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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329072/health-hazards-and-risks-for-musculoskeletal-problems-among-child-labourers-in-the-brickfield-sector-of-west-bengal-india
#1
Banibrata Das
Aims: The purpose of this study was to describe the health hazards among child labourers in brickfields, and to assess occupational health problems, together with physiological and respiratory stress, compared with child control subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 112 child brickfield workers and 120 control subjects, and a modified Nordic Questionnaire was applied to assess the discomfort felt among both groups of workers. Physiological assessment of the workload was carried out by the measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and spirometry of the workers...
October 17, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255853/estimation-of-effective-doses-from-mdct-and-cbct-imaging-of-extremities
#2
John B Ludlow, Brandon K Johnson, Marija Ivanovic
Little research has been published on the radiation burden of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in comparison with multi-row detector computed tomography (MDCT) for extremity imaging. This manuscript reports effective doses produced by standard and reduced dose imaging protocols for a 128 slice MDCT unit and a dedicated extremity imaging device using CBCT technology. Anthropomorphic phantoms with x-ray attenuation characteristics simulating adult hand-wrist, foot-ankle, and knee areas were modified to receive optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSL)...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233961/single-leg-spica-cast-application-for-treatment-of-pediatric-femoral-fracture
#3
M Catherine Sargent
Use of a single-leg spica cast for femoral fractures in ambulatory children 1 to 5 years of age facilitates care and mobilization of the patient. It may allow a shorter duration of cast treatment than is possible with a traditional one and one-half-leg spica cast, particularly in patients 1 to 3 years of age. The single-leg spica is indicated for children who are small enough to be lifted safely in the cast and who have an isolated, closed, low-energy femoral shaft fracture. The procedure consists of the following steps:Step 1: Obtain adequate sedation...
September 28, 2017: JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30229941/hand-wrist-knee-and-foot-ankle-dosimetry-and-image-quality-measurements-of-a-novel-extremity-imaging-unit-providing-cbct-and-2d-imaging-options
#4
John B Ludlow
PURPOSE: Radiation dose is a general concern in diagnostic imaging and a special concern for children who are at greater risk from radiation effects. This study evaluates effective doses (E) produced during 2D and volume imaging with a novel cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) based extremity imaging device. The device's compact size and protocol options offer image choices that enhance the potential for reduced dose and improved diagnostics when evaluating sports injuries. METHODS: Hand-wrist, foot-ankle, and knee phantoms were developed for use with optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSL)...
September 19, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199459/transepiphyseal-type-vii-ankle-fracture-versus-os-subfibulare-in-pediatric-ankle-injuries
#5
Michelle T Sugi, Kali Tileston, Jeffery E Krygier, James Gamble
BACKGROUND: Pediatric ankle injuries are common, giving rise to ∼17% of all physeal injuries. An os subfibulare in a child with an ankle sprain may be confused with a type VII transepiphyseal fracture. Here, we evaluate the clinical and radiographic features of type VII transepiphyseal fractures to those of os subfibulare presenting with acute ankle trauma with the hypothesis that radiographs are necessary for final diagnosis and neither clinical history nor examination would be diagnostic...
November 2018: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141462/intraspinal-intramedullary-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-in-a-young-girl-a-case-report-from-bsmmu-bangladesh
#6
K J Shyamaly, M Mutanabbi, M K Talukder, N Farzana, R Riaaz, C A Kawser
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are malignant tumor of pluripotent cells of neural crest. It has diverse clinical presentation and aggressive clinical behaviour. Clinical features may provide some clue but imaging studies such as MRI of brain; tissue histopathology, immune histochemistry and cytogenetic are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here we describe a girl of 4½ years age admitted with the complaints of, low back pain for 2 months, gradually worsening weakness in both lower limbs for the same duration along with urinary incontinence and constipation for 1 month...
July 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30075411/the-influence-of-maximum-isometric-muscle-force-scaling-on-estimated-muscle-forces-from-musculoskeletal-models-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Hans Kainz, Marije Goudriaan, Antoine Falisse, Catherine Huenaerts, Kaat Desloovere, Friedl De Groote, Ilse Jonkers
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal models do not include patient-specific muscle forces but rely on a scaled generic model, with muscle forces left unscaled in most cases. However, to use musculoskeletal simulations to inform clinical decision-making in children with cerebral palsy (CP), inclusion of subject-specific muscle forces is of utmost importance in order to represent each child's compensation mechanisms introduced through muscle weakness. RESEARCH AIM: The aims of this study were to (i) evaluate if maximum isometric muscle forces (MIMF) in musculoskeletal models of children with CP can be scaled based on strength measurements obtained with a hand-held-dynamometer (HHD), (ii) evaluate the impact of the HHD based scaling approach and previously published MIMF scaling methods on computed muscle forces during gait, and (iii) compare maximum muscle forces during gait between CP and typically developing (TD) children...
