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radio oncology

Judith Gebauer, Claire Higham, Thorsten Langer, Christian Denzer, Georg Brabant
The number of patients surviving five or more years after initial cancer diagnosis has significantly increased over the last decades due to considerable improvements in the treatment of many cancer entities. A negative consequence of this is the emergence of long-term sequelae and endocrine disorders account for a high proportion of these. These late effects can occur decades after cancer treatment and affect up to 50% of childhood cancer survivors. Multiple predisposing factors for endocrine late effects have been identified; including radiation, gender and age at the time of diagnosis...
November 23, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Elyse Colard, Sarkis Delcourt, Laetitia Padovani, Sébastien Thureau, Arthur Dumouchel, Pierrick Gouel, Justine Lequesne, Bardia Farman Ara, Pierre Vera, David Taïeb, Isabelle Gardin, Dominique Barbolosi, Sébastien Hapdey
BACKGROUND: In FDG-PET, SUV images are hampered by large potential biases. Our aim was to develop an alternative method (ParaPET) to generate 3D kinetic parametric FDG-PET images easy to perform in clinical oncology. METHODS: The key points of our method are the use of a new error model of PET measurement extracted from a late dynamic PET acquisition of 15 min, centered over the lesion and an image-derived input function (IDIF). The 15-min acquisition is reconstructed to obtain five images of FDG mean activity concentration and images of its variance to model errors of PET measurement...
November 15, 2018: EJNMMI Research
Ganiou Assani, Yudi Xiong, Fuxiang Zhou, Yunfeng Zhou
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Many strategies of cancer treatment such as radiotherapy which plays a key role in cancer treatment are developed and used nowadays. However, the side effects post-cancer radiotherapy and cancer radioresistance are two major causes of the limitation of cancer radiotherapy effectiveness in the cancer patients. Moreover, reduction of the limitation of cancer radiotherapy effectiveness by reducing the side effects post-cancer radiotherapy and cancer radioresistance is the aim of several radiotherapy-oncologic teams...
October 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Sandy Napel, Wei Mu, Bruna V Jardim-Perassi, Hugo J W L Aerts, Robert J Gillies
Although cancer often is referred to as "a disease of the genes," it is indisputable that the (epi)genetic properties of individual cancer cells are highly variable, even within the same tumor. Hence, preexisting resistant clones will emerge and proliferate after therapeutic selection that targets sensitive clones. Herein, the authors propose that quantitative image analytics, known as "radiomics," can be used to quantify and characterize this heterogeneity. Virtually every patient with cancer is imaged radiologically...
November 1, 2018: Cancer
Brian W Pogue, Brian C Wilson
X-ray and optical technologies are the two central pillars for human imaging and therapy. The strengths of x-rays are deep tissue penetration, effective cytotoxicity, and the ability to image with robust projection and computed-tomography methods. The major limitations of x-ray use are the lack of molecular specificity and the carcinogenic risk. In comparison, optical interactions with tissue are strongly scatter dominated, leading to limited tissue penetration, making imaging and therapy largely restricted to superficial or endoscopically directed tissues...
October 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Jacob Nersting, Stine Nygaard Nielsen, Kathrine Grell, Maria Paerregaard, Jonas Abrahamsson, Bendik Lund, Olafur Gisli Jonsson, Kaie Pruunsild, Goda Vaitkeviciene, Jukka Kanerva, Kjeld Schmiegelow
PURPOSE: Methotrexate polyglutamates (MTXpg) facilitate incorporation of thioguanine nucleotides into DNA (DNA-TG, the primary cytotoxic thiopurine metabolite and outcome determinant in MTX/6-mercaptopurine treatment of childhood ALL). We hypothesized that mapping erythrocyte levels of MTXpg with 1-6 glutamates and their associations with DNA-TG formation would facilitate future guidelines for maintenance therapy dosing. METHODS AND RESULTS: Summed MTX with 1-6 glutamates resolved by LCMS [median (interquartile): 5...
