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screening test

Marianna Amaral Pedroso, Kirsten Rebecca Palmer, Ryan James Hodges, Fabricio da Silva Costa, Daniel Lorber Rolnik
OBJECTIVE:  To perform a comprehensive review of the current evidence on the role of uterine artery Doppler, isolated or in combination with other markers, in screening for preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) in the general population. The review included recently published large cohort studies and randomized trials. METHODS:  A search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PubMed, MeSH and ScienceDirect. Combinations of the search terms "preeclampsia," "screening," "prediction," "Doppler," "Doppler velocimetry," "fetal growth restriction," "small for gestational age" and "uterine artery" were used...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, Thais Silva, Bruna Naum, Flavio Canavez, Juliana Canavez, Ruan Pimenta, Sabrina Reis, Luiz Heraldo Camara-Lopes
OBJECTIVE: To test the performance of a new fixative for pap smear collection for liquid-based cervical cytology, CellPreserv® and compare it with the commercially available, PreservCyt® used in the diagnosis and detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: Seven hundred twenty five women participated in this study after signing an informed consent. The specimens were collected using a traditional device, agitated in PBS, and equally divided in both fixatives...
June 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
Yuan Zhang, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Rammohan R Yadav Bheemanaboina, Yu Cheng, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of carbazole-triazole conjugates were designed, synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR, and HRMS spectra. Biological assay showed that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited moderate and even strong antifungal activities, especially 3,6-dibromocarbazolyl triazole 5d displayed excellent inhibitory efficacy against most of the tested fungal strains (MIC = 2-32 μg/mL) and effectively fungicidal ability towards C. albicans, C. tropicals and C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 (MFC = 4-8 μg/mL)...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Elina Koivisto, Andrea Santangeli, Pertti Koivisto, Tapio Korkolainen, Timo Vuorisalo, Ilpo K Hanski, Iida Loivamaa, Sanna Koivisto
The most common rodent control method worldwide is anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs), which cause death by internal bleeding. ARs can transfer to non-target predators via secondary exposure, i.e. by consuming contaminated rodents. Here we quantify the prevalence of seven AR substances in the liver tissues of altogether 17 mammalian or avian predator or scavenger species in Finland. In addition, we identify the environmental and biological factors potentially linked to secondary AR poisoning. No previous AR screenings have been conducted in the country, despite the widespread use of ARs and their potential impacts on the high levels of the ecosystem food chain...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Adam S Faye, Fernanda Polubriaginof, Peter H R Green, David K Vawdrey, Nicholas Tatonetti, Benjamin Lebwohl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given the increased morbidity and potential mortality of celiac disease, guidelines recommend screening high-risk individuals, including first-degree relatives of patients. We assessed how commonly celiac disease testing occurs in these individuals and identified factors that influence testing. METHODS: Relatives of 2081 patients with biopsy-diagnosed celiac disease and followed at Columbia University Medical Center were identified using relationship inference from the electronic health record-a validated method that uses emergency contact information to identify familial relationships...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Xin Zhou, Zipeng Lu, Tongshan Wang, Zebo Huang, Wei Zhu, Yi Miao
The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plasma of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients may act as a diagnostic biomarker. A four-stage study was performed to identify plasma miRNAs with potential in detecting PC. Exiqon panels (20 PC vs. 10 normal controls (NCs)) were applied in the screening phase to obtain miRNA profiling. The identified miRNAs were further assessed in the training (40 PC vs. 40 NCs) and testing stages (112 PC vs. 116 NCs) with qRT-PCR assays. A six-miRNA signature including up-regulated miR-122-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-192-5p, miR-193b-3p, miR-221-3p and miR-27b-3p was identified...
