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Nora A Foroud, Reyhaneh Pordel, Ravinder K Goyal, Daria Ryabova, Anas Eranthodi, Syama Chatterton, Igor Kovalchuk
Plant signalling hormones, such as ethylene, have been shown to affect the host response to various pathogens. Often the resistance responses to necrotrophic fungi are mediated through synergistic interactions of ethylene (ET) with the jasmonate signalling pathway. On the other hand, ethylene is also an inducer of senescence and cell death, which could be beneficial for some invading necrotrophic pathogens. Fusarium graminearum, a causative agent in Fusarium head blight of wheat, is a hemibiotrophic pathogen, meaning it has both biotrophic and necrotrophic phases during the course of infection...
December 12, 2018: Phytopathology
Tarek Alouane, Hélène Rimbert, Francis Fabre, Florence Cambon, Thierry Langin, Ludovic Bonhomme
Fusarium graminearum is a major fungal pathogen that induces Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small-grain cereals worldwide. This announcement provides the whole-genome sequence of a highly virulent and toxin-producing French isolate, MDC_Fg1.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Barbara Steiner, Sebastian Michel, Marco Maccaferri, Marc Lemmens, Roberto Tuberosa, Hermann Buerstmayr
Genomic selection had a higher selection response for FHB resistance than phenotypic selection, while association mapping identified major QTL on chromosome 3B unaffected by plant height and flowering date. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive diseases of durum wheat. Hence, minimizing losses in yield, quality and avoiding contamination with mycotoxins are of pivotal importance, as durum wheat is mostly used for human consumption. While growing resistant varieties is the most promising approach for controlling this fungal disease, FHB resistance breeding in durum wheat is hampered by the limited variation in the elite gene pool and difficulties in efficiently combining the numerous small-effect resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the same line...
December 1, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yabing Duan, Meixia Li, Huahua Zhao, Fei Lu, Jianxin Wang, Mingguo Zhou
The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), the causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat, has the different geographically distributed species. Our previous study suggested that a DMI fungicide metconazole exhibits a strong fungicidal activity in mycelial growth of Chinese FHB pathogens and metconazole is currently a most effective compound of commercial fungicides for controlling FHB in China. In the current study, metconazole-resistant F. graminearum mutants were induced by chemical taming and their molecular and biological characteristics were determined...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yabing Duan, Xuemei Xiao, Tao Li, Weiwei Chen, Jianxin Wang, Bart A Fraaije, Mingguo Zhou
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals with Fusarium graminearum as one of the most important causal agents. FHB not only can reduce yield and quality of grains, but also lead to accumulation of mycotoxins in grain, thereby threatening human and animal health. In this study, we observed that epoxiconazole exhibits strong inhibitory effects on both carbendazim-resistant and phenamacril-resistant isolates using mycelial growth inhibition assays. The artificially inoculated field trials further showed that epoxiconazole increased the control efficacy of FHB by being able to control carbendazim-resistant and phenamacril-resistant isolates...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
P A Paul, J D Salgado, G Bergstrom, C A Bradley, E Byamukama, A M Byrne, V Chapara, J A Cummings, M I Chilvers, R Dill-Macky, A Friskop, N Kleczewski, L V Madden, M Nagelkirk, J Stevens, M Smith, S N Wegulo, K Wise, D Yabwalo
Integrated Fusarium head blight (FHB) management programs consisting of different combinations of cultivar resistance class and an application of the fungicide prothioconazole + tebuconazole at or after 50% early anthesis were evaluated for efficacy against FHB incidence (INC; percentage of diseased spikes), index (IND; percentage of diseased spikelets per spike), Fusarium damaged kernel (FDK), deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin contamination, grain yield, and test weight (TW) in inoculated field trials conducted in 11 U...
November 28, 2018: Plant Disease
Shunwen Lu, Justin D Faris
The virally encoded KP4 killer toxin protein was first identified from Ustilago maydis (Um), and its homologues are present in diverse fungi and in one species of moss. No KP4-like (KP4L) proteins have been functionally characterized. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of four KP4L proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg), the primary causal pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is also known to associate with seedling rot of wheat. The four FgKP4L proteins (FgKP4L-1, -2, -3 and -4) are encoded by small open reading frames (378-825 bp) located on chromosome 1 with the FgKP4L-1, -2 and -3 genes clustering together...
