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Deep Learning for medical image processing

Filippo Pesapane, Caterina Volonté, Marina Codari, Francesco Sardanelli
Worldwide interest in artificial intelligence (AI) applications is growing rapidly. In medicine, devices based on machine/deep learning have proliferated, especially for image analysis, presaging new significant challenges for the utility of AI in healthcare. This inevitably raises numerous legal and ethical questions. In this paper we analyse the state of AI regulation in the context of medical device development, and strategies to make AI applications safe and useful in the future. We analyse the legal framework regulating medical devices and data protection in Europe and in the United States, assessing developments that are currently taking place...
August 15, 2018: Insights Into Imaging
Ke Yan, Xiaosong Wang, Le Lu, Ronald M Summers
Extracting, harvesting, and building large-scale annotated radiological image datasets is a greatly important yet challenging problem. Meanwhile, vast amounts of clinical annotations have been collected and stored in hospitals' picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). These types of annotations, also known as bookmarks in PACS, are usually marked by radiologists during their daily workflow to highlight significant image findings that may serve as reference for later studies. We propose to mine and harvest these abundant retrospective medical data to build a large-scale lesion image dataset...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Feiwei Qin, Nannan Gao, Yong Peng, Zizhao Wu, Shuying Shen, Artur Grudtsin
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Leukocyte classification and cytometry have wide applications in medical domain, previous researches usually exploit machine learning techniques to classify leukocytes automatically. However, constrained by the past development of machine learning techniques, for example, extracting distinctive features from raw microscopic images are difficult, the widely used SVM classifier only has relative few parameters to tune, these methods cannot efficiently handle fine-grained classification cases when the white blood cells have up to 40 categories...
August 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Ge Wang, Jong Chu Ye, Klaus Mueller, Jeffrey A Fessler
Over past several years, machine learning, or more generally artificial intelligence, has generated overwhelming research interest and attracted unprecedented public attention. As tomographic imaging researchers, we share the excitement from our imaging perspective [item 1) in the Appendix], and organized this special issue dedicated to the theme of "Machine learning for image reconstruction." This special issue is a sister issue of the special issue published in May 2016 of this journal with the theme "Deep learning in medical imaging" [item 2) in the Appendix]...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Mattias P Heinrich, Max Blendowski, Ozan Oktay
PURPOSE: Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) are currently ubiquitous in medical imaging. While their versatility and high-quality results for common image analysis tasks including segmentation, localisation and prediction is astonishing, the large representational power comes at the cost of highly demanding computational effort. This limits their practical applications for image-guided interventions and diagnostic (point-of-care) support using mobile devices without graphics processing units (GPU)...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Zhexin Jiang, Hao Zhang, Yi Wang, Seok-Bum Ko
Since the retinal blood vessel has been acknowledged as an indispensable element in both ophthalmological and cardiovascular disease diagnosis, the accurate segmentation of the retinal vessel tree has become the prerequisite step for automated or computer-aided diagnosis systems. In this paper, a supervised method is presented based on a pre-trained fully convolutional network through transfer learning. This proposed method has simplified the typical retinal vessel segmentation problem from full-size image segmentation to regional vessel element recognition and result merging...
April 26, 2018: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
Xingxing Zhu, Mingyue Ding, Tao Huang, Xiaomeng Jin, Xuming Zhang
Nonrigid multimodal image registration remains a challenging task in medical image processing and analysis. The structural representation (SR)-based registration methods have attracted much attention recently. However, the existing SR methods cannot provide satisfactory registration accuracy due to the utilization of hand-designed features for structural representation. To address this problem, the structural representation method based on the improved version of the simple deep learning network named PCANet is proposed for medical image registration...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
Xu Han, Roland Kwitt, Stephen Aylward, Spyridon Bakas, Bjoern Menze, Alexander Asturias, Paul Vespa, John Van Horn, Marc Niethammer
Brain extraction from 3D medical images is a common pre-processing step. A variety of approaches exist, but they are frequently only designed to perform brain extraction from images without strong pathologies. Extracting the brain from images exhibiting strong pathologies, for example, the presence of a brain tumor or of a traumatic brain injury (TBI), is challenging. In such cases, tissue appearance may substantially deviate from normal tissue appearance and hence violates algorithmic assumptions for standard approaches to brain extraction; consequently, the brain may not be correctly extracted...