June 15, 2018: Gene
Jess Vergis, Richa Pathak, Manesh Kumar, R Sunitha, S V S Malik, S B Barbuddhe, Deepak B Rawool
We explored and evaluated for the first time colorimetric nitrocefin assay in conjunction with the double disc test and PCR assay. We suggested the use of nitrocefin assay for rapid screening of ESBL-production by Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Emily H Adhikari, Devin Macias, Donna Gaffney, Sarah White, Vanessa L Rogers, Donald D McIntire, Scott W Roberts
BACKGROUND: False positive HIV screening tests in pregnancy may lead to unnecessary interventions in labor. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a new algorithm for HIV diagnosis using a 4th generation screening test, which detects antibodies to HIV as well as p24 antigen and has a shorter window period compared with prior generations. A reactive screen requires a differentiation assay, and supplemental qualitative RNA testing is necessary for nonreactive differentiation assay...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lilian Cássia Bórnia Jacob-Corteletti, Eliene Silva Araújo, Josilene Luciene Duarte, Fernanda Zucki, Kátia de Freitas Alvarenga
Purpose: The aims of the study were to examine the acoustic reflex screening and threshold in healthy neonates and those at risk of hearing loss and to determine the effect of birth weight and gestational age on acoustic stapedial reflex (ASR). Method: We assessed 18 healthy neonates (Group I) and 16 with at least 1 risk factor for hearing loss (Group II); all of them passed the transient evoked otoacoustic emission test that assessed neonatal hearing. The test battery included an acoustic reflex screening with activators of 0...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Bindiya Meggi, Lara Vojnov, Nedio Mabunda, Adolfo Vubil, Alcina Zitha, Ocean Tobaiwa, Chishamiso Mudenyanga, Dadirayi Mutsaka, Timothy Bollinger, Osvaldo Loquiha, Trevor F Peter, Ilesh V Jani
BACKGROUND: Failure to timely diagnose HIV in infants is a major barrier for scaling-up paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART). WHO recommends birth testing for earlier diagnosis and to improve test coverage, but current diagnosis takes 2-3 weeks to complete, thereby limiting the ability of care givers to provide follow-on care, especially in low-resource settings. We evaluated the benefit of implementing rapid diagnosis of HIV at birth in primary health care maternity wards in Mozambique...
2018: PloS One
Sonia Andersson, Karen Belkić, Miriam Mints, Ellinor Östensson
OBJECTIVE: Self-sampling to test for high risk human papilloma virus (HPV) is becoming an increasingly important component of cervical cancer screening. The aim of this observational study is to examine how women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) view HPV self-sampling. METHODS: Invited to participate in the present study were patients who had undergone treatment of high-grade CIN (grade 2 or higher) and were followed-up at 6-months at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm...
2018: PloS One
Eng-Zhuan Ban, Munn-Sann Lye, Pei Pei Chong, Yoke-Yeow Yap, Siew Ying Crystale Lim, Hejar Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rare form of cancer across the world except in certain areas such as Southern China, Hong Kong and Malaysia. NPC is considered a relatively radiosensitive tumor and patients diagnosed at early stages tend to survive longer compared to those with advanced disease. Given that early symptoms of NPC are non-specific and that the nasopharynx is relatively inaccessible, less invasive screening methods such as biomarker screening might be the key to improve NPC survival and management...
2018: PloS One
Orlando da Costa Ferreira-Júnior, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães, Giseli Nogueira Damacena, Wanessa da Silva de Almeida, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza-Júnior, Célia Landmann Szwarcwald
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) bear a high burden of sexually transmitted infections (STI). In this paper, we estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), HBV = hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV = hepatitis C virus (HCV), syphilis and co-infections in the second Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey among FSW in Brazil. METHOD: The survey was conducted in 12 Brazilian cities from July to November 2016. We used respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 350 FSW in each city...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Minju Lee, So Young Kang, Yeon-Lim Suh
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) amplification is one of the common alterations in IDH-wildtype glioblastoma. It is frequently associated with EGFRvIII mutation. To evaluate the correlation between EGFR overexpression, gene amplification, and EGFRvIII mutation, we performed immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization by Vysis LSI EGFR/CEP7 dual color probe, and polymerase chain reaction studies in 76 patients diagnosed with glioblastomas (67 IDH-wildtype and 9 IDH-mutant). EGFR expression was scored ranging from 0 to 3+...
