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Qi Shen, Zhihui Wen, Yan Dong, Haigang Li, Yuxin Miao, Jianbo Shen
The adaptations of root growth and rhizosphere processes for soil phosphorus (P) acquisition have been investigated intensively in wheat ( Triticum aestivum ). However, only a few studies paid attention to these responses to shoot P status. This study aimed at investigating the responses of root morphology and P-mobilizing exudation to increasing shoot P concentration. A broad range of wheat shoot P concentrations (1.0-7.1 mg per g dry weight) was set up with 11 rates of P supply: 0-1200 mg P per kg soil. Root morphology and exudation parameters were measured after 37 days of plant growth...
October 2018: AoB Plants
Jian-Fang Bai, Yu-Kun Wang, Peng Wang, Shao-Hua Yuan, Jian-Gang Gao, Wen-Jing Duan, Na Wang, Feng-Ting Zhang, Wen-Jie Zhang, Meng-Ying Qin, Chang-Ping Zhao, Li-Ping Zhang
BACKGROUND: COI (CORONATINE INSENSITIVE), an F-box component of the Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein (SCFCOI1 ) ubiquitin E3 ligase, plays important roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. Recent studies have shown that COIs are involved in pollen fertility. In this study, we identified and characterized COI genes in the wheat genome and analyzed expression patterns under abiotic stress. RESULTS: A total of 18 COI candidate sequences for 8 members of COI gene family were isolated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L...
October 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
Junda Ren, Zhen Wang, Ziyi Du, Mingzhe Che, Yibin Zhang, Wei Quan, Yongji Wang, Xu Jiang, Zhongjun Zhang
A novel QTL for FHB resistance was mapped on wheat 7DL, being effective in multiple genetic backgrounds and environments, and comparable to Fhb1 in effect magnitude. Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the major fungal diseases affecting wheat production in many countries. The wheat line AQ24788-83 (AQ) possesses FHB resistance. The American wheat cultivar Luke is FHB susceptible. A Luke × AQ population consisting of 1652 advanced recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed, from which 272 RILs were randomly sampled and used to construct a linkage map...
October 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Johannes P Deppe, Ritta Rabbat, Stefan Hörtensteiner, Beat Keller, Enrico Martinoia, Rosa L Lopéz-Marqués
Phospholipids (PLs) are emerging as important factors that initiate signal transduction cascades at the plasma membrane. Their distribution within biological membranes is tightly regulated e.g. by ATP-binding cassette transporters, which preferably translocate PLs from the cytoplasmic to the exoplasmic membrane leaflet and are therefore called PL-floppases. Here we demonstrate that a plant ABC transporter, Lr34 from wheat (Triticum aestivum), is involved in plasma membrane remodeling characterized by an intracellular accumulation of phosphatidic acid and enhanced outward translocation of phosphatidylserine...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
José Madrid-Espinoza, Nidia Brunel-Saldias, Fernando P Guerra, Adelina Gutiérrez, Alejandro Del Pozo
Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane proteins essential for controlling the flow of water and other molecules required for development and stress tolerance in plants, including important crop species such as wheat ( Triticum aestivum ). In this study, we utilized a genomic approach for analyzing the information about AQPs available in public databases to characterize their structure and function. Furthermore, we validated the expression of a suite of AQP genes, at the transcriptional level, including accessions with contrasting responses to drought, different organs and water stress levels...
October 15, 2018: Genes
Maciej Majka, Albrecht Serfling, Paweł Czembor, Aurelia Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, Michał Tomasz Kwiatek, Frank Ordon, Halina Wiśniewska
Leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks belongs to the most important fungal pathogens of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and triticale (× Triticosecale ). Effective resistance to leaf rust is both, cost-effective and environmentally safe. Many wild Aegilops species carry unknown resistances against fungal diseases and are characterized by a high genetic variability. The main goal of this work was to examine the resistance of ( Aegilops tauschii × Secale cereale ) × Triticosecale hybrids to leaf rust in inoculation tests with different races of P ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Haiyan Hu, Jie He, Junjie Zhao, Xingqi Ou, Hongmin Li, Zhengang Ru
Soil acidification is one of major problems limiting crop growth and especially becoming increasingly serious in China owing to excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer. Only the STOP1 of Arabidopsis was identified clearly sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity and the molecular mechanism for proton toxicity tolerance of plants is still poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptomic change in plants under the low pH stress. The low pH as a single factor was employed to induce the response of the wheat seedling roots...
