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Lokanadha R Gunupuru, Chanemougasoundharam Arunachalam, Keshav B Malla, Amal Kahla, Alexandre Perochon, Jianguang Jia, Ganesh Thapa, Fiona M Doohan
The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) serves as a plant disease virulence factor for the fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum during the development of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on wheat. A wheat cytochrome P450 gene from the subfamily CYP72A, TaCYP72A, was cloned from wheat cultivar CM82036. TaCYP72A was located on chromosome 3A with homeologs present on 3B and 3D of the wheat genome. Using gene expression studies, we showed that TaCYP72A variants were activated in wheat spikelets as an early response to F...
2018: PloS One
Ehsan Sari, Samia Berraies, Ron E Knox, Asheesh K Singh, Yuefeng Ruan, Richard D Cuthbert, Curtis J Pozniak, Maria Antonia Henriquez, Santosh Kumar, Andrew J Burt, Amidou N'Diaye, David J Konkin, Adrian L Cabral, Heather L Campbell, Krystalee Wiebe, Janet Condie, Prabhath Lokuruge, Brad Meyer, George Fedak, Fran R Clarke, John M Clarke, Daryl J Somers, Pierre R Fobert
Breeding for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in durum wheat is complicated by the quantitative trait expression and narrow genetic diversity of available resources. High-density mapping of the FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL), evaluation of their co-localization with plant height and maturity QTL and the interaction among the identified QTL are the objectives of this study. Two doubled haploid (DH) populations, one developed from crosses between Triticum turgidum ssp. durum lines DT707 and DT696 and the other between T...
2018: PloS One
Rashad Zayat, Usaama Ahmad, Christian Stoppe, Mohammad Amen Khattab, Fateh Arab, Ajay Moza, Lachmandath Tewarie, Andreas Goetzenich, Rüdiger Autschbach, Heike Schnoering
Low-level hemolysis (LLH) after left ventricular assist device implantation contributes to thromboembolic events (TE). Free plasma hemoglobin (fHb) scavenges nitric oxide (NO), which causes endothelial dysfunction and activates platelets. fHb also interacts with von Willebrand factor (vWF). We hypothesized that improved hemodynamic and enhanced NO signaling in HeartMate II (HMII) patients with LLH taking the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil may reduce the risk of TE.From 2011 to 2015, 83 patients underwent HMII implantation...
October 10, 2018: International Heart Journal
P A Paul, C A Bradley, L V Madden, F Dalla Lana, G C Bergstrom, R Dill-Macky, P D Esker, K A Wise, M McMullen, A Grybauskas, W W Kirk, E Milus, K Ruden
Field trials were conducted in 17 U.S. states to evaluate the effects of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) and demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide programs on Fusarium head blight index (IND) and deoxynivalenol (DON) toxin in wheat. Four DMI-only treatments applied at Feekes 10.5.1, five QoI-only treatments applied between Feekes 9 or Feekes 10.5, three QoI+DMI mixtures applied at Feekes 10.5, and three treatments consisting of a QoI at Feekes 9 followed by a DMI at Feekes 10.5.1 were evaluated. Network meta-analytical models were fitted to log-transformed mean IND and DON data and estimated contrasts of log means were used to obtain estimates of mean percent controls relative to the nontreated check as measures of efficacy...
October 8, 2018: Plant Disease
Serkan Taş, Nezehat Özgül Ünlüer, Feza Korkusuz
PURPOSE: Many musculoskeletal disorders are associated with over-pronated foot and decreased medial longitudinal arch (MLA) height. Foot intrinsic muscles and plantar fascia (PF) are the primary structures that support MLA. An important reason for the over-pronated foot and the reduction in the MLA height may be the morphological characteristics of the foot intrinsic muscles and PF as well as changes in their mechanical properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphologic structure and mechanical properties of PF, flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles in individuals with flat foot and to compare the results with those of healthy individuals...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Miroslava Cuperlovic-Culf, Martha Vaughan, Karl Vermillion, Anu Surendra, Jennifer Teresi, Susan McCormick
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and associated climate changes are thought to have contributed to the steady increase of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. However, our understanding of precisely how elevated CO2 influences the defense response of wheat against Fusarium graminearum (Fg) remains limited. In this study, we evaluated the metabolic profiles of susceptible (Norm) and moderately resistant (Alsen) spring wheat in response to whole-head inoculation with two deoxynivalenol (DON) producing Fg isolates (DON+) Fg isolates (9F1 and Gz3639), and a DON deficient (DON-) Fg isolate (Gzt40) at ambient (400ppm) and elevated (800ppm) CO2 concentrations...