August 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Paras Lakhani, Daniel L Gray, Carl R Pett, Paul Nagy, George Shih
There is recent popularity in applying machine learning to medical imaging, notably deep learning, which has achieved state-of-the-art performance in image analysis and processing. The rapid adoption of deep learning may be attributed to the availability of machine learning frameworks and libraries to simplify their use. In this tutorial, we provide a high-level overview of how to build a deep neural network for medical image classification, and provide code that can help those new to the field begin their informatics projects...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Vijaya B Kolachalama, Priyamvada Singh, Christopher Q Lin, Dan Mun, Mostafa E Belghasem, Joel M Henderson, Jean M Francis, David J Salant, Vipul C Chitalia
Introduction: Chronic kidney damage is routinely assessed semiquantitatively by scoring the amount of fibrosis and tubular atrophy in a renal biopsy sample. Although image digitization and morphometric techniques can better quantify the extent of histologic damage, we need more widely applicable ways to stratify kidney disease severity. Methods: We leveraged a deep learning architecture to better associate patient-specific histologic images with clinical phenotypes (training classes) including chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage, serum creatinine, and nephrotic-range proteinuria at the time of biopsy, and 1-, 3-, and 5-year renal survival...
March 2018: KI Reports
Tobias Ross, David Zimmerer, Anant Vemuri, Fabian Isensee, Manuel Wiesenfarth, Sebastian Bodenstedt, Fabian Both, Philip Kessler, Martin Wagner, Beat Müller, Hannes Kenngott, Stefanie Speidel, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Klaus Maier-Hein, Lena Maier-Hein
PURPOSE: Surgical data science is a new research field that aims to observe all aspects of the patient treatment process in order to provide the right assistance at the right time. Due to the breakthrough successes of deep learning-based solutions for automatic image annotation, the availability of reference annotations for algorithm training is becoming a major bottleneck in the field. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the concept of self-supervised learning to address this issue...
June 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Jang Hyung Lee, Kwang Gi Kim
Objectives: A diagnostic need often arises to estimate bone age from X-ray images of the hand of a subject during the growth period. Together with measured physical height, such information may be used as indicators for the height growth prognosis of the subject. We present a way to apply the deep learning technique to medical image analysis using hand bone age estimation as an example. Methods: Age estimation was formulated as a regression problem with hand X-ray images as input and estimated age as output...
January 2018: Healthcare Informatics Research
Hiba Chougrad, Hamid Zouaki, Omar Alheyane
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Radiologists often have a hard time classifying mammography mass lesions which leads to unnecessary breast biopsies to remove suspicions and this ends up adding exorbitant expenses to an already burdened patient and health care system. METHODS: In this paper we developed a Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) system based on deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) that aims to help the radiologist classify mammography mass lesions. Deep learning usually requires large datasets to train networks of a certain depth from scratch...
