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Topical vitamin a

Jin Sun Hwang, Yoon Pyo Lee, Young Joo Shin
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of topical carbomer-based lipid-containing artificial tears (CLAT) and hyaluronate (HU) in patients with dry eye disease (DED) based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25HD) levels and cholecalciferol (vitamin D) supplementation. METHODS: A total of 116 patients with DED from June 2015 to June 2016 were included. The participants were divided into the vitamin D deficiency (VDD) group and the non-VDD group according to their serum 25HD levels...
December 7, 2018: Cornea
Matheus Garcia, Marilia Seelaender, Athanassia Sotiropoulos, Dario Coletti, Antonio Herbert Lancha
The relevance of vitamin D to skeletal muscle metabolism has been highlighted in recent years. The interest arises from the important findings of studies demonstrating multiple effects of vitamin D on this tissue, which can be divided into genomic (direct effects) and non-genomic effects (indirect effects). Another important aspect to be considered in the study of vitamin D and muscle fiber metabolism is related to different expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which varies in muscle tissue depending on age, sex, and pathology...
October 7, 2018: Nutrition
Katherine Shi, Peter A Lio
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic pruritic inflammatory skin disease in which management with topical anti-inflammatory agents during exacerbations remains the mainstay of treatment. With no cure in sight, a significant proportion of patients elect to incorporate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as an adjunct to conventional treatment. Many clinicians find it difficult to provide recommendations as the field covers an extensive number of very disparate therapies, with limited quality evidence to indicate efficacy...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Omid Eslami, Farzad Shidfar, Maryam Akbari-Fakhrabadi
BACKGROUND: Up to now, the association between vitamin D and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is still inconsistent and there is a lack of a comprehensive review on this topic. AIM: To systematically review the literature including both observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the association between vitamin D and CRF in the general population. METHODS: The literature was investigated by exploring databases of PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and ISI Web of Science as well as a manual search up to April 2017 by using related MeSH terms and key words...
November 30, 2018: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
E Dent, J E Morley, A J Cruz-Jentoft, H Arai, S B Kritchevsky, J Guralnik, J M Bauer, M Pahor, B C Clark, M Cesari, J Ruiz, C C Sieber, M Aubertin-Leheudre, D L Waters, R Visvanathan, F Landi, D T Villareal, R Fielding, C W Won, O Theou, F C Martin, B Dong, J Woo, L Flicker, L Ferrucci, R A Merchant, L Cao, T Cederholm, S M L Ribeiro, L Rodríguez-Mañas, S D Anker, J Lundy, L M Gutiérrez Robledo, I Bautmans, I Aprahamian, J M G A Schols, M Izquierdo, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia, defined as an age-associated loss of skeletal muscle function and muscle mass, occurs in approximately 6 - 22 % of older adults. This paper presents evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia from the task force of the International Conference on Sarcopenia and Frailty Research (ICSFR). METHODS: To develop the guidelines, we drew upon the best available evidence from two systematic reviews paired with consensus statements by international working groups on sarcopenia...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
María Marhuenda-Muñoz, Sara Hurtado-Barroso, Anna Tresserra-Rimbau, Rosa Maria Lamuela-Raventós
Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments of autotroph organisms that have been related to many health benefits and this is not only because some of them are precursors of vitamin A. Individual or whole carotenoid consumption has been associated with a lower risk of developing cancer, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases among others. However, the blood levels of carotenoids vary largely from person to person due to different factors. Diet is the most important one because of the dietary patterns that different populations follow, the time of the year of consumption or the personal preferences...
November 28, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Shiro Amano
In this review, the importance of Japanese research on meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is discussed from the perspective of global academic and clinical research on this topic. Many Japanese physicians and researchers have contributed to recent worldwide progress in various fields of MGD research, including pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy. In Japan, recent studies in the field of pathophysiology have provided direct evidence for the hypothesis that lipid composition and reactive oxygen species play a crucial role in the development and worsening of MGD...
