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Electronic AND nose

Weiqing Guo, Haohui Kong, Junzhang Wu, Feng Gan
The aim of this study is to improve the discrimination performance of electronic noses by introducing a new method for measuring the similarity of the signals obtained from the electronic nose. We constructed abstract odor factor maps (AOFMs) as the characteristic maps of odor samples by decomposition of three-way signal data array of an electronic nose. A similarity measure for two-way data was introduced to evaluate the similarities and differences of AOFMs from different samples. The method was assessed by three types of pipe and powder tobacco samples...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Mourad F Rezk, Burkhard Pieper
The article "To See or NOsee: The Debate on the Nocebo Effect and Optimizing the Use of Biosimilars", written by Mourad F. Rezk and Burkhard Pieper was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on June 5, 2018 without open access.
August 10, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Alphus Dan Wilson
Conventional methods utilized for clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have employed invasive medical procedures that cause stress, anxiety and pain to patients. These methods are often expensive, time-consuming, and require sophisticated chemical-analysis instruments and advanced modeling procedures to achieve diagnostic interpretations. This paper reviews recent applications of simpler, electronic-nose (e-nose) devices for the noninvasive early diagnosis of a wide range of GI diseases by collective analysis of headspace volatile organic compound (VOC)-metabolites from clinical samples to produce disease-specific aroma signatures (VOC profiles)...
August 9, 2018: Sensors
Ana Carolina Pádua, Susana Palma, Jonas Gruber, Hugo Gamboa, Ana Cecília Roque
Electronic noses (E-noses) are devices capable of detecting and identifying Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in a simple and fast method. In this work, we present the development process of an opto-electronic device based on sensing films that have unique stimuli-responsive properties, altering their optical and electrical properties, when interacting with VOCs. This interaction results in optical and electrical signals that can be collected, and further processed and analysed. Two versions of the device were designed and assembled...
2018: Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, International Joint Conference, BIOSTEC ... Revised Selected Papers. BIOSTEC (Conference), Author
Hannele Koivula-Tynnilä, Anna Axelin, Helena Leino-Kilpi
PURPOSE: To describe patients' perceptions of informational privacy and factors promoting it in the recovery room. DESIGN: A descriptive semistructured qualitative interview study. METHODS: The study was conducted in 2013, and the data were analyzed with inductive content analysis. Adult surgical recovery room patients (n = 17) were recruited with purposive sampling at the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a university hospital in Finland...
August 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Silvano Dragonieri, Vitaliano N Quaranta, Pierluigi Carratu, Teresa Ranieri, Onofrio Resta
AIM: To assess whether an e-nose could discriminate between subjects affected by allergic rhinitis with and without concomitant extrinsic asthma, as well as from healthy controls, in terms of exhaled VOC-profile. METHODS: 14 patients with Extrinsic Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis (AAR), 14 patients with Allergic Rhinitis without asthma (AR) and 14 healthy controls (HC) participated in a cross-sectional study. Exhaled breath was collected by a standardized method and sampled by an e-nose (Cyranose 320)...
August 3, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Andrzej Bieganowski, Grzegorz Józefaciuk, Lidia Bandura, Łukasz Guz, Grzegorz Łagód, Wojciech Franus
The possibility of detecting low levels of soil pollution by petroleum fuel using an electronic nose (e-nose) was studied. An attempt to distinguish between pollution caused by petrol and diesel oil, and its relation to the time elapsed since the pollution event was simultaneously performed. Ten arable soils, belonging to various soil groups from the World Reference Base (WRB), were investigated. The measurements were performed on soils that were moistened to field capacity, polluted separately with both hydrocarbons, and then allowed to dry slowly over a period of 180 days...
July 30, 2018: Sensors
Yonathan Asikin, Kusumiyati, Takeshi Shikanai, Koji Wada
Dogfruit ( Pithecellobium jiringa ) and stink bean ( Parkia speciosa ) are two typical smelly legumes from Southeast Asia that are widely used in the cuisines of this region. Headspace/gas chromatography/flame ionization detection analysis and mass spectrometry (MS)-based electronic nose techniques were applied to monitor ripening changes in the volatile flavor profiles of dogfruit and stink bean. Compositional analysis showed that the ripening process greatly influenced the composition and content of the volatile aroma profiles of these two smelly food materials, particularly their alcohol, aldehyde, and sulfur components...
