicator

Kota Shiba, Ryo Tamura, Takako Sugiyama, Yuko Kameyama, Keiko Koda, Eri Sakon, Kosuke Minami, Huynh Thien Ngo, Gaku Imamura, Koji Tsuda, Genki Yoshikawa
A sensing signal obtained by measuring an odor usually contains varied information that reflects an origin of the odor itself, while an effective approach is required to reasonably analyze informative data to derive the desired information. Herein, we demonstrate that quantitative odor analysis was achieved through systematic material design-based nanomechanical sensing combined with machine learning. A ternary mixture consisting of water, ethanol, and methanol was selected as a model system where a target molecule coexists with structurally similar species in a humidified condition...
August 15, 2018: ACS Sensors
Wei Liu, Xuan Zhong, Lei Cheng, Jing Wang, Yongqi Sun, Yi Deng, Zuotai Zhang
Removal of intracellular water in microbial cells remains a key issue for sludge disposal, and here, a novel method of enzymatic treatment with two enzymes, lysozyme and protease, was employed. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRF) was applied to image the bacteria in sludge and quantify the evolution of sludge bacteria for the first time. The ratio of dead/live bacterial cells was always higher in the presence of lysozyme than in the presence of protease, indicating that lysozyme has higher activity in inducing bacterial cell degradation and releasing intracellular water...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Breda Cullen, Danielle Newby, Duncan Lee, Donald M Lyall, Alejo J Nevado-Holgado, Jonathan J Evans, Jill P Pell, Simon Lovestone, Jonathan Cavanagh
Observational studies have shown consistently increased likelihood of dementia or mild cognitive impairment diagnoses in people with higher air pollution exposure history, but evidence has been less consistent for associations with cognitive test performance. We estimated the association between baseline neighbourhood-level exposure to airborne pollutants (particulate matter and nitrogen oxides) and (1) cognitive test performance at baseline and (2) cognitive score change between baseline and 2.8-year follow-up, in 86,759 middle- to older-aged adults from the UK Biobank general population cohort...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emanuele Schiavon, Joshua L Smalley, Sherylanne Newton, Nigel H Greig, Ian D Forsythe
Hyperbilirubinemia (jaundice) is caused by raised levels of unconjugated bilirubin in the blood. When severe, susceptible brain regions including the cerebellum and auditory brainstem are damaged causing neurological sequelae such as ataxia, hearing loss and kernicterus. The mechanism(s) by which bilirubin exerts its toxic effect have not been completely understood to date. In this study we investigated the acute mechanisms by which bilirubin causes the neurotoxicity that contributes to hearing loss. We developed a novel mouse model that exhibits the neurological features seen in human Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction (BIND) syndrome that we assessed with a behavioural score and auditory brainstem responses (ABR)...
2018: PloS One
Kai Pang, Haoqian Song, Zhe Zhao, Runzhou Zhang, Hao Song, Guodong Xie, Long Li, Cong Liu, Jing Du, Andreas F Molisch, Moshe Tur, Alan E Willner
We experimentally demonstrate the four-fold multiplexing of Hermite-Gaussian (HGmn ) or Laguerre-Gaussian (LGlp ) modes to achieve a 400 Gbit/s quadrature-phase-shift-keyed (QPSK) free-space optical communication link. In this experiment, both modal indices for the HG and LG modes are simultaneously utilized to achieve a larger potential orthogonal modal space. Moreover, we also investigate and compare the effects of aperture size, lateral displacement, and rotation on the system. We measure the degree of performance degradation due to the following: (1) a receiver aperture with a limited size causes power loss and crosstalk for both HG and LG modes; (2) a lateral misalignment between the transmitter and receiver which leads to crosstalk for LG modes, but might not affect HG0n or HGm0 modes due to axial symmetry; and (3) a rotational misalignment between the transmitter and receiver which causes crosstalk for the HG modes, but does not tend to affect the LG modes due to azimuthal symmetry...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Sebastian Schneeweiss, Robert J Glynn
Healthcare database analyses (claims, electronic health records) have been identified by various regulatory initiatives, including the 21st Century Cures Act and Prescription Drug User Fee Act ("PDUFA"), as useful supplements to randomized clinical trials to generate evidence on the effectiveness, harm, and value of medical products in routine care. Specific applications include accelerated drug approval pathways and secondary indications for approved medical products. Such real-world data ("RWD") analyses reflect how medical products impact health outside a highly controlled research environment...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Xia Yang, Yun Deng, Rong-Quan He, Xiao-Jiao Li, Jie Ma, Gang Chen, Xiao-Hua Hu
The altered expression of homeobox (HOX)A11 has been observed in various malignant tumor types, but it has remained to be determined in human lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In the present study, the expression of HOXA11 in LUAD and the potential associated mechanisms were assessed. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Oncomine microarrays were gathered and in‑house polymerase chain reaction data were produced to investigate the altered expression of HOXA11 in LUAD and its association with various clinicopathological characteristics...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Yue Pan, Yongjin Wu, Jialei Hu, Yujia Shan, Jia Ma, Huipeng Ma, Xia Qi, Li Jia
OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence demonstrated that the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR (Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA) plays key role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) malignancy, while microRNA-124 (miR-124) is a tumour suppressor in RCC. The aim of this work was to assess the biological function of HOTAIR and to explore underlying mechanism involved in HOTAIR/miR-124/alpha-2, 8-sialyltransferase 4 (ST8SIA4) axis-regulated progression in RCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time PCR analyses and western blots were performed to the levels of HOTAIR, miR-124 and ST8SIA4 expression in human RCC tissues and RCC cell lines (ACHN and 786-O)...
August 13, 2018: Cell Proliferation
Baosheng Ge, Yanyan Xu, Haoru Zhao, Haixiang Sun, Yaoli Guo, Wenguang Wang
Mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) attract great attention due to their outstanding gas separation performance. The compatibility between the fillers and the polymer matrix is one of the key points for the preparation of high-performance MMMs. In this work, MMMs consisting of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of amine-modified Cu-BTC (NH₂-Cu-BTC; BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid) and submicrometer-sized amine-modified Cu-BTC (sub-NH₂-Cu-BTC) incorporated into a Pebax-1657 polymer were fabricated for the gas separation...
August 13, 2018: Materials
Britta Hahn, Benjamin M Robinson, Carly J Leonard, Steven J Luck, James M Gold
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction is widely believed to underlie working memory (WM) deficits in people with schizophrenia (PSZ), but few studies have focused on measures of WM storage devoid of manipulation. Research in neurotypical individuals has shown that storage capacity is more closely related to posterior parietal cortex (PPC) than PFC, suggesting that reductions in WM storage capacity in schizophrenia that are associated with broad cognitive deficits may be related to neural activity in PPC. In the present human neuroimaging study, 37 PSZ and 37 matched healthy control subjects (HCS) of either sex completed a change detection task with varying set sizes while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Hongyan Liu, Huan Zeng, Yang Shen, Fan Zhang, Manoj Sharma, Weiyun Lai, Yu Zhao, Genhui Tao, Jun Yuan, Yong Zhao
Health literacy is an important determinant of health, and is one of the key indicators of a healthy city. Developing and improving methods to measure health literacy is prudent and necessary. This review summarizes the findings of published tools for assessing health literacy among the general population to provide a reference for establishing health literacy assessment tools in the future. In this systematic review, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were used to search articles regarding tools for assessing health literacy among the general population published up to 10 January 2018...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ruiqiao Bai, Jacqueline C K Lam, Victor O K Li
Over the last three decades, rapid industrialization in China has generated an unprecedentedly high level of air pollution and associated health problems. Given that China accounts for one-fifth of the world population and suffers from severe air pollution, a comprehensive review of the indicators accounting for the health costs in relation to air pollution will benefit evidence-based and health-related environmental policy-making. This paper reviews the conventional static and the new dynamic approach adopted for air pollution-related health cost accounting in China and analyzes the difference between the two in estimating GDP loss...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Yu Tian, Yong Shang, Dan-Yang Tong, Sheng-Qiang Chi, Jun Li, Xiang-Xing Kong, Ke-Feng Ding, Jing-Song Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical prognosis prediction plays an important role in clinical research and practice. The construction of prediction models based on electronic health record data has recently become a research focus. Due to the lack of external validation, prediction models based on single-center, hospital-specific datasets may not perform well with datasets from other medical institutions. Therefore, research investigating prognosis prediction model construction based on a collaborative analysis of multi-center electronic health record data could increase the number and coverage of patients used for model training, enrich patient prognostic features and ultimately improve the accuracy and generalization of prognosis prediction...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Vit Molva, Marie Bostlova, Marta Nesvorna, Jan Hubert
The interaction of house dust mites (HDM) and microorganisms is the key factor in the survival of these mites in human-made environments. Spent growth medium (SPGM) provides the rest of the diet, along with dead mite bodies and microorganisms. SPGM represents a source of microorganisms for the recolonization of mite food and the mite digestive tract. An experiment was performed to observe how adding SPGM to the HDM diet affects HDM population growth, the microbiome composition and the microbial respiration in microcosms...