November 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Qi Liu, Yinyin Song, Yanhang Ma, Yi Zhou, Hengjiang Cong, Chao Wang, Jorryn Wu, Gaoli Hu, Michael O'Keeffe, Hexiang Deng
We report the design and synthesis of two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with permanent porosity, MOF-818 and MOF-919, us-ing a small di-topic organic linker, 1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid (H2PyC), 0.4 nm in length. Three mesoporous cages of unprecedent-ed polyhedra are identified in these MOFs, wuh cage in MOF-818, yys and liu cages in MOF-919, with the diameter of 3.8, 4.9 and 6.0 nm, respectively. The di-topic H2PyC linker functions as the edge in the structure, while two types of metal-containing second building units (SBUs) function as the vertices...
November 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Konstanze Scheller, Vivian Quitzke, Matthias Kappler
Clinical and experimental studies show a clear positive effect of B-vitamins in the prevention of oromaxillofacial clefts, especially cleft lip and palate (CL/P). Hereby the local effect of thiamin (B1) in the amniotic fluid is very important for the embryonic facial development as seen in palatal organ models stimulated by topical B-vitamin application (Scheller et al., 2013a). Moreover a low B1 concentration in the serum and amniotic fluid was found in pregnant mice with clefts in their offspring (Scheller et al...
October 22, 2018: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Chun-Pin Chiang, Julia Yu-Fong Chang, Yi-Ping Wang, Yu-Hsueh Wu, Yang-Che Wu, Andy Sun
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases characterized by recurrent and painful ulcerations on the movable or nonkeratinized oral mucosae. Clinically, three types of RAS, namely minor, major, and herpetiform types, can be identified. RAS more commonly affects labial mucosa, buccal mucosa, and tongue. Previous studies indicate that RAS is a multifactorial T cell-mediated immune-dysregulated disease. Factors that modify the immunologic responses in RAS include genetic predisposition, viral and bacterial infections, food allergies, vitamin and microelement deficiencies, systemic diseases, hormonal imbalance, mechanical injuries, and stress...
November 14, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Francesco Guido Mangano, Sina Ghertasi Oskouei, Ana Paz, Natale Mangano, Carlo Mangano
Background. Since osseointegration depends on bone metabolism, low levels of vitamin D in the blood may negatively affect bone formation around dental implants. To date, only a few studies have investigated the possible connection between serum levels of vitamin D and early dental implant failure (EDIF), i.e. failure that occurs within 4 months after placement, before the connection of the prosthetic abutment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between low serum levels of vitamin D and EDIF...
2018: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
Justin Clark, Matt Carter, Anna Mae Scott, Jon Brassey, Chris Del Mar
OBJECTIVE: Cochrane systematic reviews require more methodological support from Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) than is customary in journals, CRGs must prioritise reviews to conserve resources. The TRIP database provided a dataset of questions to guide prioritization for the Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) CRG. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We extracted the ARI searches from the TRIP database (2010 to 2017) that contained at least one disease and one clinical management term, (defined as a 'search'), and tabulated these by frequency...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Peiyu Li, Ji Wang, Miao Cao, Qiwen Deng, Shibo Jiang, Mei X Wu, Lu Lu
Skin contains a large number of antigen presenting cells, making intradermal (ID) injection one of the most effective ways for vaccine administration. However, although current adjuvants may cause severe local reactions and inflammations in the skin, no adjuvant has been approved for ID vaccination so far. Here, we report that topical application of all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a vitamin A derivative produced in the human body, augmented cutaneous influenza vaccination. The adjuvant effects were evaluated in a murine vaccination/challenge model by using A/California/07/2009 pandemic vaccine (09V) or a seasonal influenza vaccine (SIV)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Medi Eslani, Alireza Baradaran-Rafii, Albert Y Cheung, Khaliq H Kurji, Hamidreza Hasani, Ali R Djalilian, Edward J Holland
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of conventional medical treatment versus combined medical treatment and amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) in the management of patients with Roper-Hall grade IV ocular chemical injury. DESIGN: Randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trial METHODS: Setting: Single tertiary referral hospital. PATIENTS: 60 eyes of 60 patients with Roper-Hall grade IV ocular chemical injury with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were enrolled in the study...