September 26, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Kaitlyn M Bissonnette, Frederic L Kolb, Keith A Ames, Carl A Bradley
Effective control of Fusarium-mycotoxin accumulation in grain affected by Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused by Fusarium graminearum) begins with selecting moderately resistant wheat cultivars; however, little is known about how this resistance affects mycotoxin levels in the stem. A study was conducted from 2011 to 2014 in a mist-irrigated FHB nursery in Urbana, IL to determine whether the FHB resistance class of a cultivar (very susceptible, susceptible, moderately susceptible, and moderately resistant) affects the concentration of Fusarium mycotoxins in the stem...
September 20, 2018: Plant Disease
Yadong Huang, Matthew Haas, Shane Heinen, Brian J Steffenson, Kevin P Smith, Gary J Muehlbauer
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an important fungal disease affecting the yield and quality of barley and other small grains. Developing and deploying resistant barley cultivars is an essential component of an integrated strategy for reducing the adverse effects of FHB. Genetic mapping studies have revealed that resistance to FHB and the accumulation of pathogen-produced mycotoxins are controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTL) with minor effects and are highly influenced by plant morphological traits and environmental conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kai P Voss-Fels, Lunwen Qian, Iulian Gabur, Christian Obermeier, Lee T Hickey, Christian R Werner, Stefan Kontowski, Matthias Frisch, Wolfgang Friedt, Rod J Snowdon, Sven Gottwald
The ongoing global intensification of wheat production will likely be accompanied by a rising pressure of Fusarium diseases. While utmost attention was given to Fusarium head blight (FHB) belowground plant infections of the pathogen have largely been ignored. The current knowledge about the impact of soil borne Fusarium infection on plant performance and the underlying genetic mechanisms for resistance remain very limited. Here, we present the first large-scale investigation of Fusarium root rot (FRR) resistance using a diverse panel of 215 international wheat lines...
September 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christian Valladolid, Andrew Yee, Miguel A Cruz
Though extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides life-saving support, this intervention exposes patients to certain risks. Circulating free hemoglobin (fHb) resulting from mechanically induced hemolysis and insufficient haptoglobin/hemopexin may promote thrombosis within the ECMO circuit. Thrombi in the circuit can result in thromboembolic complications in these patients. Prevention of thrombus formation and propagation in the ECMO circuit may improve clinical outcome. fHb released during hemolysis has been shown to have multiple adverse effects, including thrombosis, but the mechanism by which fHb contributes to thrombosis in an ECMO circuit remains elusive...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Run Huang, Zhibin Feng, Xiaoyan Chi, Xiaoqiang Sun, Yang Lu, Baoshen Zhang, Ruiyang Lu, Wangtai Luo, Yanhua Wang, Jing Miao, Yihe Ge
Fusarium graminearum is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops worldwide. Infection with this fungal phytopathogen can regularly cause severe yield and quality losses and mycotoxin contamination in grains. In previous other studies, one research group reported that pyrrolnitrin had an ability to suppress of mycelial growth of F. graminearum. Other groups revealed that phenazine-1-carboxamide, a derivative of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid, could also inhibit the growth of F...
October 2018: Microbiological Research
Gabriela Garmendia, Luciana Pattarino, Camila Negrín, Adalgisa Martínez-Silveira, Silvia Pereyra, Todd J Ward, Silvana Vero
Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a major constraint to barley production that substantially reduces yield and grain quality. FHB is also a major food safety concern because FHB pathogens contaminate grain with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. DNA sequence-based analyses and in-vitro toxin assessments were used to characterize the species and trichothecene chemotype composition of FHB pathogens on barley in Uruguay. F. graminearum was the dominant species (89.7%), and three other members of the F. graminearum species complex (FGSC) were identified as FHB pathogens of barley in Uruguay for the first time...