November 19, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Mitra Serajazari, Kerin Hudson, Mina Kaviani, Alireza Navabi
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused by several Fusarium species, is a worldwide problem that severely impacts cereal grain yield and poses major risks to human and animal health due to production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), its acetylated forms, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (15-ADON). Recent studies suggest an inconsistent effect of F. graminearum chemotypes and resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. To gain insight into the interaction effects of F...
November 19, 2018: Phytopathology
Vesna Krnjaja, Slavica Stanković, Ana Obradović, Tanja Petrović, Violeta Mandić, Zorica Bijelić, Manja Božić
Fusarium graminearum as the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its ability to produce trichothecenes was investigated by molecular techniques. A total of 37 strains isolated from the wheat, harvested in Serbia in 2005, 2008 and 2015, and previously designated by morphological observation as F. graminearum , were used for trichothecene genotypes characterization. The strains were identified using the species-specific primer set FG16R/FG16F while genotypic characterization was done using specific TRI13 and TRI3 sequences of the trichothecene gene clusters...
November 8, 2018: Toxins
Lipu Wang, Qiang Li, Ziying Liu, Anu Surendra, Youlian Pan, Yifeng Li, L Irina Zaharia, Thérèse Ouellet, Pierre R Fobert
Fusarium head blight (FHB or scab) caused by Fusarium spp. is a destructive disease of wheat. Since the most effective sources of FHB resistance are typically associated with unfavorable agronomic traits, breeding commercial cultivars that combine desired agronomic traits and a high level of FHB resistance remains a considerable challenge. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing FHB resistance will help to design more efficient and precise breeding strategies. Here, multiple molecular tools and assays were deployed to compare the resistant variety Sumai3 with three regionally adapted Canadian cultivars...
2018: PloS One
Benard Bogonko Nyakundi, Andrea Tóth, Enikő Balogh, Béla Nagy, Judit Erdei, Bernhard Ryffel, György Paragh, Mario D Cordero, Viktória Jeney
Damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are released form red blood cells (RBCs) during intravascular hemolysis (IVH). Extracellular heme, with its pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects, is sensed by innate immune cells through pattern recognition receptors such as toll-like receptor 4 and nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3), while free availability of heme is strictly controlled. Here we investigated the involvement of different hemoglobin (Hb) forms in hemolysis-associated inflammatory responses...
October 30, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Cesar de Cesar Netto, Lauren E Roberts, Parke William Hudson, Brent Cone, Bahman Sahranavard, Ibukunoluwa Araoye, Ashish Shah
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the success rate of first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) lateral soft tissue release through a medial transarticular approach. METHODS: Ten cadaveric specimens were used (6 females/4 males, mean age, 73.4years). Lateral release was performed through a 4cm medial approach using a number 15 blade. Surgical aim was to release four specific structures: lateral capsule, lateral collateral ligament (LCL), adductor hallucis tendon (AHT) and lateral metatarsosesamoid suspensory ligament (LMSL)...
October 17, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Sanghyun Shin, Jae-Han Son, Jong-Chul Park, Kyeong-Hoon Kim, Young-Mi Yoon, Young-Keun Cheong, Kyong-Ho Kim, Jong-Nae Hyun, Chul Soo Park, Ruth Dill-Macky, Chon-Sik Kang
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium species is a major disease of wheat and barley around the world. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins including; nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), and 15-acetylde-oxynivalenol (15-ADON). The objectives of this study were to identify strains of F. graminearum isolated in Korea from 2012-harvested wheat grain and to test the pathogenicity of these NIV- and DON-producing isolates...
October 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Ai Min Zhang, Wen Long Yang, Xin Li, Jia Zhu Sun
Wheat is one of the most important food crops in China and worldwide. Wheat production is facing the stresses of different diseases including Fusarium head blight (FHB) which is more and more serious recently and leading to highly concerns. Unremitting efforts have been made on Fusarium head blight resistance breeding and comprehensive control technology development. Rapid progress has been achieved on discovering of resistant genetic resources, mapping of resistant QTL/genes, resistant QTL/genes cloning, gene functional research and molecular breeding...
