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Yvonne C M Staal, Jeroen Meijer, Remco J C van der Kris, Annamaria C de Bruijn, Anke Y Boersma, Eric R Gremmer, Edwin P Zwart, Piet K Beekhof, Wout Slob, Leo T M van der Ven
The EU-EuroMix project adopted the strategy of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for cumulative risk assessment, which limits the number of chemicals to consider in a mixture to those that induce a specific toxicological phenotype. These so-called cumulative assessment groups (CAGs) are refined at several levels, including the target organ and specific phenotype. Here, we explore the zebrafish embryo as a test model for quantitative evaluation in one such CAG, skeletal malformations, through exposure to test compounds 0-120 hpf and alcian blue cartilage staining at 120 hpf, focusing on the head skeleton...
October 4, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Darshna G Hirpara, H P Gajera
Protoplast fusion is an imperative tool to develop Trichoderma inter-fusants having desire traits through genetic manipulation. Study designed to develop diverse Trichoderma fusants for fungicide tolerance (Mancozeb, Thiram, Tebuconazole, and Carbendazim) and enhanced mycoparasitic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii sacc. The mycoparasitic T. virens NBAII Tvs12 and fungicide tolerant T. koningii MTCC 796 were utilized for protoplast fusion. The derived inter-fusants were subjected to diploidization using d-camphor in minimal media followed by successive three sub culturing onto potato dextrose agar to obtain 36 stable fusants...
September 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
C X Wang, S Niu, A R Jahejo, F J Jia, Z Li, N Zhang, G B Ning, D Zhang, H Q Li, H L Ma, W F Hao, W W Gao, S M Gao, J H Li, G L Li, F Yan, R K Gao, Y J Zhao, H C Chen, W X Tian
Thiram, a carbamate pesticide, is known to induce tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in broiler chickens. This study used a thiram-induced TD model to explore whether apoptosis-related genes were expressed in erythrocytes of broiler chickens and the impacts of thiram-induced TD and the recombinant GSTA3 protein in regulating these genes expression. In this study, mRNA and protein expression of six types of apoptosis-related genes (Bcl-2, Bax, Murine double minute MDM2, Bcl-2-associated athanogene BAG-1, BAG-3, STAT3) were identified in erythrocytes of broiler chickens by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, and we also found that thiram-induced TD induced the decreased expression of these antiapoptotic genes in the initial stage of TD and promoted their expression in TD recovery, which suggested that the expression of these apoptosis-related genes in erythrocytes is highly related to the development of TD...
August 23, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Hannah Dies, Maria Siampani, Carlos Escobedo, Aristides Docoslis
We present a method for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based detection of toxic contaminants in minimally processed liquid food products, through the use of a dendritic silver nanostructure, produced through electrokinetic assembly of nanoparticles from solution. The dendritic nanostructure is produced on the surface of a microelectrode chip, connected to an AC field with an imposed DC bias. We apply this chip for the detection of thiram, a toxic fruit pesticide, in apple juice, to a limit of detection of 115 ppb, with no sample preprocessing...
August 19, 2018: Sensors
István Hajdú, József Kardos, Balázs Major, Gabriella Fabó, Zsolt Lőrincz, Sándor Cseh, György Dormán
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) enzymes as potential drug targets maintain constant attention in the therapy of fibrosis, cancer and metastasis. In order to measure the inhibitory activity of small molecules on the LOX enzyme family members a fluorometric activity screening method was developed. During assay validation, previously reported non-selective small inhibitor molecules (BAPN, MCP-1, thiram, disulfiram) were investigated on all of the major LOX enzymes. We confirmed that MCP-1, thiram, disulfiram are in fact pan-inhibitors, while BAPN inhibits only LOX-like enzymes (preferably LOX-like-protein-2, LOXL2) in contrast to the previous reports...
October 1, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Wangyuan Yao, Mujahid Iqbal, Muhammad Waqas, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Aoyun Li, Yaoqin Shen, Jiakui Li
Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) is one of the important pesticides, which is extensively used in agriculture, but if it is combined with the cell membrane, then it causes membrane damage, bone morphogenic inactivation, and inhibited angiogenesis. Thiram has been considered a common cause of tibial dyschondrolplasia (TD) in various avian species, because it becomes the part of feed due to environmental contamination and its overuse in agriculture as pesticides or fungicide. However, there is no systematic study on the changes of the correlation indexes with toxic effect of the thiram in chickens...