September 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027989/paediatric-septic-arthritis-in-a-nigerian-tertiary-hospital-a-5-year-clinical-review
#8
D D Mue, M N Salihu, W T Yongu, M Ochoga, J N Kortor, I C Elachi
BACKGROUND: Septic arthritis is a relatively common condition in the paediatric population. It is both a medical and a surgical emergency with potential high morbidity. This disabling disease requires early diagnosis and prompt management for optimal outcome. OBJECTIVE: This study determined the epidemiological pattern of septic arthritis and analysed factors affecting morbidity and mortality in the paediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective data was obtained over a 5-year period in NKST rehabilitation hospital, Mkar, Nigeria...
May 2018: West African Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770150/effect-of-cathodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-a-child-with-involuntary-movement-after-hypoxic-encephalopathy
#9
Mayumi Nagai, Naofumi Tanaka, Yutaka Oouchida, Shin-Ichi Izumi
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area to inhibit involuntary movements of a child. An 8-year-old boy who developed hypoxic encephalopathy after asphyxia at the age of 2 had difficulty in remaining standing without support because of involuntary movements. He was instructed to remain standing with his plastic ankle-foot orthosis for 10 s at three time points by leaning forward with his forearms on a desk. He received cathodal or sham transcranial direct current stimulation to the supplementary motor area at 1 mA for 10 min...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731369/tailored-frequency-escalated-primary-prophylaxis-for-severe-haemophilia-a-results-of-the-16-year-canadian-hemophilia-prophylaxis-study-longitudinal-cohort
#10
Brian M Feldman, Georges E Rivard, Paul Babyn, John K M Wu, MacGregor Steele, Man-Chiu Poon, Robert T Card, Sara J Israels, Nicole Laferriere, Kulwant Gill, Anthony K Chan, Manuel Carcao, Robert J Klaassen, Stephanie Cloutier, Victoria E Price, Saunya Dover, Victor S Blanchette
BACKGROUND: Severe haemophilia A has high morbidity, and treatment, while effective, is very expensive. We report the 16-year follow-up of the Canadian Hemophilia Prophylaxis Study, which examined the effectiveness of tailored frequency-escalated primary prophylaxis with a focus on health outcomes within the domains of body structures and functions, and activities and participation (according to the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health [WHO-ICF] framework) and a view to reducing consumption of costly clotting factor, which accounts for more than 90% of the cost of care of severe haemophilia...
June 2018: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714626/factors-associated-with-enhanced-gross-motor-progress-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-register-based-study
#11
Gunfrid V Størvold, Reidun B Jahnsen, Kari Anne I Evensen, Ulla K Romild, Grete H Bratberg
AIM: To examine associations between interventions and child characteristics; and enhanced gross motor progress in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Prospective cohort study based on 2048 assessments of 442 children (256 boys, 186 girls) aged 2-12 years registered in the Cerebral Palsy Follow-up Program and the Cerebral Palsy Register of Norway. Gross motor progress estimates were based on repeated measures of reference percentiles for the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) in a linear mixed model...
May 1, 2018: Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666001/distal-tibial-triplane-fracture-with-ipsilateral-tibial-shaft-fracture-a-case-series
#12
Timothy S Holland, Christopher P Prior, Roger Dm Walton
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Distal tibial Triplane fracture with ipsilateral tibial shaft fracture is a rare but important problem. This rarely reported combination of injuries if not recognised may lead to deleterious consequences. METHODS/PATIENTS: The local database of all emergency admissions was scrutinised to identify subjects before interrogation of the clinical notes and relevant radiographic imaging. FINDINGS: This paper reports a series of five children who were found to have triplane fracture of the distal tibia with concomitant ipsilateral fracture of the tibial shaft...
April 14, 2018: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664850/idiopathic-toe-walking-prevalence-and-natural-history-from-birth-to-ten-years-of-age
#13
Pähr Engström, Kristina Tedroff
BACKGROUND: Children with idiopathic toe-walking, a common pediatric condition, walk some or all of the time on their toes. This condition often causes parental concern, with repeated medical contacts and a range of interventions including stretching, casts, injection of botulinum toxin A, and surgical procedures. The purpose of this cohort study was to document the natural history of this condition. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 1,401 healthy 5.5-year-old Swedish children, we found the prevalence of idiopathic toe-walking to be approximately 5% (63 of 1,401)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579702/gait-and-footwear-in-children-and-adolescents-with-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-a-cross-sectional-case-controlled-study
#14
Rachel A Kennedy, Jennifer L McGinley, Kade L Paterson, Monique M Ryan, Kate Carroll
OBJECTIVE: Children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) report problems with gait and footwear. We evaluated differences in spatio-temporal gait variables and gait variability between children with CMT and typically developing (TD) children, and investigated the effect of footwear upon gait. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 30 children with CMT and 30 age- and gender-matched TD children aged 4-18 years. Gait was assessed at self-selected speed on an electronic walkway while barefoot and in two types of the child's own footwear; optimal (e...