August 13, 2018: Insect Science
Long T Ho, Duy T Pham, Wout Van Echelpoel, Andres Alvarado, Juan E Espinoza-Palacios, Maria B Arevalo-Durazno, Peter L M Goethals
Algal photosynthesis plays a key role in the removal mechanisms of waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), which is indicated in the variations of three parameters, dissolved oxygen, pH, and chlorophyll a. These variations can be considerably affected by extreme climatic conditions at high altitude. To investigate these effects, three sampling campaigns were conducted in a high-altitude WSP in Cuenca (Ecuador). From the collected data, the first application of structure equation modeling (SEM) on a pond system was fitted to analyze the influence of high-altitude characteristics on pond performance, especially on the three indicators...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zhiyu Dong, Junwen Wang, Tingting Zhan, Shuchang Xu
Purpose: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is the most common type of esophageal cancer in Western countries. It is usually detected at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify key genes and miRNAs in EAC. Methods: The mRNA microarray data sets GSE1420, GSE26886, and GSE92396 and miRNA data set GSE16456 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were obtained using R software...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
R P Smith, V Andres, T E Cheney, F Martelli, R Gosling, E Marier, A Rabie, D Gilson, R H Davies
Salmonella prevalence in UK pigs is amongst the highest in Europe, highlighting the need to investigate pig farms which have managed to maintain a low Salmonella seroprevalence. A total of 19 pig farms that had a consistently low (<10%) seroprevalence over 4 years (named Platinum farms) were compared against 38 randomly selected Control farms, chosen to match the same distribution of production types and geographical distribution of the Platinum farms. Each farm was visited and floor faeces and environmental samples were collected...
August 13, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Yong Liu, Jingan Chen, Jieying Qian, Hao Lin, Ning Sun, Zunnan Huang
Agarwood originating from Aquilaria sinensis contains sesquiterpenoids that have tremendous commercial value in the pharmaceutical and fragrance industries. Aquilaria sinensis sesquiterpene synthase (AsSTS) is the key enzyme in the agarwood biosynthesis pathway, and its activity directly affects the chemical composition of agarwood; however, its role in species evolution remains unclear. In this study, we performed an evolutionary analysis based on 68 plant sesquiterpene synthase (STS) genes and further structural characterization of the gene encoding AsSTS to explore its molecular evolution...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Nicolas M Adreani, Wolfgang Goymann, Lucia Mentesana
Behaviors such as territorial interactions among individuals can modulate vertebrate physiology and vice versa. Testosterone has been pointed out as a key hormone that can be rapidly affected by aggressive interactions. However, experimental evidence for such a link is mixed. In addition, behaviors can elicit changes in multiple hormones, which in turn have the potential to synergistically feedback to behavior. For example testosterone and progesterone can act interdependently in modulating male behavior. However, if aggression can affect progesterone levels in males remain unknown and - to the best of our knowledge - no one has yet tackled if and how aggressive behavior simultaneously affects testosterone and progesterone in free-living animals...
August 10, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Tianyou Liu, Zhiyang Han, Huanyu Li, Yuekun Zhu, Ziquan Sun, Anlong Zhu
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidences show that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) play essential roles in the development and progression of various malignancies. However, their functions remains poorly understood and many lncRNAs have not been defined in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the role of DLEU1 in CRC. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of DLEU1 and survival analysis was adopted to explore the association between DLEU1 expression and the prognosis of CRC patients...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer
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