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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340315/systematic-behavioural-observation-of-executive-performance-after-brain-injury
#1
Mark W Lewis, Duncan R Babbage, Janet M Leathem
OBJECTIVE: To develop an ecologically valid measure of executive functioning (i.e. Planning and Organization, Executive Memory, Initiation, Cognitive Shifting, Impulsivity, Sustained and Directed Attention, Error Detection, Error Correction and Time Management) during a functional chocolate brownie cooking task. METHODS: In Study 1, the inter-rater reliability of a novel behavioural observation assessment method was assessed with 10 people with traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
March 24, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338242/what-can-community-pharmacy-learn-from-the-experiences-of-transition-to-practice-for-novice-doctors-and-nurses-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Esnath Magola, Sarah C Willis, Ellen I Schafheutle
OBJECTIVES: In the absence of literature reporting the transition experiences of novice community pharmacists, peer-reviewed evidence on the transition experiences of novice doctors and nurses was identified and reviewed. Specific objectives included identifying the challenges to transition and their perceived impact, before considering the implications for novice community pharmacists. METHODS: The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect were searched for full peer-reviewed original research papers published 1990-March 2015, reporting the transition experiences of novice doctors and nurses...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336323/m1-muscarinic-activation-induces-long-lasting-increase-in-intrinsic-excitability-of-striatal-projection-neurons
#3
Xiaohui Lv, Jonathan W Dickerson, Jerri M Rook, Craig W Lindsley, P Jeffrey Conn, Zixiu Xiang
The dorsolateral striatum is critically involved in movement control and motor learning. Striatal function is regulated by a variety of neuromodulators including acetylcholine. Previous studies have shown that cholinergic activation excites striatal principal projection neurons, medium spiny neurons (MSNs), and this action is mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine subtype 1 receptors (M1) through modulating multiple potassium channels. In the present study, we used electrophysiology techniques in conjunction with optogenetic and pharmacological tools to determine the long-term effects of striatal cholinergic activation on MSN intrinsic excitability...
March 20, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334467/revisiting-the-paradigm-shift-in-opioid-use-developments-and-implications-10%C3%A2-years-later
#4
Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm
A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care...
March 23, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333278/quantifying-ribosome-dynamics-in-escherichia-coli-using-fluorescence
#5
Jurek Failmezger, Julian Ludwig, Alexander Nieß, Martin Siemann-Herzberg
Ribosomes are a crucial component of the physiological state of a cell. Therefore, we aimed to monitor ribosome dynamics using a fast and easy fluorescence readout. Using fluorescent-labeled ribosomal proteins, the dynamics of ribosomes during batch cultivation and during nutritional shift conditions were investigated. The fluorescence readout was compared to the cellular rRNA content determined by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection during exponentially accelerating and decelerating growth...
March 8, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331006/monkey-prefrontal-neurons-during-sternberg-task-performance-full-contents-of-working-memory-or-most-recent-item
#6
Roma O Konecky, Matthew A Smith, Carl R Olson
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324753/error-augmentation-feedback-for-lateral-weight-shifting
#7
Kevin O'Brien, Charles R Crowell, James Schmiedeler
This study examines the effect of error augmentation of center of pressure (CoP) visual feedback on the performance of a lateral weight shifting task. Error augmentation emphasizes deviations from a standard CoP trajectory generated from existing data of over 2000 weight shifts collected with young, healthy subjects. Thirty-six subjects completed nine lateral weight shifting sessions, of which four were training sessions between each of the five testing sessions. Half of the subjects received error augmentation feedback during the training sessions, while the other half received the unaltered, control feedback...