October 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Fazul Nabi, Muhammad K Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Shahzad, Shucheng Huang, Zhaoqing Han, Khalid Mehmood, Nisar Ahmed, Bahram Chachar, Muhammad A Arain, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a bone defect of broilers and other poultry birds that disturbs growth plate and it causes lameness. Previously we evaluated differential expression of multiple genes involved in growth plate angiogenesis and reported the safety and efficacious of medicinal plant root extracted for controlling TD. In this study, clinical and protective effect of an antibiotic Novobiocin (Hsp90 inhibitor) and expression of Hsp90 and proteoglycan aggrecan was examined. The chicks were divided into three groups; Control, thiram-induced TD, and Novobiocin injected TD...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jia Zhu, Guanzhou Lin, Meizhang Wu, Zhuojie Chen, Peimin Lu, Wengang Wu
Technology transfer from laboratory into practical application needs to meet the demands of economic viability and operational simplicity. This paper reports a simple and convenient strategy to fabricate large-scale and ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. In this strategy, no toxic chemicals or sophisticated instruments are required to fabricate the SERS substrates. On one hand, Ag nanoparticles (NPs) with relatively uniform size were synthesized using the modified Tollens method, which employs an ultra-low concentration of Ag⁺ and excessive amounts of glucose as a reducing agent...
July 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Dongzhen Chen, Xiaodong Zhu, Jian Huang, Gen Wang, Yue Zhao, Feng Chen, Jing Wei, Zhongxiao Song, Yongxi Zhao
Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a promising analysis technique for detecting various analytes in complex samples due to its unique vibrational fingerprints and high signal enhancement. However, impurity interference and substrate unreliability are direct suppression factors for practical application. Herein, we synthesize polydopamine@gold (PDA@Au) nanowaxberry, where Au nanoparticles are deposited on the surface of PDA sphere with high density and uniformity. Seed-mediated synthesis is used for fabrication of nanowaxberry...
August 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Mujahid Iqbal, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Aoyun Li, Xiong Jiang, Yaping Wang, Jialu Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Wangyuan Yao, Shijin Yang, Jiakui Li
Background: Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a skeletal disease of fast growing chicken and other avian species. It is characterized by an avascular and non-mineralized growth plate, which leads to a deformed tibial bone and lameness. Unfortunately, this disease is not only responsible for causing huge economic losses but also raises animal welfare concerns. Icariin is a flavonoid, which is isolated from Epimedium pubescens herb, and it has been used to cure different diseases including bone fractures and osteoporosis...
2018: Biological Procedures Online
Jian-Jun Li, Chen Wu, Jing Zhao, Guo-Jun Weng, Jian Zhu, Jun-Wu Zhao
The super-multibranched AuAg bimetallic nanostructures are synthesized due to the aggregation of Au nanostars in the process of silver coating. The super-multibranched bimetallic nanostructures with different silver coating thickness are obtained by changing the concentration of silver nitrate and ascorbic acid. It has been found that the formation of these nanostructures is due to the stacking of several nanostars during the process of silver coating. By comparing the silver coating process of gold nanostars with different branch lengths, we found that the nanostars with longish branches are easy to aggregate and form the super-multibranched nanostructures in the process of silver coating...
November 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mónika Vörös, László Manczinger, László Kredics, András Szekeres, Kadaikunnan Shine, Naiyf S Alharbi, Jamal M Khaled, Csaba Vágvölgyi
Metal- and pesticide-tolerant biocontrol agents are preferred in integrated pest management, as such strains can be applied in combination with different pesticides. The Bacillus velezensis strain SZMC 6161J proved to be sensitive to copper, nickel, zinc, and cadmium, while manganese elevated its growth. At concentrations higher than 1 mmol L-1 , zinc and iron inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of this strain. In addition, trypsin-like protease and palmitoyl esterase activities were insensitive to all tested heavy metals in the applied concentration range...
June 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Nan Yang, Ting-Ting You, Yu-Kun Gao, Chen-Meng Zhang, Peng-Gang Yin
Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been widely used in detection of food safety due to the nondestructive examination property. Here, we reported a flexible SERS film based on a polymer-immobilized gold nanorod polymer metafilm. Polystyrene-polyisoprene-polystyrene (SIS), a transparent and flexible, along with having excellent elasticity, polymer, was chosen as the main support of gold nanorods. A simple phase transfer progress was adopted to mix the gold nanorods with the polymer, which can further be used in most water-insoluble polymers...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Xiaotian Wang, Guanshui Ma, Anran Li, Jian Yu, Zhao Yang, Jie Lin, Ang Li, Xiaodong Han, Lin Guo
Engineering the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties is a critical issue for improving device performance in the fields of plasmonics, nanophotonics, optoelectronics, and electrochemistry. Here, we demonstrated a programmable manipulation of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect using composition-adjustable Ag-Au substitutional alloy microcages (SAMCs) through a facile NaBH4 -cooperative galvanic replacement reaction. The SPR frequency of the Ag-Au SAMCs can be continuously and exquisitely manipulated without resonance damping or broadening via accurate adjustment of the elemental composition distribution at the perfect homogeneity on the atomic-level...