December 2018: Food Microbiology
Zhiwei Li, Peixi Chang, Jiali Xu, Chen Tan, Xiaohong Wang, Weicheng Bei, Jinquan Li
Background: Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an encapsulated zoonotic pathogen. Increasing antimicrobial resistance invokes the need for effective vaccines. Despite many attempts to develop an effective vaccine, none is currently available. Methods: A capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-expressing attenuated mutant 2015033 was constructed by deleting five virulence-associated factors (sly, scpA, ssnA, fhb, and ssads) in an outbreak S. suis strain SC19. The safety and the immune effect of 2015033 were determined both in vitro and in vivo...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gurcharn S Brar, Chithra Karunakaran, Toby Bond, Jarvis Stobbs, Na Liu, Pierre J Hucl, Hadley R Kutcher
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum (Fg), is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat. Host resistance in wheat is classified into five types (Type-I to Type-V) and a majority of moderately resistant genotypes carry Type-II resistance (resistance to pathogen spread in the rachis) alleles, mainly from the Chinese cultivar Sumai 3. Histopathological studies in the past failed to identify the key tissue in the spike conferring resistance to pathogen spread and most of the studies used destructive techniques, potentially damaging the tissue (s) under study...
August 30, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Halim Ulugol, Ugur Aksu, Muharrem Kocyigit, Meltem Kilercik, Gulsum Karduz, Murat Okten, Fevzi Toraman
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different cardioplegic solutions on endothelial integrity and oxidative stress in cardiovascular surgery. METHODS: In this randomized prospective study, after ethics approval and informed consent, 60 surgical patients were included. Patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery were randomized into two groups as warm blood cardioplegia (n = 30) and cold crystalloid cardioplegia (n = 30) following the cross-clamping...
August 28, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Youlian Pan, Ziying Liu, Hélène Rocheleau, François Fauteux, Yunli Wang, Curt McCartney, Thérèse Ouellet
BACKGROUND: Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat in North America is caused mostly by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (Fg). Upon exposure to Fg, wheat initiates a series of cellular responses involving massive transcriptional reprogramming. In this study, we analyzed transcriptomics data of four wheat genotypes (Nyubai, Wuhan 1, HC374, and Shaw), at 2 and 4 days post inoculation (dpi) with Fg, using RNA-seq technology. RESULTS: A total of 37,772 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 28,961 from wheat and 8811 from the pathogen...
August 29, 2018: BMC Genomics
Zhenqi Su, Sujuan Jin, Dadong Zhang, Guihua Bai
Functional markers were developed based on the critical sequence deletion of TaHRC in the Fhb1 region and validated to be diagnostic in a worldwide wheat collection. Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease in wheat and barley worldwide. Growing FHB-resistant cultivars is an effective strategy to minimize FHB damage in wheat production. Fhb1 is a quantitative trait locus for FHB resistance with the largest effect on disease severity identified to date. With this study, we developed diagnostic DNA markers for Fhb1 by comparing the genomic sequences in Fhb1 region between near-isogenic lines contrasting in Fhb1 alleles and phenotypic effects of the markers...
August 22, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
T Jadczyk, K Baranski, M Syzdol, E Nabialek, W Wanha, R Kurzelowski, M Z Ratajczak, M Kucia, B Dolegowska, M Niewczas, J Zejda, W Wojakowski
Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery are associated with a pathogen-free inflammatory response (sterile inflammation). Complement cascade (CC) and bioactive sphingolipids (BS) are postulated to be involved in this process. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of CC cleavage fragments (C3a, C5a, and C5b9), sphingosine (SP), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and free hemoglobin (fHb) in AMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) undergoing CABG...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
Stephen Jones, Arifa Farooqi, John Foulkes, Debbie L Sparkes, Robert Linforth, Rumiana V Ray
Doubled haploid and elite wheat genotypes were ground inoculated in three field experiments and head spray inoculated in two glasshouse experiments, using mixed Fusarium and Microdochium species, to identify crop canopy and ear traits associated with Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease. In all experiments, flag leaf length and tiller number were consistently identified as the most significant canopy traits contributing to progression of FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum , and F. avenaceum . The influence of ear traits was greater for F...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Katarzyna Bilska, Sebastian Jurczak, Tomasz Kulik, Ewa Ropelewska, Jacek Olszewski, Maciej Żelechowski, Piotr Zapotoczny
Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereals is the major head disease negatively affecting grain production worldwide. In 2016 and 2017, serious outbreaks of FHB occurred in wheat crops in Poland. In this study, we characterized the diversity of Fusaria responsible for these epidemics using TaqMan assays. From a panel of 463 field isolates collected from wheat, four Fusarium species were identified. The predominant species were F. graminearum s.s. (81%) and, to a lesser extent, F. avenaceum (15%). The emergence of the 15ADON genotype was found ranging from 83% to 87% of the total trichothecene genotypes isolated in 2016 and 2017, respectively...
August 10, 2018: Toxins
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