January 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Anurag Gupta, T Sonamani Singh, R D S Yadava
The paper presents a simulation study of breath analysis based on theoretical models of MEMS cantilever sensor array. The purpose of this study is to suggest a methodology for development of MEMS electronic nose for monitoring disease specific volatiles in the exhaled breath. The oxidative stress and diabetes have been taken as prototype case studies for assessment of E-nose designs. The detection of ethane for general oxidative stress, isoprene for hypoxia and acetone for diabetes are considered for targeted detection...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Breath Research
Hong-Min Jeon, Je-Yeol Lee, Gu-Min Jeong, Sang-Il Choi
We propose a method to reconstruct damaged data based on statistical learning during data acquisition. In the process of measuring the data using a sensor, the damage of the data caused by the defect of the sensor or the environmental factor greatly degrades the performance of data classification. Instead of the traditional PCA based on L2-norm, the PCA features were extracted based on L1-norm and updated by iteratively reweighted fitting using the generalized objective function to obtain robust features for the outlier data...
2018: PloS One
Nuno I P Valente, Alisa Rudnitskaya, João A B P Oliveira, M Teresa S R Gomes, Elvira M M Gaspar
Cheese prepared from whole milk, raw and pasteurized, were analysed by an electronic nose based on piezoelectric quartz crystals and an electronic tongue based on potentiometric sensors, immediately after their preparation and along ripening (after 7 and 21 days). Whey was also analysed by the potentiometric electronic tongue. Results obtained by the electronic nose and tongue were found to be complementary, with the electronic nose being more sensitive to differences in the milk and the electronic tongue being more sensitive to milk pasteurization...
July 25, 2018: Sensors
Jussi Virtanen, Lauri Hokkinen, Markus Karjalainen, Anton Kontunen, Risto Vuento, Jura Numminen, Markus Rautiainen, Niku Oksala, Antti Roine, Ilkka Kivekäs
Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a sudden, symptomatic inflammation of the nasal and paranasal mucosa. It is usually caused by respiratory virus infection, but bacteria complicate for a small number of ARS patients. The differential diagnostics between viral and bacterial pathogens is difficult and currently no rapid methodology exists, so antibiotics are overprescribed. The electronic nose (eNose) has shown the ability to detect diseases from gas mixtures. Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is a next-generation device that can separate ions based on their different mobility in high and low electric fields...
July 24, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Niyaz Ahmad, Rizwan Ahmad, Md Aftab Alam, Farhan Jalees Ahmad, Mohd Amir
AIM: To develop a nanoemulsion-nanoformulation in order to enhance brain bioavailability for Amiloride (Amilo) via intranasal (i.n.) drug delivery in the brain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Oleic Acid, Tween-20 and Carbitol were selected as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. For nanoemulsion preparation, an aqueous micro titration method followed by a high energy ultra-sonication method was used whereas three-factor three-level central composite design was employed to get the best formulation...
July 23, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Sophie Brenet, Aurelian John-Herpin, François-Xavier Gallat, Benjamin Musnier, Arnaud Buhot, Cyril Herrier, Tristan Rousselle, Thierry Livache, Yanxia Hou
Monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is an important issue, but difficult to achieve on a large scale and on the field using conventional analytical methods. Electronic noses (eNs), as promising alternatives, are still compromised by their performances due to the fact that most of them rely on a very limited number of sensors and use databases devoid of kinetic information. To narrow the performance gap between human and electronic noses, we developed a novel optoelectronic nose, which features a large sensor microarray that enables multiplexed monitoring of binding events in real-time with a temporal response...
