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Angelica Giancaspro, Vincenzo Lionetti, Stefania L Giove, Daniela Zito, Eleonora Fabri, Nathan Reem, Olga A Zabotina, Elisabetta De Angelis, Linda Monaci, Daniela Bellincampi, Agata Gadaleta
Durum wheat is naturally more susceptible to Fusarium graminerum infection in comparison to common wheat. The improvement of durum wheat resistance against F. graminearum is a challenge due to the lack of resistance sources in its gene pool. FHB-resistance factors were introduced in durum wheat by generating recombinant inbred lines (RILs), obtained by crossing the hexaploid resistant accession 02-5B-318 with the susceptible durum wheat cv. Saragolla. In this work we explored the possible contribution of cell wall (CW) in RILs with improved FHB resistance...
September 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Holger Budde, Joachim Riggert, Steffen Vormfelde, Theodor Tirilomis, Martin G Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Re-transfusion of autologous blood is an important aspect of intraoperative blood management. Hemolysis and platelet dysfunction due to turbulence in the blood suction system strongly impede later usage of suction blood for re-transfusion. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a novel surgical-blood suction system with an automatic control setup for minimization of turbulence in the blood flow. METHODS: We compared the turbulence-controlled suction system (TCSS) with a conventional suction system and untreated control blood in vitro...
July 27, 2018: Perfusion
Huawei Zheng, Pengfei Miao, Xiaolian Lin, Lingping Li, Congxian Wu, Xiaomin Chen, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Justice Norvienyeku, Guangpu Li, Jie Zhou, Zonghua Wang, Wenhui Zheng
Fusarium graminearum is a fungal pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and barley. Autophagy is a highly conserved vacuolar degradation pathway essential for cellular homeostasis in which Atg9 serves as a multispanning membrane protein important for generating membranes for the formation of phagophore assembly site. However, the mechanism of autophagy or autophagosome formation in phytopathogens awaits further clarifications. In this study, we identified and characterized the Atg9 homolog (FgAtg9) in F...
July 25, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Jiajun Liu, Lei Li, Nora Foroud, Changcheng Li, Xuan Gong, Tao Li
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of wheat that reduces yield and grain quality. High-throughput proteomic techniques have been used to identify a wide range of candidate proteins involved in host-resistance. The majority of the published works on the proteomics of the wheat response to Fusarium graminearum infection are case-specific. In the current study, a high-throughput quantitative label-free strategy was employed on bulked rachides of F. graminearum-infected wheat collected from multiple genotypes...
July 24, 2018: Phytopathology
Li Deng, Weixin Meng, Dandan Li, Dongyun Qiu, Siqing Wang, Hongyu Liu
This study aimed to investigate the effect of ozone on hypoxia, hemolysis and morphological change of blood from aortic dissection (AD) patients for providing preliminary evidence of application of ozonated autohemotherapy (Ozone-AHT) in AD patients. 20 AD patients and 20 healthy volunteers were consecutively included, and blood samples were collected from all participants and ozonized in vitro . PO2 , SO2 , malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malformation percentage, morphology change and spatial distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) in erythrocytes at different ozone concentrations were evaluated...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Haixiao Dong, Rui Wang, Yaping Yuan, James Anderson, Michael Pumphrey, Zhiwu Zhang, Jianli Chen
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) has emerged in spring wheat production in Pacific Northwest during the last decade due to factors including climate changes, crop rotations, and tillage practices. A breeding population with 170 spring wheat lines was established and screened over a 2-year period in multiple locations for FHB incidence (INC), severity (SEV), and deposition of the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). A genome-wide association study suggested that the detectable number of genetic loci and effects are limited for marker-assisted selection...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ganesh Thapa, Lokanadha R Gunupuru, James G Hehir, Amal Kahla, Ewen Mullins, Fiona M Doohan
Receptor-like kinases form the largest family of receptors in plants and play an important role in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and modulating the plant immune responses to invasive fungi, including cereal defenses against fungal diseases. But hitherto, none have been shown to modulate the wheat response to the economically important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of small-grain cereals. Homologous genes were identified on barley chromosome 6H ( HvLRRK-6H ) and wheat chromosome 6DL ( TaLRRK-6D ), which encode the characteristic domains of surface-localized receptor like kinases...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Rong Di, Hanzhong Zhang, Michael A Lawton
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. Ingestion of food contaminated with DON poses serious human health complications. However, the DON cytotoxicity has been mostly deduced from animal studies. In this study, we used the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) as a tractable animal model to dissect the toxic effect of DON. Our results indicate that DON reduces the fecundity and lifespan of C. elegans . Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that DON upregulates innate immunity-related genes including C17H12...