October 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Giovanni Beccari, Consuelo Arellano, Lorenzo Covarelli, Francesco Tini, Michael Sulyok, Christina Cowger
Fusarium head blight (FHB) results in yield loss and damaging contamination of cereal grains and can be caused by several Fusarium species. The objective of the present study was to determine, in a greenhouse experiment on winter wheat, how FHB was affected by timing of infection (0, 3, 6 or 9 days after anthesis, daa) by the aggressive species Fusarium graminearum compared to the relatively weak species Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium poae and Fusarium acuminatum. Measures of FHB development were: symptoms in spikes (visually assessed), fungal biomass (quantified by real time quantitative PCR) and accumulation of fungal secondary metabolites (quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) in kernels...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Pierce A Paul, Carl A Bradley, Laurence V Madden, Felipe Dalla Lana, Gary C Bergstrom, Ruth Dill-Macky, Kiersten A Wise, Paul D Esker, Marcia McMullen, Arvydas Grybauskas, William W Kirk, Eugene Milus, Kay Ruden
Anthesis is generally recommended as the optimum growth stage for applying a foliar fungicide to manage Fusarium head blight (FHB) and the Fusarium-associated toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat. However, because it is not always possible to treat fields at anthesis, studies were conducted to evaluate pre- and postanthesis treatment options for managing FHB and DON in spring and winter wheat. Network meta-analytical models were fitted to data from 19 years of fungicide trials, and log response ratio ([Formula: see text]) and approximate percent control ([Formula: see text]) relative to a nontreated check were estimated as measures of the effects of six treatments on FHB index (IND: mean percentage of diseased spikelets per spike) and DON...
December 2018: Plant Disease
Junda Ren, Zhen Wang, Ziyi Du, Mingzhe Che, Yibin Zhang, Wei Quan, Yongji Wang, Xu Jiang, Zhongjun Zhang
A novel QTL for FHB resistance was mapped on wheat 7DL, being effective in multiple genetic backgrounds and environments, and comparable to Fhb1 in effect magnitude. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the major fungal diseases affecting wheat production in many countries. The wheat line AQ24788-83 (AQ) possesses FHB resistance. The American wheat cultivar Luke is FHB susceptible. A Luke × AQ population consisting of 1652 advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed, from which 272 RILs were randomly sampled and used to construct a linkage map...
October 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Lokanadha R Gunupuru, Chanemougasoundharam Arunachalam, Keshav B Malla, Amal Kahla, Alexandre Perochon, Jianguang Jia, Ganesh Thapa, Fiona M Doohan
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) serves as a plant disease virulence factor for the fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum during the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on wheat. A wheat cytochrome P450 gene from the subfamily CYP72A, TaCYP72A, was cloned from wheat cultivar CM82036. TaCYP72A was located on chromosome 3A with homeologs present on 3B and 3D of the wheat genome. Using gene expression studies, we showed that TaCYP72A variants were activated in wheat spikelets as an early response to F...
2018: PloS One
Ehsan Sari, Samia Berraies, Ron E Knox, Asheesh K Singh, Yuefeng Ruan, Richard D Cuthbert, Curtis J Pozniak, Maria Antonia Henriquez, Santosh Kumar, Andrew J Burt, Amidou N'Diaye, David J Konkin, Adrian L Cabral, Heather L Campbell, Krystalee Wiebe, Janet Condie, Prabhath Lokuruge, Brad Meyer, George Fedak, Fran R Clarke, John M Clarke, Daryl J Somers, Pierre R Fobert
Breeding for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in durum wheat is complicated by the quantitative trait expression and narrow genetic diversity of available resources. High-density mapping of the FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL), evaluation of their co-localization with plant height and maturity QTL and the interaction among the identified QTL are the objectives of this study. Two doubled haploid (DH) populations, one developed from crosses between Triticum turgidum ssp. durum lines DT707 and DT696 and the other between T...
2018: PloS One
Rashad Zayat, Usaama Ahmad, Christian Stoppe, Mohammad Amen Khattab, Fateh Arab, Ajay Moza, Lachmandath Tewarie, Andreas Goetzenich, Rüdiger Autschbach, Heike Schnoering
Low-level hemolysis (LLH) after left ventricular assist device implantation contributes to thromboembolic events (TE). Free plasma hemoglobin (fHb) scavenges nitric oxide (NO), which causes endothelial dysfunction and activates platelets. fHb also interacts with von Willebrand factor (vWF). We hypothesized that improved hemodynamic and enhanced NO signaling in HeartMate II (HMII) patients with LLH taking the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil may reduce the risk of TE.From 2011 to 2015, 83 patients underwent HMII implantation...
October 10, 2018: International Heart Journal
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