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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094906/the-impact-of-organizational-innovations-in-nursing-homes-on-staff-perceptions-a-secondary-data-analysis
#1
Joost Adams, Hilde Verbeek, Sandra M G Zwakhalen
PURPOSE: The shift in nursing home care for patients with dementia from traditional task-driven environments towards patient-centered small-scale environments has implications for nursing practice. Information about its implications for nursing staff is lacking, and only a few studies have addressed staff perceptions. We sought to explore staff perceptions of required skills and to determine differences in job satisfaction, motivation, and job characteristics of staff working in both care settings...
January 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093502/heat-strain-volume-depletion-and-kidney-function-in-california-agricultural-workers
#2
Sally Moyce, Diane Mitchell, Tracey Armitage, Daniel Tancredi, Jill Joseph, Marc Schenker
BACKGROUND: Agricultural work can expose workers to increased risk of heat strain and volume depletion due to repeated exposures to high ambient temperatures, arduous physical exertion and limited rehydration. These risk factors may result in acute kidney injury (AKI). METHODS: We estimated AKI cumulative incidence in a convenience sample of 283 agricultural workers based on elevations of serum creatinine between preshift and postshift blood samples. Heat strain was assessed based on changes in core body temperature and heart rate...
January 16, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093302/aging-and-risky-decision-making-new-erp-evidence-from-the-iowa-gambling-task
#3
Elisa Di Rosa, Daniela Mapelli, Giorgio Arcara, Piero Amodio, Stefano Tamburin, Sami Schiff
Several pieces of evidence have highlighted the presence of an age-related decline in risky decision-making (DM), but the reason of this decline is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of feedback processing in risky DM. Twenty-one younger (age <50 years) and 15 older (age >50 years) adults were tested with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) during Event Related Potentials (ERP) recording. The analysis was focused on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and P3, two ERP components that represent different stages of feedback processing...
January 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092785/integrated-ssfp-for-functional-brain-mapping-at-7t-with-reduced-susceptibility-artifact
#4
Kaibao Sun, Rong Xue, Peng Zhang, Zhentao Zuo, Zhongwei Chen, Bo Wang, Thomas Martin, Yi Wang, Lin Chen, Sheng He, Danny J J Wang
Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers an alternative and potentially important tool to the standard gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) for functional MRI (fMRI). Both passband and transition band based bSSFP have been proposed for fMRI. The applications of these methods, however, are limited by banding artifacts due to the sensitivity of bSSFP signal to off-resonance effects. In this article, a unique case of the SSFP-FID sequence, termed integrated-SSFP or iSSFP, was proposed to overcome the obstacle by compressing the SSFP profile into the width of a single voxel...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090338/executive-functions-predict-weight-loss-in-a-medically-supervised-weight-loss-programme
#5
R Galioto, D Bond, J Gunstad, V Pera, L Rathier, G Tremont
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089294/the-american-academy-of-pediatrics-workforce-survey-for-the-section-on-urology-2015
#6
E Shapiro, Christopher S Cooper, S Greenfield
INTRODUCTION: In 2013, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy assumed the task of organizing the updated AAP Workforce Survey, which was modeled after the Future of Pediatric Education II study. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate changes in practice patterns of all pediatric medical and surgical specialists over time, to facilitate advocacy work by the Academy at federal and state levels...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088647/the-developmental-relationship-between-specific-cognitive-domains-and-grey-matter-in-the-cerebellum
#7
Dorothea M Moore, Anila M D'Mello, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine J Stoodley
There is growing evidence that the cerebellum is involved in cognition and cognitive development, yet little is known about the developmental relationship between cerebellar structure and cognitive subdomains in children. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between cerebellar grey matter (GM) and language, reading, working memory, executive function, and processing speed in 110 individuals aged 8-17 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) Study. Further, we examined the effect of age on the relationships between cerebellar GM and cognition...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088534/the-social-transmission-of-metacontrol-policies-mechanisms-underlying-the-interpersonal-transfer-of-persistence-and-flexibility
#8
REVIEW
Bernhard Hommel, Lorenza S Colzato
Humans often face binary cognitive-control dilemmas, with the choice between persistence and flexibility being a crucial one. Tackling these dilemmas requires metacontrol, i.e., the control of the current cognitive-control policy. As predicted from functional, psychometric, neuroscientific, and modeling approaches, interindividual variability in metacontrol biases towards persistence or flexibility could be demonstrated in metacontrol-sensitive tasks. These biases covary systematically with genetic predispositions regarding mesofrontal and nigrostriatal dopaminergic functioning and the individualistic or collectivistic nature of the cultural background...