June 15, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Elizabeth Aby, Jennifer Phan, Emily Truong, Jonathan Grotts, Sammy Saab
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of liver disease which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines recommend abdominal ultrasound, with or without serum alpha-fetoprotein, every 6 months for HCC surveillance in cirrhotic patients. GOALS: Describe HCC surveillance rates in NASH cirrhosis compared with hepatitis C (HCV) cirrhosis and the impact of surveillance on tumor size, treatment, and mortality...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Prashant Singh, Ananya Arora, Tor A Strand, Daniel A Leffler, Markku Mäki, Ciaran P Kelly, Vineet Ahuja, Govind K Makharia
GOALS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the overall diagnostic accuracy of point of care tests (POCTs) for diagnosing celiac disease (CD). BACKGROUND: Recently, POCTs for CD have been developed and are commercially available. Studies have reported significant variability in their sensitivity (70% to 100%) and specificity (85% to 100%). STUDY: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE databases, and the Cochrane library through June 2017...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Chris R Kenyon, Ilan S Schwartz
Contemporary strategies to curtail the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae include screening for and treating asymptomatic infections in high-prevalence populations in whom antimicrobial drug-resistant infections have typically emerged. We argue that antimicrobial resistance in these groups is driven by a combination of dense sexual network connectivity and antimicrobial drug exposure (for example, through screen-and-treat strategies for asymptomatic N. gonorrhoeae infection). Sexual network connectivity sustains a high-equilibrium prevalence of N...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Naiyanate Jaroensanti-Tanaka, Sho Miyazaki, Akito Hosoi, Keisuke Tanaka, Shinsaku Ito, Satoshi Iuchi, Takeshi Nakano, Masatomo Kobayashi, Masatoshi Nakajima, Tadao Asami
We previously found a chemical, designated as NJ15, which inhibited both auxin and brassinosteroid responses in dark-grown Arabidopsis. To study its mode of action, we performed a phenotypic screening of NJ15-low-sensitive lines among mutant pools of Arabidopsis. One line (f127) showed clear NJ15-low-sensitivity in terms of hypocotyl elongation and shoot gravitropism. After further testing, it was determined that DCR, an enzyme involved in cutin polymerization, had lost its function in the mutant, which caused its low sensitivity to NJ15...
June 18, 2018: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
L Thorne, A Nalwoga, A J Mentzer, A de Rougemont, M Hosmillo, E Webb, M Nampiija, A Muhwezi, T Carstensen, D Gurdasani, A V Hill, M S Sandhu, A Elliott, I Goodfellow
Background: Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a prominent cause of gastroenteritis, yet fundamental questions remain regarding epidemiology, diversity and immunity in sub-Saharan African children. We investigated HuNoV seroprevalence and genetic and sociodemographic risk factors in Ugandan children. Methods: We randomly screened 797 participants of a longitudinal birth cohort (EMaBS) in Entebbe, and 378 children from a cross-sectional survey of rural island communities in Lake Victoria (LaVISSWA), for antibodies against multiple HuNoV genotypes by ELISA...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Xiangjun Liu, Yang Wang, Lanqing Cui, Yun Li, Feng Xue, Jian Liu, Liyuan Wang, Yingbo Shen, Yuan Lv
Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of clinical mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and characterize the antimicrobial resistance profiles of mcr-1-positive E. coli and mcr-1-negative E. coli in China. Methods: A total of 6264 clinical E. coli (n = 3854) and K. pneumoniae (n = 2410) were collected from hospitalized patients from 18 to 20 hospitals as part of the China Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Trial (CARST) between January 2007 and June 2016...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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