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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920741/inducing-proactive-control-shifts-in-the-ax-cpt
#1
Corentin Gonthier, Brooke N Macnamara, Michael Chow, Andrew R A Conway, Todd S Braver
The Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC) account (Braver, 2012) proposes two distinct mechanisms of cognitive control, proactive and reactive. This account has been supported by a large number of studies using the AX-CPT paradigm that have demonstrated not only between-group differences, but also within-subjects variability in the use of the two control mechanisms. Yet there has been little investigation of task manipulations that can experimentally modulate the use of proactive control in healthy young adults; such manipulations could be useful to better understand the workings of cognitive control mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919700/exposure-to-sevoflurane-anesthesia-during-development-does-not-impair-aspects-of-attention-during-adulthood-in-rats
#2
Kathy L Murphy, Jill McGaughy, Paula L Croxson, Mark G Baxter
Exposure to general anesthetic agents during development has been associated with neurotoxicity and long-term behavioral impairments in rodents and non-human primates. The phenotype of anesthetic-induced cognitive impairment has a robust learning and memory component, however less is known about other psychological domains. Data from retrospective human patient studies suggest that children undergoing multiple procedures requiring general anesthesia are at increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917921/exploring-the-relationship-between-eye-movements-and-electrocardiogram-interpretation-accuracy
#3
Alan Davies, Gavin Brown, Markel Vigo, Simon Harper, Laura Horseman, Bruno Splendiani, Elspeth Hill, Caroline Jay
Interpretation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) is a complex task involving visual inspection. This paper aims to improve understanding of how practitioners perceive ECGs, and determine whether visual behaviour can indicate differences in interpretation accuracy. A group of healthcare practitioners (n = 31) who interpret ECGs as part of their clinical role were shown 11 commonly encountered ECGs on a computer screen. The participants' eye movement data were recorded as they viewed the ECGs and attempted interpretation...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917117/training-on-working-memory-and-inhibitory-control-in-young-adults
#4
Maria J Maraver, M Teresa Bajo, Carlos J Gomez-Ariza
Different types of interventions have focused on trying to improve Executive Functions (EFs) due to their essential role in human cognition and behavior regulation. Although EFs are thought to be diverse, most training studies have targeted cognitive processes related to working memory (WM), and fewer have focused on training other control mechanisms, such as inhibitory control (IC). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the differential impact of training WM and IC as compared with control conditions performing non-executive control activities...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914979/-lost-in-time-but-still-moving-to-the-beat
#5
Valentin Bégel, Charles-Etienne Benoit, Angel Correa, Diana Cutanda, Sonja A Kotz, Simone Dalla Bella
Motor synchronization to the beat of an auditory sequence (e.g., a metronome or music) is widespread in humans. However, some individuals show poor synchronization and impoverished beat perception. This condition, termed "beat deafness", has been linked to a perceptual deficit in beat tracking. Here we present single-case evidence (L.A. and L.C.) that poor beat tracking does not have to entail poor synchronization. In a first Experiment, L.A., L.C., and a third case (L.V.) were submitted to the Battery for The Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA), which includes both perceptual and sensorimotor tasks...
November 30, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909418/risk-and-ambiguity-in-information-seeking-eye-gaze-patterns-reveal-contextual-behavior-in-dealing-with-uncertainty
#6
Peter Wittek, Ying-Hsang Liu, Sándor Darányi, Tom Gedeon, Ik Soo Lim
Information foraging connects optimal foraging theory in ecology with how humans search for information. The theory suggests that, following an information scent, the information seeker must optimize the tradeoff between exploration by repeated steps in the search space vs. exploitation, using the resources encountered. We conjecture that this tradeoff characterizes how a user deals with uncertainty and its two aspects, risk and ambiguity in economic theory. Risk is related to the perceived quality of the actually visited patch of information, and can be reduced by exploiting and understanding the patch to a better extent...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907025/measuring-social-motivation-using-signal-detection-and-reward-responsiveness
#7
Coralie Chevallier, Natasha Tonge, Lou Safra, David Kahn, Gregor Kohls, Judith Miller, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Recent trends in psychiatry have emphasized the need for a shift from categorical to dimensional approaches. Of critical importance to this transformation is the availability of tools to objectively quantify behaviors dimensionally. The present study focuses on social motivation, a dimension of behavior that is central to a range of psychiatric conditions but for which a particularly small number of assays currently exist. METHODS: In Study 1 (N = 48), healthy adults completed a monetary reward task and a social reward task, followed by completion of the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905119/automatic-female-dehumanization-across-the-menstrual-cycle
#8
Valentina Piccoli, Carlo Fantoni, Francesco Foroni, Mauro Bianchi, Andrea Carnaghi
In this study, we investigate whether hormonal shifts during the menstrual cycle contribute to the dehumanization of other women and men. Female participants with different levels of likelihood of conception (LoC) completed a semantic priming paradigm in a lexical decision task. When the word 'woman' was the prime, animal words were more accessible in high versus low LoC whereas human words were more inhibited in the high versus low LoC. When the word 'man' was used as the prime, no difference was found in terms of accessibility between high and low LoC for either animal or human words...
