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radio oncology

Dieter Henrik Heiland, Gerrit Haaker, Ralf Watzlawik, Daniel Delev, Waseem Masalha, Pamela Franco, Marcia Machein, Ori Staszewski, Oliver Oelhke, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Oliver Schnell
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults with peak incidence in patients older than 65 years. These patients are mostly underrepresented in clinical trials and often undertreated due to concomitant diseases. Recently, different therapeutic approaches for elderly patients with GBM were discussed. To date, there is no defined standard treatment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional and oncological outcome in surgical treatment of elderly patients...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Mariana Campos-da-Paz, Jose Garrofe Dorea, Alexsandro Sobreira Galdino, Zulmira Guerrero Marques Lacava, Maria de Fatima Menezes Almeida Santos
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC) for tumor diagnosis and monitoring response to therapy. High CEA levels are specifically associated with CRC progression and liver metastasis. Due to its differential expression between cancer and healthy tissues, and between positive and negative lymph nodes CEA has been explored for new cancer therapy and diagnosis approaches. We revised the literature on CEA role in CRC as well as the patents relating to CEA targeting for cancer management...
July 30, 2018: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
Richard Mair, Alan Wright, Susana Ros, De-En Hu, Thomas C Booth, Felix Kreis, Jyotsna Rao, Colin Watts, Kevin M Brindle
13C magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate metabolism has been used in oncology to detect disease, investigate disease progression, and monitor response to treatment with a view to guiding treatment in individual patients. This technique has translated to the clinic with initial studies in prostate cancer. Here we use the technique to investigate its potential uses in patients with glioblastoma (GB). We assessed the metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate in an orthotopically implanted cell line model (U87) of GB and in patient-derived tumors, where these were produced by orthotopic implantation of cells derived from different patients...
July 27, 2018: Cancer Research
Clément Dupont, Maximilien Vermandel, Henri-Arthur Leroy, Mathilde Quidet, Fabienne Lecomte, Nadira Delhem, Serge Mordon, Nicolas Reyns
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is characterized by marked proliferation, major infiltration, and poor prognosis. Despite current treatments, including surgery, radiation oncology, and chemotherapy, the overall median survival is 15 mo and the progression-free survival is 7 to 8 mo. Because of systematic relapse of the tumor, the improvement of local control remains an issue. In this context, photodynamic therapy (PDT) may offer a new treatment modality for GBM. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of intraoperative PDT early after surgical resection of GBM without unacceptable and unexpected toxicities...
July 21, 2018: Neurosurgery
Sara Timm, Yvonne Lorat, Burkhard Jakob, Gisela Taucher-Scholz, Claudia E Rübe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High linear-energy-transfer (LET) irradiation (IR) is characterized by unique depth-dose distribution and advantageous biologic effectiveness compared to low-LET-IR, offering promising alternatives for radio-resistant tumors in clinical oncology. While low-LET-IR induces single DNA lesions such as double-strand breaks (DSBs), localized energy deposition along high-LET particle trajectories induces clustered DNA lesions that are more challenging to repair. During DNA damage response (DDR) 53BP1 and ATM are required for Kap1-dependent chromatin relaxation, thereby sustaining heterochromatic DSB repair...
July 23, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Zijia Song, You Li, Kun Liu, Yimei Jiang, Yiqing Shi, Xiaopin Ji, Tao Zhang, Haoxuan Wu, Yi Shi, Ren Zhao
BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) for right colon cancer is going to be considered as a new option. The potential benefits, clinical, and oncologic outcomes are still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and oncologic outcomes of single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) compared to conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) for right colon cancer using propensity score matching analysis. METHODS: From December 2013 to June 2017, 174 patients underwent laparoscopic radical right hemicolectomy through a single-incision (n = 32) or a conventional (n = 142) approach...
July 24, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Wei M Ong, Kamran Zargar-Shoshtari, Shankar Siva, Homayoun Zargar
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a receptor highly expressed on the membranes of prostate cancer cells and provides a new opportunity for imaging and targeted therapy in metastatic prostate cancer. The use of radio-labelled peptides with high affinity for PSMA-receptor allows for localisation of oligo-metastasis to guide salvage lymph node dissection, and effective delivery of radionuclide therapy to prostate cancer cells. The favourable properties of Lutetium 177 (Lu) labelled PSMA peptides has put it at the forefront of targeted radio-ligand therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer without bone marrow involvement, and the preliminary studies have demonstrated satisfactory oncological and clinical response...
