Read by QxMD icon Read

Task shifting

Jorien van Hoorn, Ethan M McCormick, Eva H Telzer
Adolescence is a time of increased social-affective sensitivity, which is often related to heightened health-risk behaviors. However, moderate levels of social sensitivity, relative to either low (social vacuum) or high levels (exceptionally attuned), may confer benefits as it facilitates effective navigation of the social world. The present fMRI study tested a curvilinear relationship between social sensitivity and adaptive decision-making. Participants (ages 12-16; N = 35) played the Social Analogue Risk Task (SART), which measures participants' willingness to knock on doors in order to earn points...
February 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jessica Overweg, Catharina A Hartman, Petra Hendriks
Pronoun reversals, saying you when meaning I, in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are generally viewed as manifesting in early development and speech production only. This study investigates pronoun reversals in later development (age 6-12) in interpretation in 48 Dutch-speaking children with ASD and 43 typically developing (TD) peers. We contrasted children's interpretation of I and you in indirect and direct speech reports, with the latter type requiring an additional perspective shift. To examine which cognitive processes are involved in pronoun interpretation, additional tasks were administered to measure Theory of Mind (ToM) understanding, cognitive inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Mufarriq Shah, Ayesha Noor, Lil Deverell, Gail M Ormsby, C Alex Harper, Jill Elizabeth Keeffe
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a preventable cause of vision loss. Reducing vision loss due to DR and providing access to eye care services for people with diabetes have been severely constrained by a shortage in the number of ophthalmologists. This study aimed to explore the potential for task sharing in the eye care workforce for screening, detection, and management of DR. METHODS: Using purposive sampling, 24 participants were recruited from four selected hospitals in 2 provinces in Pakistan...
March 11, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Clara Casco, Michele Barollo, Giulio Contemori, Luca Battaglini
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the introduction of visual rehabilitation for patients with homonymous visual field defects has been met with both enthusiasm and caution. Despite the evidence that restitutive training results in expansion of the visual field, several concerns have been raised. OBJECTIVE: We tested the effectiveness of a new rehabilitative protocol called "Neuro Restoration Training" (NRT) in reducing visual field defects and in restituting visual functions in the restored hemianopic area...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Sumito Maruyama, Kenzo Muroi, Yoshiyuki Hosokai
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In general functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, the task onset time of the statistical model is typically set according to the timing of stimulation. In this study, using a high temporal resolution fMRI data, we examined the way of dynamically visualizing the difference in the activation timing between the brain activation areas by analyzing the task onset time of the statistical model shifted from the actual stimulation timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: fMRI data with high temporal resolution was acquired using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging for 10 right-handed healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
Christian I Penaloza, Maryam Alimardani, Shuichi Nishio
EEG-based brain computer interface (BCI) systems have demonstrated potential to assist patients with devastating motor paralysis conditions. However, there is great interest in shifting the BCI trend toward applications aimed at healthy users. Although BCI operation depends on technological factors (i.e., EEG pattern classification algorithm) and human factors (i.e., how well the person can generate good quality EEG patterns), it is the latter that is least investigated. In order to control a motor imagery-based BCI, users need to learn to modulate their sensorimotor brain rhythms by practicing motor imagery using a classical training protocol with an abstract visual feedback...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
C Joenathan, T Naderishahab, A Bernal, A B Krovetz, V C Pretheesh Kumar, A R Ganesan
High-accuracy tilt or roll angle measurement is required for a variety of engineering and scientific applications. A cyclic interferometer with multiple reflections has been developed to measure small tilt angles. To accomplish this task, a novel and simple method, phase shift by polarization, was developed. The results of these studies show that the multiple reflection cyclic interferometers can be used to measure object tilts on the order of 0.2 nano-radians. We develop the theory for polarization phase step and show that accurate measurements can be made with the cyclic interferometer...
March 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Michael Stäblein, Helena Storchak, Denisa Ghinea, Dominik Kraft, Christian Knöchel, David Prvulovic, Robert A Bittner, Andreas Reif, Viola Oertel-Knöchel
BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM) deficits in schizophrenia (SCZ) have been linked to impairments in the encoding phase that are associated with aberrant neuronal functioning. Similar abnormalities have been observed in unaffected first-degree relatives (REL) and are thus discussed as candidate endophenotypes. The process of WM consolidation - i.e. the formation of durable WM representations - is assumed to be impaired in SCZ, but no study has investigated WM consolidation and neuronal correlates of visual WM encoding in REL before...
March 9, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Hui-Feng Zhang, Lan Shuai, Jin-Song Zhang, Yu-Feng Wang, Teng-Fei Lu, Xin Tan, Jing-Xue Pan, Li-Xiao Shen
Background: Previous studies have found that schoolchildren with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) showed difficulties in neuropsychological function. This study aimed to assess neuropsychological function in Chinese preschoolers with ADHD using broad neuropsychological measures and rating scales and to test whether the pattern and severity of neuropsychological weakness differed among ADHD presentations in preschool children. Methods: The 226 preschoolers (163 with ADHD and 63 controls) with the age of 4-5 years were included and assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of Executive Function-Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and a series of tests to investigate neuropsychological function...
March 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Andreas Brocher, Raphael Harbecke, Tim Graf, Daniel Memmert, Stefanie Hüttermann
We tested the link between pupil size and the task effort involved in covert shifts of visual attention. The goal of this study was to establish pupil size as a marker of attentional shifting in the absence of luminance manipulations. In three experiments, participants evaluated two stimuli that were presented peripherally, appearing equidistant from and on opposite sides of eye fixation. The angle between eye fixation and the peripherally presented target stimuli varied from 12.5° to 42.5°. The evaluation of more distant stimuli led to poorer performance than did the evaluation of more proximal stimuli throughout our study, confirming that the former required more effort than the latter...