November 30, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905069/pavlovian-reward-learning-underlies-value-driven-attentional-capture
#9
Berno Bucker, Jan Theeuwes
Recent evidence shows that distractors that signal high compared to low reward availability elicit stronger attentional capture, even when this is detrimental for task-performance. This suggests that simply correlating stimuli with reward administration, rather than their instrumental relationship with obtaining reward, produces value-driven attentional capture. However, in previous studies, reward delivery was never response independent, as only correct responses were rewarded, nor was it completely task-irrelevant, as the distractor signaled the magnitude of reward that could be earned on that trial...
November 30, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903731/memory-transformation-enhances-reinforcement-learning-in-dynamic-environments
#10
Adam Santoro, Paul W Frankland, Blake A Richards
: Over the course of systems consolidation, there is a switch from a reliance on detailed episodic memories to generalized schematic memories. This switch is sometimes referred to as "memory transformation." Here we demonstrate a previously unappreciated benefit of memory transformation, namely, its ability to enhance reinforcement learning in a dynamic environment. We developed a neural network that is trained to find rewards in a foraging task where reward locations are continuously changing...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902685/getting-to-the-bottom-of-face-processing-species-specific-inversion-effects-for-faces-and-behinds-in-humans-and-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#11
Mariska E Kret, Masaki Tomonaga
For social species such as primates, the recognition of conspecifics is crucial for their survival. As demonstrated by the 'face inversion effect', humans are experts in recognizing faces and unlike objects, recognize their identity by processing it configurally. The human face, with its distinct features such as eye-whites, eyebrows, red lips and cheeks signals emotions, intentions, health and sexual attraction and, as we will show here, shares important features with the primate behind. Chimpanzee females show a swelling and reddening of the anogenital region around the time of ovulation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901222/workload-and-associated-factors-a-study-in-maritime-port-in-brazil
#12
Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz, Clarice Alves Bonow, Marlise Capa Verde de Almeida, Cynthia Fontella Sant'Anna, Leticia Silveira Cardoso
Objective: to identify the effect of the mental, physical, temporal, performance, total effort and frustration demands in the overall workload, and in the same way analyze the global burden of port labor and associated factors that contribute most to their decrease or increase. Method: a cross-sectional, quantitative study, developed with 232 dock workers. For data collection, a structured questionnaire with descriptive, occupational, smoking and illicit drug use variables was applied, as well as variables on the load on the tasks undertaken at work, based on the questionnaire NASA Task Load Index...
November 28, 2016: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899887/saccadic-adaptation-alters-the-attentional-field
#13
Farahnaz A Wick, Tyler W Garaas, Marc Pomplun
It is currently unknown whether changes to the oculomotor system can induce changes to the distribution of spatial attention around a fixated target. Previous studies have used perceptual performance tasks to show that adaptation of saccadic eye movements affects dynamic properties of visual attention, in particular, attentional shifts to a cued location. In this study, we examined the effects of saccadic adaptation on the static distribution of visual attention around fixation (attentional field). We used the classic double step adaptation procedure and a flanker task to test for differences in the attentional field after forward and backward adaptation...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899165/cognitive-dysfunction-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder-new-implications-for-nosological-systems-and-neurobiological-models
#14
Kiri Jefferies-Sewell, Samuel R Chamberlain, Naomi A Fineberg, Keith R Laws
: Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a debilitating disorder, characterized by obsessions and compulsions relating specifically to perceived appearance, and which has been newly classified within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders grouping. Until now, little research has been conducted into the cognitive profile of this disorder. METHODS: Participants with BDD (n=12) and participants without BDD (n=16) were tested using a computerized neurocognitive battery investigating attentional set-shifting (Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift Task), decision-making (Cambridge Gamble Task), motor response-inhibition (Stop-Signal Reaction Time Task), and affective processing (Affective Go-No Go Task)...