June 27, 2018: Toxins
W F Vieira-Junior, L N Ferraz, McC Giorgi, Gmb Ambrosano, Fhb Aguiar, Danl Lima
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of mouth rinse exposure on bleached enamel. METHODS: Enamel/dentin bovine blocks (4×4×2 mm) were bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) and were submitted to immersion twice daily for 14 days with different rinses (n=10), including those involving: distilled water (C [control]), 225-ppm NaF (FM, Colgate Plax Classic), essential oil (EM, Listerine Tartar Control), 1.5% hydrogen peroxide (HPM, Colgate Plax Whitening), and 2% hydrogen peroxide, pyrophosphates, and 225-ppm NaF (HPM+P, Colgate® Luminous White)...
June 28, 2018: Operative Dentistry
Moustafa Eldakak, Aayudh Das, Yongbin Zhuang, Jai S Rohila, Karl Glover, Yang Yen
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a highly detrimental disease of wheat. A quantitative trait locus for FHB resistance, Qfhb1 , is the most utilized source of resistance in wheat-breeding programs, but very little is known about its resistance mechanism. In this study, we elucidated a prospective FHB resistance mechanism by investigating the proteomic signatures of Qfhb1 in a pair of contrasting wheat near-isogenic lines (NIL) after 24 h of inoculation of wheat florets by Fusarium graminearum . Statistical comparisons of the abundances of protein spots on the 2D-DIGE gels of contrasting NILs (fhb1+ NIL = Qfhb1 present; fhb1- NIL = Qfhb1 absent) enabled us to select 80 high-ranking differentially accumulated protein (DAP) spots...
June 22, 2018: Pathogens
Denis Anthony Shah, Erick De Wolf, Pierce A Paul, Laurence V Madden
In past efforts, input weather variables for Fusarium head blight (FHB) prediction models in the United States were identified after following some version of the window-pane algorithm, which discretizes a continuous weather time series into fixed-length windows before searching for summary variables associated with FHB risk. Functional data analysis, on the other hand, reconstructs the assumed continuous process (represented by a series of recorded weather data) by using smoothing functions, and is an alternative way of working with time series data with respect to FHB risk...
June 13, 2018: Phytopathology
Mingxia Zhao, Yueqiang Leng, Shiaoman Chao, Steven S Xu, Shaobin Zhong
The major QTL for FHB resistance from hexaploid wheat line PI 277012 was successfully introgressed into durum wheat and minor FHB resistance QTL were detected in local durum wheat cultivars. A combination of these QTL will enhance FHB resistance of durum wheat. Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of durum wheat. To combat the disease, great efforts have been devoted to introgress FHB resistance from its related tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species into adapted durum cultivars...
June 4, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Marlies Decleer, Sofie Landschoot, Sarah De Saeger, Andrea Rajkovic, Kris Audenaert
BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a well-known disease of wheat caused by a complex of Fusarium species. In this research, an extensive study on the occurrence of the emerging Fusarium cyclodepsipeptide mycotoxins beauvericin and enniatins was conducted in Belgian wheat grains harvested in 2015 and 2016. To assess the link between Fusarium species and their mycotoxin production, ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify the cyclodepsipeptide mycotoxins, while quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to quantify the presence of Fusarium species...
May 31, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Peisen Su, Xiuxiu Guo, Yanhui Fan, Liang Wang, Guanghui Yu, Wenyang Ge, Lanfei Zhao, Xin Ma, Jiajie Wu, Anfei Li, Hongwei Wang, Lingrang Kong
The resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat is mainly via the restrain of fungal expansion through spike rachis (type II resistance). In order to unravel the resistance mechanisms, Brachypodium distachyon 21 (Bd21), a monocotyledonous model plant, was previously proved to interact with F. graminearum, while the disease development in spike still needs to be explored in detail. Herein, it is found that the fungal spores mainly germinate on pistil of Bd21, then the hyphae rapidly extend to the bottom of floret and enter spike rachis, similar with the infection progress in wheat...