August 1, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
J M Molina Aragonés, R Bausà Peris, R Carreras Valls, A Carrillo Castillo, F Fiblà Nicolau, E Gaynés Palou, J Guerrero Monge, J Inglés Torruella, J A López Muñoz, E Martinez Martínez-Carrasco, J Matllo Aguilar, J A Medina Lavela, M T Mestre Prad, P Peña García, S Rodriguez Vallecillos, G Tapias Oller, M Vilardell Ynaraja
The presence of formaldehyde at workplace remains significant. Exposure to it results in local irritation of the eye, nose and upper respiratory tract mucous membranes, and it has been chronically related to a higher risk of cancer development at the paranasal sinuses, naso-oropharynx and lungs. The aim of our work has been the updating of the bibliography and the categorization of the most up to date scientific evidence of formaldehyde effects on human body. Bibliographic search on the electronic database Medline / PubMed, restricted to the last 10 years through a combination of free and controlled language...
July 2018: Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales
C Henrique A Esteves, Bernardo A Iglesias, Takuji Ogawa, Koiti Araki, Lucélia Hoehne, Jonas Gruber
Three tobacco types (Burley, Flue Cured, and Oriental) and eight cigarette brands were unequivocally identified using an electronic nose formed by only three sensors based on a single novel conducting polymer ( PF-BTB ) doped with different porphyrins ( H 2 TPP , H 2 TPFP , and H 2 BTBOP ). The synthesis and characterization of the polymer are also discussed. Small changes in the porphyrin structure caused significant changes in the electrical conductance response patterns of the sensors upon exposure to complex chemical matrixes, representing a novel approach for tuning the selectivity of chemiresistive sensors for e-nose application...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Tengteng Wen, Dehan Luo, Jiafeng He, Kai Mei
Machine olfaction is a novel technology and has been developed for many years. The electronic nose with an array of gas sensors, a crucial application form of the machine olfaction, is capable of sensing not only odorous compounds, but also odorless chemicals. Because of its fast response, mobility and easy of use, the electronic nose has been applied to scientific and commercial uses such as environment monitoring and food processing inspection. Additionally, odor characterization and reproduction are the two novel parts of machine olfaction, which extend the field of machine olfaction...
July 18, 2018: Sensors
Tesfalem Geremariam Welearegay, Mohamed Fethi Diouani, Lars Österlund, Sebastian Borys, Samira Khaled, Hanen Smadhi, Florina Ionescu, Meriam Bouchekoua, Dorsaf Aloui, Dhafer Laouini, Umut Cindemir, Radu Ionescu
Background: Human echinococcosis is a neglected infectious disease affecting more than one million people globally. Its diagnosis is expensive and difficult because of lack of adequate resources in low-resource locations, where most cases occur. Methods: A group of volunteers diagnosed with the two main types of echinococcosis and corresponding control groups were recruited in hospitals from Tunisia (32 patients with cystic echinococcosis and 43 controls) and Poland (16 patients with alveolar echinococcosis and 8 controls)...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Luis Chávez Reyes, César Elgueta López, Ana Briceño Barrios, Carlos Garrido Soto, Cristian Ibáñez, Fabiola Jamett Díaz
When a firearm is discharged, a gaseous cloud containing characteristic particles of gunshot residue (GSR) are released forward and behind at high speed, depositing on clothing, hands, face and hair, as well as being inhaled and therefore retained in the nostrils of the person who fired the weapon. GSRs have characteristic sizes and morphologies and consist of a combination of lead, antimony and barium, as well as other elements. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) is a widely accepted technique for the analysis of these residues; however, little has been reported on samples taken from the nostrils of the suspect that discharged the shot...
June 28, 2018: Forensic Science International
Evan S Darwin, Erica R Thaler, Hadar A Lev-Tov
Chronic wounds are an enormous burden to society, costing billions of dollars annually in the US alone. Despite the extensive research into methods to heal chronic wounds, many remain unhealed for months to years. There is a need to focus on patient reported outcomes to improve quality of life in patients with non-healing wounds. Wound odor has a significant impact on patient quality of life; however, relatively little information is available on the management of wound odor. We review the current data available on wound odor and discuss the need for standardized objective measures of odor to improve research quality...
July 17, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
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