October 15, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Vittoria Espeli, Stephanie Vergotte, Pierre-Yves Dietrich, Claude Pichard, Marco Siano
To compare safety and effectiveness of prolonged (>28 days) versus short duration (≤28 days) use of nasogastric tube for enteral nutrition and weight loss prevention during curative radiotherapy with or without concurrent chemotherapy or cetuximab for head and neck cancer patients. We performed a retrospective study and database review of all patients at our center, treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer receiving enteral nutrition by nasogastric tube. Type of treatment, weight and body mass index changes, and related complications (gastroesophageal reflux, pneumonia, ulcer, feeding tube obstruction, or dislocation) were documented...
October 1, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Albert Comelli, Alessandro Stefano, Giorgio Russo, Maria Gabriella Sabini, Massimo Ippolito, Samuel Bignardi, Giovanni Petrucci, Anthony Yezzi
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging has an enormous potential to improve radiation therapy treatment planning offering complementary functional information with respect to other anatomical imaging approaches. The aim of this study is to develop an operator independent, reliable, and clinically feasible system for biological tumour volume delineation from PET images. Under this design hypothesis, we combine several known approaches in an original way to deploy a system with a high level of automation...
September 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Carmelo Saraniti, Riccardo Speciale, Salvatore Gallina, Pietro Salvago
INTRODUCTION: The treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma needs accurate risk stratification, in order to choose the most suitable therapy. The prognostic significance of resection margin is still highly debated, considering the contradictory results obtained in several studies regarding the survival rate of patients with a positive resection margin. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic role of resection margin in terms of survival and risk of recurrence of primary tumour through survival analysis...
June 2, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Johannes Kufeldt, Marén Viehrig, Daniela Schweikert, Andreas Fritsche, Michael Bamberg, Michael Adolph
PURPOSE: The nutritional status of inpatients influences the therapeutic outcome. Malnutrition is a common comorbidity in oncological patients. Both radio- and radiochemotherapy may contribute to the additional deterioration of the nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of specialized treatment of malnutrition as a clinical routine. METHODS: The nutritional status of inpatients was assessed by the Nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002) on the day of admission to the University Department of Radiation Oncology...
November 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
Daniel Laurenţiu Pop, Roxana Folescu, Bogdan Nicolae Deleanu, Mihaela Iacob, Dinu Vermeşan, Radu Prejbeanu, Daniel Claudiu Maliţa, Horia George Hărăguş, Bogdan Cătălin Ciupe, Carmen Lăcrămioara Zamfir, Gheorghe Nodiţi
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant soft tissue tumor representing 5-10% of all soft tissue sarcomas. Most synovial sarcomas are found at the extremities, especially in the lower limbs. A 28-year-old female presented at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, "Dr. Pius Brînzeu" Clinical Hospital, Timişoara, Romania, for evaluation of a mass located in the anterior region of the elbow. Imagistic, histological and immunohistochemically evaluations established the diagnosis of monophasic spindle cell SS G2...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Piotr Biega, Grzegorz Guzik, Tomasz Pitera
BACKGROUND: Cancer metastases to the upper section of the cervical spine are found in a low percentage of patients. Their conservative treatment consists in radio- and chemotherapy as well as immobilisation in an orthopaedic collar. Surgery is the treatment of choice in patients with lesions causing spinal instability or compressing neural structures. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of surgical treatment conducted in patients with metastases located in the upper section of the cervical spine...
February 27, 2018: Ortopedia, Traumatologia, Rehabilitacja
A J Teske, M Linschoten, J A M Kamphuis, W R Naaktgeboren, T Leiner, E van der Wall, J Kuball, A van Rhenen, P A Doevendans, M J Cramer, F W Asselbergs
Recent advances in the early detection and treatment of cancer have led to increasing numbers of cancer survivors worldwide. Nonetheless, despite major improvements in the outcome of these patients, long-term side effects of radio- and chemotherapy affect both patient survival and quality of life, independent of the oncological prognosis. Chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction is one of the most notorious short-term side effects of anticancer treatment, occurring in ~10% of patients. Progression to overt heart failure carries a strikingly poor prognosis with a 2-year mortality rate of 60%...