April 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Simukayi Mutasa, Peter D Chang, Carrie Ruzal-Shapiro, Rama Ayyala
Bone age assessment (BAA) is a commonly performed diagnostic study in pediatric radiology to assess skeletal maturity. The most commonly utilized method for assessment of BAA is the Greulich and Pyle method (Pediatr Radiol 46.9:1269-1274, 2016; Arch Dis Child 81.2:172-173, 1999) atlas. The evaluation of BAA can be a tedious and time-consuming process for the radiologist. As such, several computer-assisted detection/diagnosis (CAD) methods have been proposed for automation of BAA. Classical CAD tools have traditionally relied on hard-coded algorithmic features for BAA which suffer from a variety of drawbacks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Toshiaki Hirasawa, Kazuharu Aoyama, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Soichiro Ishihara, Satoki Shichijo, Tsuyoshi Ozawa, Tatsuya Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Keigo Matsuo, Junko Fujisaki, Tomohiro Tada
BACKGROUND: Image recognition using artificial intelligence with deep learning through convolutional neural networks (CNNs) has dramatically improved and been increasingly applied to medical fields for diagnostic imaging. We developed a CNN that can automatically detect gastric cancer in endoscopic images. METHODS: A CNN-based diagnostic system was constructed based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector architecture and trained using 13,584 endoscopic images of gastric cancer...
July 2018: Gastric Cancer
Zdenko Kovač
University level of Pathophysiology research and teaching in Croatia had started with the third year of Medical School of Zagreb in academic year 1919./20. Ever since, despite historical changes of the main university stake holder, the state of Croatia, Department of Pathophysiology development progressed and has made visible academic achievements, with a broader effect in medical community. The first 95 years of academic tradition and major achievements are shortly described in this paper. Professor Miroslav Mikuličić envisioned Pathophysiology in close relations with Pharmacology and made the pioneering steps of establishing the "double" department at Šalata...
December 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
Christian Leibig, Vaneeda Allken, Murat Seçkin Ayhan, Philipp Berens, Siegfried Wahl
Deep learning (DL) has revolutionized the field of computer vision and image processing. In medical imaging, algorithmic solutions based on DL have been shown to achieve high performance on tasks that previously required medical experts. However, DL-based solutions for disease detection have been proposed without methods to quantify and control their uncertainty in a decision. In contrast, a physician knows whether she is uncertain about a case and will consult more experienced colleagues if needed. Here we evaluate drop-out based Bayesian uncertainty measures for DL in diagnosing diabetic retinopathy (DR) from fundus images and show that it captures uncertainty better than straightforward alternatives...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Philipp Prahs, Viola Radeck, Christian Mayer, Yordan Cvetkov, Nadezhda Cvetkova, Horst Helbig, David Märker
PURPOSE: Intravitreal injections with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) medications have become the standard of care for their respective indications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans of the central retina provide detailed anatomical data and are widely used by clinicians in the decision-making process of anti-VEGF indication. In recent years, significant progress has been made in artificial intelligence and computer vision research. We trained a deep convolutional artificial neural network to predict treatment indication based on central retinal OCT scans without human intervention...
January 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Joost J M van Griethuysen, Andriy Fedorov, Chintan Parmar, Ahmed Hosny, Nicole Aucoin, Vivek Narayan, Regina G H Beets-Tan, Jean-Christophe Fillion-Robin, Steve Pieper, Hugo J W L Aerts
Radiomics aims to quantify phenotypic characteristics on medical imaging through the use of automated algorithms. Radiomic artificial intelligence (AI) technology, either based on engineered hard-coded algorithms or deep learning methods, can be used to develop noninvasive imaging-based biomarkers. However, lack of standardized algorithm definitions and image processing severely hampers reproducibility and comparability of results. To address this issue, we developed PyRadiomics , a flexible open-source platform capable of extracting a large panel of engineered features from medical images...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
Ruhan Sa, William Owens, Raymond Wiegand, Mark Studin, Donald Capoferri, Kenneth Barooha, Alexander Greaux, Robert Rattray, Adam Hutton, John Cintineo, Vipin Chaudhary
Automatic identification of specific osseous landmarks on the spinal radiograph can be used to automate calculations for correcting ligament instability and injury, which affect 75% of patients injured in motor vehicle accidents. In this work, we propose to use deep learning based object detection method as the first step towards identifying landmark points in lateral lumbar X-ray images. The significant breakthrough of deep learning technology has made it a prevailing choice for perception based applications, however, the lack of large annotated training dataset has brought challenges to utilizing the technology in medical image processing field...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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