November 2018: Genes & Genomics
Mary E Ferguson, Kristopher L Giles, Norman C Elliott, Mark E Payton, Tom A Royer
Winter canola Brassica napus L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) was introduced to U.S. Southern Great Plains (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas) growers to manage some difficult-to-control grassy weeds in winter wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). Two braconid parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (M'Intosh) and Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are active in this cropping landscape. Both wasps move between crops but D. rapae has a limited ability to develop in the main wheat aphid hosts, so L...
October 12, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Milena Rusin, Janina Gospodarek, Gabriela Barczyk, Aleksandra Nadgórska-Socha
Winter common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were cultivated on petroleum products contaminated soils with and without using biopreparation ZB-01. We determined the impact of soil contamination with petrol, diesel fuel and engine oil on selected antioxidant enzymes and the levels of antioxidants in the leaves of winter wheat. The impact of petroleum products on selected morphological characteristics of the plants, levels of nutrients and heavy metals was also assessed. Winter wheat was relatively resistant to soil contamination with petroleum products, and did not show a significant impact on the morphological characteristics of the plants...
October 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Ricky J Milne, Katherine E Dibley, Wendelin Heribert Schnippenkoetter, Martin Mascher, Andy Cw Lui, Lanxiang Wang, Clive Lo, Anthony R Ashton, Peter R Ryan, Evans Lagudah
Fungal pathogens are a major constraint to global crop production; hence, plant genes encoding pathogen resistance are important tools for combating disease. A few resistance genes identified to date provide partial, durable resistance to multiple pathogens and the wheat (Triticum aestivum) Lr67 hexose transporter variant (Lr67res) fits into this category. Two amino acids differ between the wild-type and resistant alleles - G144R and V387L. Exome sequence data from 267 barley (Hordeum vulgare) landraces and wild accessions was screened and neither of the Lr67res mutations was detected...
October 10, 2018: Plant Physiology
Norman Philipp, Heiko Weichert, Utkarsh Bohra, Winfriede Weschke, Albert Wilhelm Schulthess, Hans Weber
Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) populations, i.e. 180 genetic resources and 210 elite varieties, were compared in a field trial to analyse how grain number and grain yield distribution along the spike changed during the breeding process and how this associates to yield-related traits. Elites showed in average 38% more yield compared to resources. This breeding improvement mainly derived from an increase in grains and yield per spike in addition to grains and yield per spikelet. These increments corresponded to 19, 23, 21 and 25%, respectively...
2018: PloS One
Chanchal Sharma, Santosh Kumar, Gautam Saripalli, Neelu Jain, Saurabh Raghuvanshi, J B Sharma, K V Prabhu, P K Sharma, H S Balyan, P K Gupta
Development of leaf rust-resistant cultivars is a priority during wheat breeding, since leaf rust causes major losses in yield. Resistance against leaf rust due to Lr genes is partly controlled by epigenetic modifications including histone acetylation that is known to respond to biotic/abiotic stresses. In the present study, enrichment of H3K4ac and H3K9ac in promoters of six defense responsive genes (N-acetyltransferase, WRKY 40, WRKY 70, ASR1, Peroxidase 12 and Sarcosine oxidase) was compared with their expression in a pair of near-isogenic lines (NILs) for the gene Lr28 following inoculation with leaf rust pathotype '77-5'; ChIP-qPCR was used for this purpose...