July 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Wangtai Luo, Jing Miao, Zhibin Feng, Ruiyang Lu, Xiaoqiang Sun, Baoshen Zhang, Weiqiu Ding, Yang Lu, Yanhua Wang, Xiaoyan Chi, Yihe Ge
In our recent work, we found that pyrrolnitrin, and not phenazines, pyrrolnitrin contributed to the suppression of the mycelia growth of Fusarium graminearum that causes heavy Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. However, pyrrolnitrin production of Pseudomonas chlororaphis G05 in King's B medium was very low. Although a few regulatory genes mediating the prnABCD (the prn operon, pyrrolnitrin biosynthetic locus) expression have been identified, it is not enough for us to enhance pyrrolnitrin production by systematically constructing a genetically-engineered strain...
May 28, 2018: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Jon Y Takemoto, Stephen N Wegulo, Gary Y Yuen, Julie A Stevens, Charlene C Jochum, Cheng-Wei T Chang, Yukie Kawasaki, Gene W Miller
K20 is a novel amphiphilic aminoglycoside capable of inhibiting many fungal species. K20's capabilities to inhibit Fusarium graminearum the causal agent wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) and to this disease were examined. K20 inhibited the growth of F. graminearum (minimum inhibitory concentrations, 7.8-15.6 mg L-1 ) and exhibited synergistic activity when combined with triazole and strobilurin fungicides. Application of K20 up to 720 mg L-1 to wheat heads in the greenhouse showed no phytotoxic effects. Spraying wheat heads in the greenhouse with K20 alone at 360 mg L-1 lowered FHB severity below controls while combining K20 with half-label rates of Headline (pyraclostrobin) improved its disease control efficacy...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Myriam Moussaoui, Lina Misevičienė, Žilvinas Anusevičius, Audronė Marozienė, Florence Lederer, Laura Baciou, Narimantas Čėnas
In microorganisms, flavohemoglobins (FHbs) containing FAD and heme (Fe3+ , metHb) convert NO. into nitrate at the expense of NADH and O2 . FHbs contribute to bacterial resistance to nitrosative stress. Therefore, inhibition of FHbs functions may decrease the pathogen virulence. We report here a kinetic study of the reduction of quinones and nitroaromatic compounds by S. aureus FHb. We show that this enzyme rapidly reduces quinones and nitroaromatic compounds in a mixed single- and two-electron pathway. The reactivity of nitroaromatics increased upon an increase in their single-electron reduction potential (E1 7 ), whereas the reactivity of quinones poorly depended on their E1 7 with a strong preference for a 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone structure...
August 1, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Xin Yi, Jingye Cheng, Zhengning Jiang, Wenjing Hu, Tongde Bie, Derong Gao, Dongsheng Li, Ronglin Wu, Yuling Li, Shulin Chen, Xiaoming Cheng, Jian Liu, Yong Zhang, Shunhe Cheng
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive wheat disease present throughout the world, and host resistance is an effective and economical strategy used to control FHB. Lack of adequate resistance resource is still a main bottleneck for FHB genetics and wheat breeding research. The synthetic-derived bread wheat line C615, which does not carry the Fhb1 gene, is a promising source of FHB resistance for breeding. A population of 198 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) produced by crossing C615 with the susceptible cultivar Yangmai 13 was evaluated for FHB response using point and spray inoculations...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Giuseppe Lippi, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Massimo Franchini
The diagnostic approach to patients with intravascular haemolysis remains challenging, since no first-line laboratory test seems to be entirely suitable for the screening of this condition. Recent evidence shows that an enhanced cell-free haemoglobin (fHb) concentration in serum or plasma is a reliable marker of red blood cell injury, and may also predict clinical outcomes in patients with different forms of haemolytic anaemias. However, the routine use of the haemiglobincyanide assay, the current reference method for measuring fHb, seems unsuitable for a timely diagnosis of intravascular haemolysis, for many safety and practical reasons...
May 8, 2018: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Wenping Zeng, Jie Wang, Ying Wang, Jing Lin, Yanping Fu, Jiatao Xie, Daohong Jiang, Tao Chen, Huiquan Liu, Jiasen Cheng
Ascospores act as the primary inoculum of Fusarium graminearum , which causes the destructive disease Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported in the F. graminearum vegetative stage, and Fgdcl2 is involved in microRNA-like RNA (milRNA) biogenesis but has no major impact on vegetative growth, abiotic stress or pathogenesis. In the present study, we found that ascospore discharge was decreased in the Fgdcl1 deletion mutant, and completely blocked in the double-deletion mutant of Fgdcl1 and Fgdcl2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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