November 30, 2016: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897675/mediofrontal-negativity-signals-unexpected-timing-of-salient-outcomes
#15
Sara Garofalo, Christopher Timmermann, Simone Battaglia, Martin E Maier, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
The medial pFC (mPFC) and ACC have been consistently implicated in learning predictions of future outcomes and signaling prediction errors (i.e., unexpected deviations from such predictions). A computational model of ACC/mPFC posits that these prediction errors should be modulated by outcomes occurring at unexpected times, even if the outcomes themselves are predicted. However, unexpectedness per se is not the only variable that modulates ACC/mPFC activity, as studies reported its sensitivity to the salience of outcomes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897672/acute-exercise-modulates-feature-selective-responses-in-human-cortex
#16
Tom Bullock, James C Elliott, John T Serences, Barry Giesbrecht
An organism's current behavioral state influences ongoing brain activity. Nonhuman mammalian and invertebrate brains exhibit large increases in the gain of feature-selective neural responses in sensory cortex during locomotion, suggesting that the visual system becomes more sensitive when actively exploring the environment. This raises the possibility that human vision is also more sensitive during active movement. To investigate this possibility, we used an inverted encoding model technique to estimate feature-selective neural response profiles from EEG data acquired from participants performing an orientation discrimination task...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897668/global-enhancement-but-local-suppression-in-feature-based-attention
#17
Norman Forschack, Søren K Andersen, Matthias M Müller
A key property of feature-based attention is global facilitation of the attended feature throughout the visual field. Previously, we presented superimposed red and blue randomly moving dot kinematograms (RDKs) flickering at a different frequency each to elicit frequency-specific steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) that allowed us to analyze neural dynamics in early visual cortex when participants shifted attention to one of the two colors. Results showed amplification of the attended and suppression of the unattended color as measured by SSVEP amplitudes...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896709/learned-value-and-object-perception-accelerated-perception-or-biased-decisions
#18
Jason Rajsic, Harendri Perera, Jay Pratt
Learned value is known to bias visual search toward valued stimuli. However, some uncertainty exists regarding the stage of visual processing that is modulated by learned value. Here, we directly tested the effect of learned value on preattentive processing using temporal order judgments. Across four experiments, we imbued some stimuli with high value and some with low value, using a nonmonetary reward task. In Experiment 1, we replicated the value-driven distraction effect, validating our nonmonetary reward task...
November 28, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896312/the-memory-trace-supporting-lose-shift-responding-decays-rapidly-after-reward-omission-and-is-distinct-from-other-learning-mechanisms-in-rats
#19
Aaron J Gruber, Rajat Thapa
The propensity of animals to shift choices immediately after unexpectedly poor reinforcement outcomes is a pervasive strategy across species and tasks. We report here that the memory supporting such lose-shift responding in rats rapidly decays during the intertrial interval and persists throughout training and testing on a binary choice task, despite being a suboptimal strategy. Lose-shift responding is not positively correlated with the prevalence and temporal dependence of win-stay responding, and it is inconsistent with predictions of reinforcement learning on the task...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895958/factors-associated-with-the-timeliness-of-electronic-nursing-documentation
#20
Meejung Ahn, Mona Choi, YoungAh Kim
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors associated with the timeliness of electronic nursing documentation using the entry time on the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. METHODS: As a retrospective study, data were extracted from January 1 to February 28, 2014 from a hospital EMR system and a nurses' personnel information system. The timeliness of instances of nursing documentation was categorized into 'timely' or 'untimely' according to whether the entry time was time-stamped within the working hours during each day, evening, or night shift...
October 2016: Healthcare Informatics Research
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