October 8, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Junmin Zhao, Zhiwen Zhai, Yanan Li, Shuaifeng Geng, Gaoyuan Song, Jiantao Guan, Meiling Jia, Fang Wang, Guoliang Sun, Nan Feng, Xingchen Kong, Liang Chen, Long Mao, Aili Li
The TCP family genes are plant-specific transcription factors and play important roles in plant development. TCPs have been evolutionarily and functionally studied in several plants. Although common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) is a major staple crop worldwide, no systematic analysis of TCPs in this important crop has been conducted. Here, we performed a genome-wide survey in wheat and found 66 TCP genes that belonged to 22 homoeologous groups. We then mapped these genes on wheat chromosomes and found that several TCP genes were duplicated in wheat including the ortholog of the maize TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ian R Willick, Lawrence V Gusta, D Brian Fowler, Karen K Tanino
Meaningful improvements in winter cereal cold hardiness requires a complete model of freezing behaviour in the critical crown organ. Magnetic resonance microimaging diffusion weighted experiments provided evidence that cold-acclimation decreased water content and mobility in the vascular transition zone (VTZ) and the intermediate zone in rye (Secale cereale L. Hazlet) compared to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Norstar). Differential thermal analysis, ice nucleation and localization studies identified three distinct exothermic events...
October 5, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Mehdi Cherkaoui, Audrey Geairon, Virginie Lollier, Hélène San Clemente, Colette Larré, Hélène Rogniaux, Elisabeth Jamet, Fabienne Guillon, Mathilde Francin-Allami
The remodeling of cell wall polysaccharides is controlled by cell wall proteins (CWPs) during the development of wheat grain. This work describes for the first time the cell wall proteomes of the endosperm and outer layers of the wheat developing grain, which have distinct physiological functions and technological uses. Altogether, 636 non-redundant predicted CWPs were identified with 337 proteins in the endosperm and 594 proteins in the outer layers, among which 295 proteins were present in both tissues, suggesting both common and tissue specific remodeling activities...
October 4, 2018: Proteomics
Ekaterina Shishatskaya, Natalia Menzyanova, Natalia Zhila, Svetlana Prudnikova, Tatiana Volova, Sabu Thomas
The study investigates toxic effects of the fungicide tebuconazole (TEB) on Fusarium-infected wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants based on the morphological characteristics of root apices and changes in the integrated parameters of redox homeostasis, including the contents of free proline and products of peroxidation of proteins (carbonylated proteins, CP) and lipids (malondialdehyde, MDA) in roots. In two-day-old wheat sprouts infected by Fusarium graminearum, the levels of proline, CP, and border cells of root apices are higher than in roots of uninfected sprouts by a factor of 1...
September 21, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Rhian M Howells, Melanie Craze, Sarah Bowden, Emma J Wallington
BACKGROUND: The use of CRISPR/Cas9 systems could prove to be a valuable tool in crop research, providing the ability to fully knockout gene function in complex genomes or to precisely adjust gene function by knockout of individual alleles. RESULTS: We compare gene editing in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) with diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare), using a combination of single genome and tri-genome targeting. High efficiency gene editing, 11-17% for single genome targeted guides and 5% for tri-genome targeted guides, was achieved in wheat using stable Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
October 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
B O Ajiboye, H O B Oloyede, M O Salawu
The antidiabetic activity of Triticum aestivum seed-based diet on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Forty-eight male and female albino rats of four groups were used for this study. Rats were sacrificed on day 28 and organs of interest were excised. Triticum aestivum seed-based diet significantly (p < .05) reversed the levels of fasting blood glucose, albumin, globulin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, Na+ , and K+ . In addition, diabetic rats fed Triticum aestivum seed-based diet had significantly (p < ...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
Mengjie Xia, Zhujun Chen, Jingbo Gao, Zhanjun Liu, Huixia Li, Jianbin Zhou
Summer fallow is very common in dryland agriculture to conserve rainwater and replenish soil fertility. However, bare land and intensive rainfall during summer fallow might result in a potential risk of N loss. We used a 15 N-labelling method to study the loss of residual N fertilizer during summer fallow and its use by next wheat in the Loess Plateau. Our study included three treatments: without the addition of N (N0 W0 ), with the addition of 50 kg ha-1  N (NW0 ) and with the addition of 50 kg ha-1  N plus 35% more water (NW)...
October 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiancan Zhu, Qingjun Cao, Luying Sun, Xiaoqin Yang, Wenying Yang, Hua Zhang
Stomata play a critical role in the regulation of gas exchange between the interior of the leaf and the exterior environment and are affected by environmental and endogenous stimuli. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis , on the stomatal behavior of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) plants under combination with elevated CO2 and NaCl stress. Wheat seedlings were exposed to ambient (400 ppm) or elevated (700 ppm) CO2 concentrations and 0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 dry soil NaCl treatments for 10 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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