March 6, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323400/stepwise-loop-insertion-strategy-for-active-site-remodeling-to-generate-novel-enzyme-functions
#8
Md Anarul Hoque, Yong Zhang, Liuqing Chen, Guang-Yu Yang, Mst Afroza Khatun, Hai-Feng Chen, Liu Hao, Yan Feng
The remodeling of active sites to generate novel biocatalysts is an attractive and challenging task. We developed a stepwise loop insertion strategy (StLois), in which randomized residue pairs are inserted into active site loops. The phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus kaustophilus (GkaP-PLL) was used to investigate StLois's potential for changing enzyme function. By inserting 6 residues into active site loop7, the best variant ML7-B6 demonstrated a 16 fold further increase in catalytic efficiency toward ethyl-paraoxon compared with its initial template, that is a 609-fold higher, >107 fold substrate specificity shift relative to that of wild-type lactonase...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323332/shedding-light-on-gray-ing-areas-connectivity-and-task-switching-dynamics-in-aging
#9
Pauline L Baniqued, Kathy A Low, Mark A Fletcher, Gabriele Gratton, Monica Fabiani
Control-demanding tasks rely on communication among regions of the frontoparietal network, areas that undergo significant age-related decline. Here, we integrate data from brain anatomy, electrophysiology (ERPs), and optical imaging (event-related optical signals, EROS) to characterize the spatial and temporal dynamics of preparatory control processes in middle to old age. Older adults participated in an experiment that required switching between a position and a meaning task (spatial Stroop), a paradigm that has been shown to primarily recruit prefrontal cortex in opposite hemispheres and is thought to involve the corpus callosum (CC)...
March 21, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323092/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-executive-functions-impaired-verbal-fluency-and-intact-updating-planning-and-conflict-resolution-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Gyula Demeter, István Valálik, Péter Pajkossy, Agnes Szőllősi, Ágnes Lukács, Ferenc Kemény, Mihály Racsmány
Although the improvement of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is well documented, there are open questions regarding its impact on cognitive functions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of bilateral DBS of the STN on executive functions in PD patients using a DBS wait-listed PD control group. Ten PD patients with DBS implantation (DBS group) and ten PD wait-listed patients (Clinical control group) participated in the study...
March 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321188/explicit-action-switching-interferes-with-the-context-specificity-of-motor-memories-in-older-adults
#11
Carly J Sombric, Harrison M Harker, Patrick J Sparto, Gelsy Torres-Oviedo
Healthy aging impairs the ability to adapt movements to novel situations and to switch choices according to the context in cognitive tasks, indicating resistance to changes in motor and cognitive behaviors. Here we examined if this lack of "flexibility" in old subjects observed in motor and cognitive domains were related. To this end, we evaluated subjects' performance in a motor task that required switching walking patterns and its relation to performance in a cognitive switching task. Specifically, a group of old (>73 years old) and young subjects learned a new locomotor pattern on a split-belt treadmill, which drives the legs at different speeds...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320224/identification-of-common-neural-circuit-disruptions-in-cognitive-control-across-psychiatric-disorders
#12
Lisa M McTeague, Julia Huemer, David M Carreon, Ying Jiang, Simon B Eickhoff, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive deficits are a common feature of psychiatric disorders. The authors investigated the nature of disruptions in neural circuitry underlying cognitive control capacities across psychiatric disorders through a transdiagnostic neuroimaging meta-analysis. METHOD: A PubMed search was conducted for whole-brain functional neuroimaging articles published through June 2015 that compared activation in patients with axis I disorders and matched healthy control participants during cognitive control tasks...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320158/addressing-post-stroke-care-in-rural-areas-with-peru-as-a-case-study-placing-emphasis-on-evidence-based-pragmatism
#13
REVIEW
J Jaime Miranda, Miguel G Moscoso, Lijing L Yan, Francisco Diez-Canseco, Germán Málaga, Hector H Garcia, Bruce Ovbiagele
Stroke is a major cause of death and disability, with most of its burden now affecting low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). People in rural areas of LMIC who have a stroke receive very little acute stroke care and local healthcare workers and family caregivers in these regions lack the necessary knowledge to assist them. Intriguingly, a recent rapid growth in cell-phone use and digital technology in rural areas has not yet been appropriately exploited for health care training and delivery purposes. What should be done in rural areas, at the community setting-level, where access to healthcare is limited remains a challenge...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319990/a-decision-support-approach-for-provider-scheduling-in-a-patient-centered-medical-home
#14
Renata Konrad, Sarah Ficarra, Catherine Danko, Rachel Wallace, Cliona Archambeault
The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) has been proposed as a viable and medically effective model of primary care delivery. The fundamental principles of a PCMH address increased access and offer new ways to organize a practice. Creating provider schedules able to satisfy the operational and organizational constraints imposed by this type of delivery model is a challenging, complex, and time-consuming task.This article presents a two-step approach for scheduling providers and prospectively assessing the consequences of various schedules on patient throughput without experimenting on the real-world system...