April 28, 2018: Chemical Science
Yingcheng Wang, Yuanhao Jin, Xiaoyang Xiao, Tianfu Zhang, Haitao Yang, Yudan Zhao, Jiaping Wang, Kaili Jiang, Shoushan Fan, Qunqing Li
A flexible and transparent film assembled from the cross-nanoporous structures of Au on PET (CNS of Au@PET) is developed as a versatile and effective SERS substrate for rapid, on-site trace analysis with high sensitivity. The fabrication of the CNS of Au can be achieved on a large scale at low cost by employing an etching process with super-aligned carbon nanotubes as a mask, followed by metal deposition. A strongly enhanced Raman signal with good uniformity can be obtained, which is attributed to the excitation of "hot spots" around the metal nanogaps and sharp edges...
August 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Nan Yang, Ting-Ting You, Yu-Kun Gao, Chen-Meng Zhang, Peng-Gang Yin
Flexible substrates have been proposed for daily-life applications in SERS detection due to the prominent sample collection properties such as they can be wrapped around non-planar object surface. Combining the noble metals with polymers, flexible SERS substrates could be fabricated with advantages of light weight, transparency and high SERS sensitivity. Herein, we prepare a gold nanorods (AuNRs)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film as flexible SERS substrate by self-assembling a uniformly AuNRs array layer on PMMA template...
September 5, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Bingjun Han, Ya Li, Bing Qian, Yan He, Lixu Peng, Huamei Yu
A novel detector for liquid chromatography (LC) for the determination of dithiocarbamate (DTC) fungicides is presented with a miniaturized dielectric barrier discharge-microplasma molecular emission spectrometer and an online microwave-assisted hydrolysis reactor. DTCs in the sample/standard solutions together with SnCl2 were pumped to the reactor to be converted to CS2 with high efficiency, which was then separated from the liquid phase and transformed for the detection of the specific molecular emission at 257...
June 11, 2018: Analyst
Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Wangyuan Yao, Mujahid Iqbal, Kun Li, Xiaole Tong, Lei Wang, Meng Wang, Lihong Zhang, Fazul Nabi, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Jiakui Li
Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) is a disease of rapid growing chickens that occurs in many avian species; it is characterized by nonvascular and nonmineralized growth plates, along with tibia bone deformation and lameness. Icariin is widely used to treat bone diseases in humans, but no report is available regarding the effectiveness of icariin against avian TD. Therefore, this study was designed to determine its effect against TD. For this purpose, a total of 180 broiler chicks were distributed into three groups including control, TD, and icariin group...
2018: BioMed Research International
Fei Geng, Huaping Zhao, Qun Fu, Yan Mi, Likun Miao, Wei Li, Yulian Dong, Minghong Wu, Yong Lei
In comparison to conventional spectroscopic techniques based on chromatography, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) enables the rapid identification and detection of trace pesticide residues present in trace amounts in the environment and foods. Herein, a facile approach to fabricate unique gold nanochestnuts (GNCs) as an ultra-sensitive SERS substrate for detecting trace pesticide residues has been developed based on anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The GNCs are synthesized through the galvanic replacement of Ag on the top of Ni nanorod arrays...
July 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Catiucia S Vareli, Ionara R Pizzutti, Luciano Gebler, Carmem D Cardoso, Daniela S H Gai, Marlos E Z Fontana
In order to evaluate the efficiency of biobeds on DTC degradation, the aim of this study was to apply, optimize and validate a method to determine dithiocarbamate (mancozeb) in biobeds using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The DTC pesticide mancozeb was hydrolysed in a tin (II) chloride solution at 1.5% in HCl (4 mol L-1 ), during 1 h in a water bath at 80 °C, and the CS2 formed was extracted in isooctane. After cooling, 1 mL of the organic layer was transferred to an auto sampler vial and analyzed by GC-MS...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
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