November 9, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Shujian Zhang, Mukesh Jain, Laura A Fleites, Patricia Rayside, Dean Gabriel
Xylella fastidiosa infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevines. The Type 1 multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux system is essential for pathogenicity and survival of bacterial pathogens in planta. X. fastidiosa, with a single MDR system, is significantly more vulnerable to inhibition by small molecule treatments than most bacterial pathogens that typically carry redundant MDR systems. A high throughput cell viability assay using a GFP-marked strain of X. fastidiosa Temecula 1 was developed to screen two Prestwick combinatorial small molecule libraries of FDA and EMA approved drugs and phytochemicals (1600 chemicals in total) for cell growth inhibition...
November 8, 2018: Phytopathology
Jean Amiral, Jerard Seghatchian
This manuscript aims to provide a concise review on current diagnostic/ confirmatory strategies of Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT) with the combined use of immunological / functional assays in addition to the clinical probability. Laboratory diagnosis of HIT is of primordial importance as the related complications could become rapidly severe and life-threatening and can provoke limb amputation in some cases. The first action in the presence of HIT suspicion is to withdraw heparin and to initiate an alternative anticoagulant...
October 30, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Andrea Giustina, Robert A Adler, Neil Binkley, Roger Bouillon, Peter R Ebeling, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Claudio Marcocci, Rene Rizzoli, Christopher T Sempos, John P Bilezikian
Context: Vitamin D is classically recognized as a regulator of calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Recent advances in the measurement of vitamin D metabolites, diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, and clinical observations have led to an appreciation that along with its role in skeletal metabolism, vitamin D may well have an important role in non-classical settings. Measurement of the circulating form of vitamin D that best describes total body stores, namely 25-hydroxyvitamin D, can be unreliable despite many sophisticated methodologies that have been proposed and implemented...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Caroline Se Homer, Jeremy Oats, Philippa Middleton, Jenny Ramson, Samantha Diplock
The clinical practice guidelines on pregnancy care have been developed to provide reliable and standardised guidance for health professionals providing antenatal care in Australia. They were originally released as the Clinical Practice Guidelines: Antenatal Care in two separate editions (modules 1 and 2) in 2012 and 2014. These modules have now been combined and updated to form a single set of consolidated guidelines that were publicly released in February 2018 as the Clinical Practice Guidelines: Pregnancy Care...
November 5, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Fernando Stengel
The solar radiation range has harmful and beneficial effects. Sunscreens, which selectively block specific spectral regions, may potentially interfere with skin homeostasis. For instance, the ultraviolet (UV) B waveband produces erythema and DNA damage; simultaneously, it induces pre-vitamin D3 synthesis. UVA1 and visible light can both induce pigmentation in skin phototypes IV-VI, and act in synergy to induce erythema and persistent pigment darkening. In contrast, UVA may contribute to blood pressure control and cardioprotection by inducing release of nitric oxide from intracutaneous photolabile nitric oxide derivatives...
October 30, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
Alberto Aimo, Robert P Giugliano, Raffaele De Caterina
The estimated prevalence of mitral or aortic valvular heart disease is ≈2.5% in the general population of Western countries, and is expected to rise with population aging. A substantial proportion of patients with valvular heart disease undergoes surgical valve replacement. Mechanical heart valves are much more durable than bioprostheses, and are thus preferentially implanted in patients with a longer life expectancy, but have the major drawback of requiring lifelong anticoagulation to prevent valve thrombosis because of their higher thrombogenicity...
September 25, 2018: Circulation
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