November 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
Dieter Henrik Heiland, Gerrit Haaker, Ralf Watzlawick, Daniel Delev, Waseem Masalha, Pamela Franco, Marcia Machein, Ori Staszewski, Oliver Oelhke, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Oliver Schnell
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults with peak incidence in patients older than 65 years. These patients are mostly underrepresented in clinical trials and often undertreated due to concomitant diseases. Recently, different therapeutic approaches for elderly patients with GBM were discussed. To date, there is no defined standard treatment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional and oncological outcome in surgical treatment of elderly patients...
November 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Mariana Campos-da-Paz, Jose Garrofe Dorea, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino, Zulmira Guerrero Marques Lacava, Maria de Fatima Menezes Almeida Santos
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. High CEA levels are specifically associated with CRC progression and liver metastasis. Due to its differential expression between cancer and healthy tissues, and between positive and negative lymph nodes CEA has been explored for new cancer therapy and diagnosis approaches. We revised the literature on CEA role in CRC as well as the patents relating to CEA targeting for cancer management...
July 30, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Richard Mair, Alan Wright, Susana Ros, De-En Hu, Thomas C Booth, Felix Kreis, Jyotsna Rao, Colin Watts, Kevin M Brindle
13C magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate metabolism has been used in oncology to detect disease, investigate disease progression, and monitor response to treatment with a view to guiding treatment in individual patients. This technique has translated to the clinic with initial studies in prostate cancer. Here we use the technique to investigate its potential uses in patients with glioblastoma (GB). We assessed the metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate in an orthotopically implanted cell line model (U87) of GB and in patient-derived tumors, where these were produced by orthotopic implantation of cells derived from different patients...
July 27, 2018: Cancer Research
Clément Dupont, Maximilien Vermandel, Henri-Arthur Leroy, Mathilde Quidet, Fabienne Lecomte, Nadira Delhem, Serge Mordon, Nicolas Reyns
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by marked proliferation, major infiltration, and poor prognosis. Despite current treatments, including surgery, radiation oncology, and chemotherapy, the overall median survival is 15 mo and the progression-free survival is 7 to 8 mo. Because of systematic relapse of the tumor, the improvement of local control remains an issue. In this context, photodynamic therapy (PDT) may offer a new treatment modality for GBM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of intraoperative PDT early after surgical resection of GBM without unacceptable and unexpected toxicities...
July 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
Sara Timm, Yvonne Lorat, Burkhard Jakob, Gisela Taucher-Scholz, Claudia E Rübe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High linear-energy-transfer (LET) irradiation (IR) is characterized by unique depth-dose distribution and advantageous biologic effectiveness compared to low-LET-IR, offering promising alternatives for radio-resistant tumors in clinical oncology. While low-LET-IR induces single DNA lesions such as double-strand breaks (DSBs), localized energy deposition along high-LET particle trajectories induces clustered DNA lesions that are more challenging to repair. During DNA damage response (DDR) 53BP1 and ATM are required for Kap1-dependent chromatin relaxation, thereby sustaining heterochromatic DSB repair...
July 23, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Zijia Song, You Li, Kun Liu, Yimei Jiang, Yiqing Shi, Xiaopin Ji, Tao Zhang, Haoxuan Wu, Yi Shi, Ren Zhao
BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for right colon cancer is going to be considered as a new option. The potential benefits, clinical, and oncologic outcomes are still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and oncologic outcomes of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) for right colon cancer using propensity score matching analysis. METHODS: From December 2013 to June 2017, 174 patients underwent laparoscopic radical right hemicolectomy through a single-incision (n = 32) or a conventional (n = 142) approach...
July 24, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Wei M Ong, Kamran Zargar-Shoshtari, Shankar Siva, Homayoun Zargar
INTRODUCTION: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a receptor highly expressed on the membranes of prostate cancer (PCa) cells and provides a new opportunity for imaging and targeted therapy in metastatic prostate cancer. The use of radio-labelled peptides with high affinity for PSMA-receptor allows for localization of oligo-metastasis to guide salvage lymph node (LN) dissection, and effective delivery of radionuclide therapy to PCa cells. This review discusses the current statistics of PSMA-guided salvage lymph-node dissection...
October 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
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