July 23, 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Gabriella Pravettoni, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Tommaso Bocci, Francesca Cortese, Roberta Ferrucci, Valentina Lampis, Chiara Rosci, Alberto Priori
Patients with cancer may report neuropsychiatric abnormalities including cognitive impairment, behavioral disturbances, and psychiatric disorders that potentially worsen their quality of life, reduce their treatment response, and aggravate their overall prognosis. Neuropsychiatric disturbances have a different pathophysiology, including immuno-inflammatory and neuroendocrine mechanisms, as a consequence of oncologic treatments (chemo- and radio-therapy). Among clinicians involved in the management of such patients, psychiatrists need to pay particular attention in recognizing behavioral disturbances that arise in oncologic patients, and determining those that may be effectively treated with psychotropic medications, psychotherapeutic interventions, and an integration of them...
July 23, 2018: CNS Spectrums
Rebecca L Tisdale, Zac Eggers, Lisa Shieh
Background: The majority of adverse events in healthcare involve communication breakdown. Physician-to-physician handoffs are particularly prone to communication errors, yet have been shown to be more complete when systematised according to a standardised bundle. Interventions that improve thoroughness of handoffs have not been widely studied. Aim: To measure the effect of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based handoff tool on handoff completeness. Intervention: This EMR-based handoff tool included a radio button prompting users to classify patients as stable, a 'watcher' or unstable...
2018: BMJ open quality
Yoshihiro Tanaka, Kazuhiro Yoshida, Tomonari Suetsugu, Takeharu Imai, Nobuhisa Matsuhashi, Kazuya Yamaguchi
The 11th edition of the Japanese Classification of Esophageal Cancer (EC) was published in 2017. Some correction was made in the depth of tumor invasion to be consistent with the TNM classification by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). With regard to surgery, short-term safety and long-term effectiveness under thoracotomy/video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery are expected to be proven by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG)1409 study. Results of nutritional management and countermeasures for adverse events not only during the perioperative period but also during EC chemotherapy were reported...
July 2018: Annals of gastroenterological surgery
Carla Rognoni, Oriana Ciani, Silvia Sommariva, Irene Bargellini, Sherrie Bhoori, Roberto Cioni, Antonio Facciorusso, Rita Golfieri, Annagiulia Gramenzi, Vincenzo Mazzaferro, Cristina Mosconi, Francesca Ponziani, Rodolfo Sacco, Franco Trevisani, Rosanna Tarricone
BACKGROUND: Trans-arterial radio-embolization (TARE) is an emerging treatment for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TARE may compete with systemic chemotherapy, sorafenib, in intermediate stage patients with prior chemoembolization failure or advanced patients with tumoral macrovascular invasion with no extra-hepatic spread and good liver function. We performed a budget impact analysis (BIA) evaluating the expected changes in the expenditure for the Italian Healthcare Service within scenarios of increased utilization of TARE in place of sorafenib over the next five years...
July 5, 2018: BMC Cancer
N G Burnet, D J Noble, A Paul, G A Whitfield, S Delorme
CLINICAL ISSUE: Successful radiotherapy requires precise localization of the tumor and requires high-quality imaging for developing a treatment plan. STANDARD TREATMENT: Irradiation of the tumor region, including a safety margin. TREATMENT INNOVATIONS: The target volume consists of the gross tumor volume (GTV) containing visible parts of the tumor, the clinical target volume (CTV) covering the GTV plus invisible tumor extensions, and the planning target volume (PTV) to account for uncertainties...
June 27, 2018: Der Radiologe
Balamurugan A Vellayappan, Samuel T Chao, Matthew Foote, Matthias Guckenberger, Kristin J Redmond, Eric L Chang, Nina A Mayr, Arjun Sahgal, Simon S Lo
Owing to improvements in clinical care and systemic therapy, more patients are being diagnosed with, and living longer with, spinal metastases (SM). In parallel, tremendous technological progress has been made in the field of radiation oncology. Advances in both software and hardware are able to integrate three- (and four-) dimensional body imaging with spatially accurate treatment delivery methods. This leads to improved efficacy, shortened treatment schedule, and potentially reduced treatment-related toxicity...