January 11, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088189/mars-improving-multiple-circular-sequence-alignment-using-refined-sequences
#9
Lorraine A K Ayad, Solon P Pissis
BACKGROUND: A fundamental assumption of all widely-used multiple sequence alignment techniques is that the left- and right-most positions of the input sequences are relevant to the alignment. However, the position where a sequence starts or ends can be totally arbitrary due to a number of reasons: arbitrariness in the linearisation (sequencing) of a circular molecular structure; or inconsistencies introduced into sequence databases due to different linearisation standards. These scenarios are relevant, for instance, in the process of multiple sequence alignment of mitochondrial DNA, viroid, viral or other genomes, which have a circular molecular structure...
January 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081231/physical-activity-energy-expenditure-nutritional-habits-quality-of-sleep-and-stress-levels-in-shift-working-health-care-personnel
#10
Frederick Charles Roskoden, Janine Krüger, Lena Johanna Vogt, Simone Gärtner, Hans Joachim Hannich, Antje Steveling, Markus M Lerch, Ali A Aghdassi
BACKGROUND: Among health care personnel working regular hours or rotating shifts can affect parameters of general health and nutrition. We have investigated physical activity, sleep quality, metabolic activity and stress levels in health care workers from both groups. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 46 volunteer participants from the workforce of a University Medical Department of which 23 worked in rotating shifts (all nursing) and 21 non-shift regular hours (10 nursing, 13 clerical staff)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079727/how-supervisor-experience-influences-trust-supervision-and-trainee-learning-a-qualitative-study
#11
Leslie Sheu, Jennifer R Kogan, Karen E Hauer
PURPOSE: Appropriate trust and supervision facilitate trainees' growth toward unsupervised practice. The authors investigated how supervisor experience influences trust, supervision, and subsequently trainee learning. METHOD: In a two-phase qualitative inductive content analysis, phase one entailed reviewing 44 internal medicine resident and attending supervisor interviews from two institutions (July 2013 to September 2014) for themes on how supervisor experience influences trust and supervision...
January 10, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077726/climbing-fibers-control-purkinje-cell-representations-of-behavior
#12
Martha L Streng, Laurentiu S Popa, Timothy J Ebner
: A crucial issue in understanding cerebellar function is the interaction between simple spike (SS) and complex spike (CS) discharge, the two fundamentally different activity modalities of Purkinje cells. Although several hypotheses have provided insights into the interaction, none fully explain or are completely consistent with the spectrum of experimental observations. Here, we show that during a pseudo-random manual tracking task in the monkey (Macaca mulatta), climbing fiber discharge dynamically controls the information present in the SS firing, triggering robust and rapid changes in the SS encoding of motor signals in 67% of Purkinje cells...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076582/interventions-that-facilitate-sustainable-jobs-and-have-a-positive-impact-on-workers-health-an-overview-of-systematic-reviews
#13
Michelle M Haby, Evelina Chapman, Rachel Clark, Luiz A C Galvão
Objective: To identify interventions that facilitate sustainable jobs and have a positive impact on the health of workers in health sector workplaces. Methods: This overview utilized systematic review methods to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted based on a predefined protocol, including specific inclusion criteria. To be classified as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly) to 1) have a positive impact on at least two key dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and 2) include measures of health impact...
November 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069047/task-shifting-or-shifting-care-practices-the-impact-of-task-shifting-on-patients-experiences-and-health-care-arrangements-in-swaziland
#14
Thandeka Dlamini-Simelane, Eileen Moyer
BACKGROUND: In the quest to achieve early HIV treatment goals, national HIV treatment programmes dependent on international funding have been dramatically redesigned over the last 5 years. Bottlenecks in treatment provision are conceived of as health system problems to be addressed via structural and logistical fixes (routine HIV testing, point-of-care equipment, nurse-led antiretroviral treatment initiation, and patient tracking). Patient perspectives are rarely taken into account when such fixes are being considered...