January 2017: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319263/a-review-of-family-caregiving-intervention-trials-in-oncology
#15
REVIEW
Betty Ferrell, Elaine Wittenberg
This article contains a review of literature published from 2010 to 2016 on family caregiving in oncology. An analysis of 810 citations resulted in 50 randomized trials. These trials describe the need to prepare family caregivers for the complex role they play in cancer care. Several studies have demonstrated improved quality of life for family caregivers and improved emotional support from interventions. Several studies addressed communication and relational intimacy, which are key concerns. An additional focus of these trials was in the area of caregiving tasks and ways to diminish the burden of caregiving and preparedness for this role...
March 20, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319043/glucocorticoid-receptors-finding-the-middle-ground
#16
Sofie J Desmet, Karolien De Bosscher
Glucocorticoids (GCs; referred to clinically as corticosteroids) are steroid hormones with potent anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory profiles. Depending on the context, these hormones can also mediate pro-inflammatory activities, thereby serving as primers of the immune system. Their target receptor, the GC receptor (GR), is a multi-tasking transcription factor, changing its role and function depending on cellular and organismal needs. To get a clearer idea of how to improve the safety profile of GCs, recent studies have investigated the complex mechanisms underlying GR functions...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317469/policy-power-stigma-and-silence-exploring-the-complexities-of-a-primary-mental-health-care-model-in-a-rural-south-african-setting
#17
Rochelle Ann Burgess
The Movement for Global Mental Health's (MGMH) efforts to scale up the availability of mental health services have been moderately successful. Investigations in resource-poor countries like South Africa have pointed to the value of an integrated primary mental health care model and multidisciplinary collaboration to support mental health needs in underserved and underresourced communities. However, there remains a need to explore how these policies play out within the daily realities of communities marked by varied environmental and relational complexities...
December 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315419/identifying-the-mechanisms-through-which-behavioral-weight-loss-treatment-improves-food-decision-making-in-obesity
#18
Kathryn E Demos, Jeanne M McCaffery, J Graham Thomas, Kimberly A Mailloux, Todd A Hare, Rena R Wing
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral weight loss (BWL) programs are the recommended treatment for obesity, yet it is unknown whether these programs change one's ability to use self-control in food choices and what specific mechanisms support such change. Using experimental economics methods, we investigated whether changes in dietary behavior in individuals with obesity following BWL are driven by one or more of the following potential mechanisms: changes in the perception of the 1) health or 2) taste of food items, and/or 3) shifting decision weights for health versus taste attributes...
March 14, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314918/oculomotor-prismatic-training-is-effective-in-ameliorating-spatial-neglect-a-pilot-study
#19
I Ronga, M Franza, P Sarasso, M Neppi-Modona
Visuomotor prismatic training has been demonstrated to be among the most effective rehabilitative techniques of spatial neglect, a neurological syndrome manifested by a number of right brain-damaged patients characterized by unawareness of the egocentric left half of the world. In the present study, we demonstrate that a novel oculomotor prismatic training procedure only consisting in a sequence of gaze shifts to visual targets, can reduce spatial neglect symptoms. Following oculomotor prismatic training, patients show a significant decrease in neglect severity in straight ahead and paper and pencil tasks...
March 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314501/legal-and-regulatory-barriers-to-reverse-innovation
#20
Virginia Rowthorn, Alexander J Plum, John Zervos
BACKGROUND: Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers...
November 2016: Annals of Global Health
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