March 7, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Marion Fossard, Amélie M Achim, Lucie Rousier-Vercruyssen, Sylvia Gonzalez, Alexandre Bureau, Maud Champagne-Lavau
During a narrative discourse, accessibility of the referents is rarely fixed once and for all. Rather, each referent varies in accessibility as the discourse unfolds, depending on the presence and prominence of the other referents. This leads the speaker to use various referential expressions to refer to the main protagonists of the story at different moments in the narrative. This study relies on a new, collaborative storytelling in sequence task designed to assess how speakers adjust their referential choices when they refer to different characters at specific discourse stages corresponding to the introduction, maintaining, or shift of the character in focus, in increasingly complex referential contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Katinka van der Kooij, Leonie Oostwoud Wijdenes, Tessa Rigterink, Krista E Overvliet, Joeren B J Smeets
The brain rapidly adapts reaching movements to changing circumstances by using visual feedback about errors. Providing reward in addition to error feedback facilitates the adaptation but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether the proportion of trials rewarded (the 'reward abundance') influences how much participants adapt to their errors. We used a 3D multi-target pointing task in which reward alone is insufficient for motor adaptation. Participants (N = 423) performed the pointing task with feedback based on a shifted hand-position...
2018: PloS One
Stephen L Aita, Jameson D Beach, Sarah E Taylor, Nicholas C Borgogna, Murphy N Harrell, Benjamin D Hill
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether phonemic and semantic verbal fluency were more related to aspects of language processing than executive functioning (EF). An exploratory factor analysis was performed on a college-aged sample of 320 healthy participants using principle axis factoring and promax rotation on nine measures of EF. The first three factors, labeled: working memory, fluid reasoning, and shifting/updating, were extracted and used as latent executive variables. Participants were also split into low, medium, and high phonemic and semantic verbal fluency ability groups...
March 7, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Mohanraj Thirumalai, William B Kirkland, Samuel R Misko, Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Laurie A Malone
BACKGROUND: Active video game (AVG) playing, also known as "exergaming," is increasingly employed to promote physical activity across all age groups. The Wii Fit Balance Board is a popular gaming controller for AVGs and is used in a variety of settings. However, the commercial off-the-shelf (OTS) design poses several limitations. It is inaccessible to wheelchair users, does not support the use of stabilization assistive devices, and requires the ability to shift the center of balance (COB) in all directions to fully engage in game play...
March 6, 2018: JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies
B Schram, B Hinton, R Orr, R Pope, G Norris
Background: The nature of police work often necessitates use of Individual Light Armour Vests (ILAVs) for officer protection. Previous research has demonstrated various biomechanical and physical performance impacts of ILAVs, however, little knowledge exists on the individual officer's perceptions of ILAV. The aim of this study was to investigate officers' perceptions of the impacts of three different ILAVs and normal station wear whilst performing police occupational tasks. Methods: A prospective, within subjects, repeated measures design was employed in which 11 serving police officers wore each of three different types of body armour (ILAV A, ILAV B or ILAV C) and normal station wear for a full day while performing tasks including a simulated victim drag, a patrol vehicle exit and a marksmanship shoot...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Andero Uusberg, Richard Naar, Maria Tamm, Kairi Kreegipuu, James J Gross
Affective states are known to distort time perception, but it remains unclear why and how they do so. To test whether appraisal processes involved in affect may play a role in temporal distortions, we investigated bisection behavior during experimental events with varying appraisal values along three dimensions: goal relevance (high vs. low), goal type (approach vs. avoid), and goal congruence (conducive vs. obstructive). Forty female participants performed an incentive-compatible gambling task attempting to accumulate wins and avoid losses of small amounts of chocolate...
March 5, 2018: Emotion
Lupeng Wang, Krsna V Rangarajan, Charles R Gerfen, Richard J Krauzlis
The basal ganglia are implicated in perceptual decision-making, although their specific contributions remain unclear. Here, we tested the causal role of the basal ganglia by manipulating neuronal activity in the dorsal striatum of mice performing a visual orientation-change detection (yes/no) task. Brief unilateral optogenetic stimulation caused large changes in task performance, shifting psychometric curves upward by increasing the probability of "yes" responses with only minor changes in sensitivity...
February 14, 2018: Neuron
Aude Retailleau, Genela Morris
Incentives drive goal-directed behavior; however, how they impact the formation and stabilization of goal-relevant hippocampal maps remains unknown. Since dopamine is involved in reward processing, affects hippocampal-dependent behavior, and modulates hippocampal plasticity, we hypothesized that local dopaminergic transmission in the hippocampus serves to mold the formation and updating of hippocampal cognitive maps to adaptively represent reward-predicting space of sensory inputs. We recorded CA1 place cells of rats throughout training on a spatial extra-dimensional set-shift task...
February 26, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Mark Chiew, Nadine N Graedel, Karla L Miller
Recent developments in highly accelerated fMRI data acquisition have employed low-rank and/or sparsity constraints for image reconstruction, as an alternative to conventional, time-independent parallel imaging. When under-sampling factors are high or the signals of interest are low-variance, however, functional data recovery can be poor or incomplete. We introduce a method for improving reconstruction fidelity using external constraints, like an experimental design matrix, to partially orient the estimated fMRI temporal subspace...
March 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Hannah Wolfe, Caoimhe Hannigan, Michael O'Sullivan, Liam Barry Carroll, Sabina Brennan, Brian Lawlor, Ian H Robertson, Marina Lynch
Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"