May 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415676/chiari-malformation-type-1-presenting-as-unilateral-progressive-foot-drop-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#15
REVIEW
Chamara Jayamanne, Lakkumar Fernando, Sachith Mettananda
BACKGROUND: Foot drop is a disabling clinical condition with multiplicity of causes, which requires detailed evaluation to identify the exact aetiology. Here, we report an extremely rare cause of foot drop in a child, which if not recognized early, could lead to multiple complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 6-year-old girl presented with difficulty in walking and left sided foot droop for1-month duration. On examination she had reduced muscle power in dorsiflexors and plantar flexors and diminished knee and absent ankle jerk in the left side...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413879/optimization-of-fmri-methods-to-determine-laterality-of-cortical-activation-during-ankle-movements-of-children-with-unilateral-cerebral-palsy
#16
A J Hilderley, M J Taylor, D Fehlings, J L Chen, F V Wright
Measurement of laterality of motor cortical activations may provide valuable information about lower limb control in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP). Evidence from upper limb research suggests that increased contralateral activity may accompany functional gains. However, lower limb areas of activation and associated changes have been underexplored due to challenges with imaging motor cortical leg representations. In this study, methods for a task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) ankle dorsiflexion paradigm were refined with three pilot groups of participants: (i) adults (n = 5); (ii) typically developing (TD) children (n = 5) and; (iii) children with UCP (n = 4)...
May 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286560/modifying-bone-mineral-density-physical-function-and-quality-of-life-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#17
Cheryl L Cox, Liang Zhu, Sue C Kaste, Kumar Srivastava, Linda Barnes, Paul C Nathan, Robert J Wells, Kirsten K Ness
BACKGROUND: The early effects of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) include decreased physical function, bone mineral density (BMD/g/cm2 ), and health-related quality of life (HRQL). We assessed the capacity of a physical therapy and motivation-based intervention, beginning after diagnosis and continuing through the end of treatment, to positively modify these factors. PROCEDURE: A 2.5-year randomized controlled trial of 73 patients aged 4-18.99 years within 10 days of ALL diagnosis assessed BMD at baseline (T0 ) and end of therapy (T3 ), strength, range of motion, endurance, motor skills, and HRQL at baseline (T0 ), 8 (T1 ), 15 (T2 ), and 135 (T3 ) weeks...
April 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280208/medial-gastrocnemius-muscle-stiffness-cannot-explain-the-increased-ankle-joint-range-of-motion-following-passive-stretching-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#18
Barbara M Kalkman, Lynn Bar-On, Francesco Cenni, Constantinos N Maganaris, Alfie Bass, Gill Holmes, Kaat Desloovere, Gabor J Barton, Thomas D O'Brien
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Can the increased range of motion seen acutely after stretching in children with cerebral palsy be explained by changes in the stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius fascicles? What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that passive muscle and tendon properties are not changed acutely after a single bout of stretching in children with cerebral palsy and, therefore, do not contribute to the increase in range of motion...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246577/the-management-of-myelomeningocele-study-full-cohort-30-month-pediatric-outcomes
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Diana L Farmer, Elizabeth A Thom, John W Brock, Pamela K Burrows, Mark P Johnson, Lori J Howell, Jody A Farrell, Nalin Gupta, N Scott Adzick
BACKGROUND: Previous reports from the Management of Myelomeningocele Study demonstrated that prenatal repair of myelomeningocele reduces hindbrain herniation and the need for cerebrospinal fluid shunting, and improves motor function in children with myelomeningocele. The trial was stopped for efficacy after 183 patients were randomized, but 30-month outcomes were only available at the time of initial publication in 134 mother-child dyads. Data from the complete cohort for the 30-month outcomes are presented here...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29087129/-acute-hemorrhagic-edema-of-infancy-alarming-lesions-of-a-benign-condition-case-report
#20
Jorge Alvarado Socarras, Zhirly A Fernandez Velosa
We report a case of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy in an 18-month-old boy after an episode of otitis media. The clinical presentation begins with skin erythematous macules on the thighs, followed by purpuric lesions in arms, legs, and ankle edema. It was initially interpreted as urticaria, whereby steroids were indicated. However, the clinical feature was acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, a benign leukocytoclastic vasculitis that occurs in children between 4 and 24 months of age and is characterized by fever, large purpuric palpable target-like skin lesions affecting the face, lobes of the ears, limbs and frequently associated with edema...
December 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
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