July 3, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Giuseppe Taino, Lorenzo Bordini, Marcello Imbriani
OBJECTIVES: The continuous scientific advances against neoplastic diseases affecting all areas of oncology biomedical research. Age is an extremely important factor in cancer development, since the incidence of cancer increases significantly with age. Because of aging of the Italian population, although the incidence is kept constant, the number of cancer diagnosis is inevitably going to increase over time only to increasing age. METHODS: Survival after the diagnosis of cancer is one of the main indicators that allow to evaluate the effectiveness of the health system against the cancer disease...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Israt S Alam, Idan Steinberg, Ophir Vermesh, Nynke S van den Berg, Eben L Rosenthal, Gooitzen M van Dam, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Sophie Hernot, Stephan Rogalla
Intraoperative imaging (IOI) is performed to guide delineation and localization of regions of surgical interest. While oncological surgical planning predominantly utilizes x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US), intraoperative guidance mainly remains on surgeon interpretation and pathology for confirmation. Over the past decades however, intraoperative guidance has evolved significantly with the emergence of several novel imaging technologies, including fluorescence-, Raman, photoacoustic-, and radio-guided approaches...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Lorenzo Angelini, Gianni Bisogno, Ciro Esposito, Marco Castagnetti
The latest multimodal protocols for treatment of bladder/prostate rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) have shifted the goal of treatment from patient survival to bladder preservation. Consistently, partial resections, such as radical prostatectomy (RP), are favoured when surgery is deemed necessary. We sought to determine the oncological risks - that is, failure to achieve disease control - and the possible benefits in terms of urinary continence associated with RP in RMS patients based on a review of our experience and the data reported in the literature...
June 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
Michelle Palmieri, Mariana Ornaghi, Victor Adriano de Oliveira Martins, Luciana Correa, Thais Bianca Brandao, Ana Carolina do Prado Ribeiro, Laura Masami Sumita, Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Claudio Sergio Pannuti, Paulo Henrique Braz-Silva
Background : Xerostomia is a very relevant and frequent complication of radiotherapy, causing the irradiated oral mucosa to be affected by bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Objective : The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible relationship between oral shedding of human herpesviruses and xerostomia in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck submitted to radio/chemotherapy. Methods : In this study, oral rinse samples were collected weekly from 20 patients during radiotherapy...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Pardeep Kumar, Sushil K Tripathi, C P Chen, Eric Wickstrom, Mathew L Thakur
PURPOSE: In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the use of gallium-68 labeled receptor-specific peptides for imaging oncologic diseases. The objective was to examine the stability and pharmacokinetics of [68 Ga]NODAGA and DOTA-peptide conjugate targeting VPAC [combined for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)] receptors on tumor cells. PROCEDURES: A VPAC receptor-specific peptide was chosen as a model peptide and conjugated to NODAGA and DOTA via solid-phase synthesis...
May 25, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Sami Eldirdiri, Rehab M Elmushly, Sami G Elazhary
INTRODUCTION: Exstrophy of the bladder is a rare congenital anomaly usually treated in neonatal or childhood period. When combined with renal agenesis and presents for the first time in the adulthood with malignant transformation, is an extreme rarity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of 65 years single male who presented with a right irreducible inguinal hernia and an unreconstructed Ectopia Vesicae with fungating tumor. He was anemic with impaired renal function, left renal agenesis and right sided hydronephrosis, hydroureter and distal ureteric stricture...
2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Mohamed Mahmoud Fathy, Fayrouz S Mohamed, NihalSaad Elbialy, Wael M Elshemey
Over the last decade, chemo-radiotherapy represented a well-established paradigm for cancer treatment. Developing new strategies to promote the therapeutic efficacy while reducing toxic side effects of chemo-radiotherapy is a main research objective in cancer therapy. A promising new oncological strategy for enhancing chemo-radiotherapy against cancer involves the utilization of multifunctional nanoparticles (nanocarriers and radiosensitizers). In this work, Chitosan-Capped Gold Nanoparticles (CS-GNPs) were synthesized and loaded with an anticancer agent, Doxorubicin (CS-GNPs-DOX)...
April 2018: Physica Medica: PM
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