January 10, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063075/feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-task-shifted-intervention-to-enhance-adherence-to-hiv-medication-and-improve-depression-in-people-living-with-hiv-in-zimbabwe-a-low-income-country-in-sub-saharan-africa
#15
Melanie Abas, Primrose Nyamayaro, Tarisai Bere, Emily Saruchera, Nomvuyo Mothobi, Victoria Simms, Walter Mangezi, Kirsty Macpherson, Natasha Croome, Jessica Magidson, Azure Makadzange, Steven Safren, Dixon Chibanda, Conall O'Cleirigh
Using a pilot trial design in an HIV care clinic in Zimbabwe, we randomised 32 adults with poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy and at least mild depression to either six sessions of Problem-Solving Therapy for adherence and depression (PST-AD) delivered by an adherence counsellor, or to Enhanced Usual Care (Control). Acceptability of PST-AD was high, as indicated by frequency of session attendance and through qualitative analyses of exit interviews. Fidelity was >80% for the first two sessions of PST-AD but fidelity to the adherence component of PST-AD dropped by session 4...
January 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062230/the-influence-of-offspring-parity-and-oxytocin-on-cognitive-flexibility-during-the-postpartum-period
#16
Christopher C Albin-Brooks, Connor A Nealer, Sara Sabihi, Achikam Haim, Benedetta Leuner
Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of profound behavioral change including alterations in cognitive function. This has been most often studied using hippocampal-dependent tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. However, less is known about the cognitive effects of motherhood for tasks that rely on areas other than the hippocampus. We have previously shown that postpartum females perform better on the extradimensional phase of an attentional set shifting task, a measure of cognitive flexibility which is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
January 3, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057530/effects-of-nucleus-accumbens-amphetamine-administration-on-performance-in-a-delay-discounting-task
#17
Caitlin A Orsini, Marci R Mitchell, Sara C Heshmati, Kristy G Shimp, Megan S Spurrell, Jennifer L Bizon, Barry Setlow
Chronic administration of cocaine can cause pronounced and enduring cognitive alterations such as increases in impulsive choice. Chronic cocaine can also result in enhanced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in response to reward-related cues. It is possible that this enhanced DA release in the NAc is a mechanism by which cocaine increases impulsive choice. To date, however, the specific role of DA in the NAc in impulsive choice is unclear. To begin to address this, rats received acute microinjections of the indirect DA agonist amphetamine directly into the NAc prior to testing in a delay discounting task in which rats chose between a small, immediate and a large, delayed food reward...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055142/executive-functions-deficits-impair-extinction-of-generalization-of-fear-of-movement-related-pain
#18
N G Niederstrasser, A Meulders, M Meulders, D Struyf, J W Vlaeyen
BACKGROUND: Generalization of fear of movement-related pain across novel but similar movements can lead to fear responses to movements that are actually not associated with pain. The peak-shift effect describes a phenomenon whereby particular novel movements elicit even greater fear responses than the original pain-provoking movement (CS+), because they represent a more extreme version of the CS+. There is great variance in the propensity to generalize as well as the speed of extinction learning when these novel movements are not followed by pain...
January 5, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054815/try-to-look-on-the-bright-side-children-and-adults-can-sometimes-override-their-tendency-to-prioritize-negative-faces
#19
Kristin Hansen Lagattuta, Hannah J Kramer
We used eye tracking to examine 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N = 173) visual attention to negative (anger, fear, sadness, disgust) and neutral faces when paired with happy faces in 2 experimental conditions: free-viewing ("look at the faces") and directed ("look only at the happy faces"). Regardless of instruction, all age groups more often looked first to negative versus positive faces (no age differences), suggesting that initial orienting is driven by bottom-up processes. In contrast, biases in more sustained attention-last looks and looking duration-varied by age and could be modified by top-down instruction...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054675/oleylamine-as-a-reducing-agent-in-syntheses-of-magic-size-clusters-and-monodisperse-quantum-dots-optical-and-photoconductivity-studies
#20
R S Ningthoujam, Anurag Gautam, N Padma
Separation of magic size clusters (MSCs) from monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) has generally been a difficult task while employing the commonly used synthesis procedure, where for preparation of PbSe QDs, Se-TOP (TOP = trioctylphosphine) is injected into Pb-oleate in 1-octadecene medium. In this study, we report for the first time a simple method to prepare MSCs, QDs and particles close to the bulk of PbSe using oleylamine (OAM) as the reducing agent, where the individual entities are efficiently separated. The chemical yield is found to be 95%...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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