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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779564/effects-of-alertness-management-training-on-sleepiness-among-long-haul-truck-drivers-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
M Pylkkönen, A Tolvanen, C Hublin, J Kaartinen, K Karhula, S Puttonen, M Sihvola, M Sallinen
Education is a frequently recommended remedy for driver sleepiness in occupational settings, although not many studies have examined its usefulness. To date, there are no previous on-road randomized controlled trials investigating the benefits of training on sleepiness among employees working in road transport. To examine the effects of an educational intervention on long-haul truck drivers' sleepiness at the wheel, amount of sleep between work shifts, and use of efficient sleepiness countermeasures (SCM) in association with night and non-night shift, a total of 53 truck drivers operating from southern Finland were allocated into an intervention and a control group using a stratified randomization method (allocation ratio for intervention and control groups 32:21, respectively)...
May 18, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777498/application-of-dirichlet-process-mixture-model-to-the-identification-of-spin-systems-in-protein-nmr-spectra
#2
Piotr Klukowski, Michał Augoff, Maciej Zamorski, Adam Gonczarek, Michał J Walczak
Analysis of structure, function and interactions of proteins by NMR spectroscopy usually requires the assignment of resonances to the corresponding nuclei in protein. This task, although automated by methods such as FLYA or PINE, is still frequently performed manually. To facilitate the manual sequence-specific chemical shift assignment of complex proteins, we propose a method based on Dirichlet process mixture model (DPMM) that performs automated matching of groups of signals observed in NMR spectra to corresponding nuclei in protein sequence...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777165/hiv-1-proteins-dysregulate-motivational-processes-and-dopamine-circuitry
#3
Sarah J Bertrand, Charles F Mactutus, Steven B Harrod, Landhing M Moran, Rosemarie M Booze
Motivational alterations, such as apathy, in HIV-1+ individuals are associated with decreased performance on tasks involving frontal-subcortical circuitry. We used the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat to assess effect of long-term HIV-1 protein exposure on motivated behavior using sucrose (1-30%, w/v) and cocaine (0.01-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) maintained responding with fixed-ratio (FR) and progressive-ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. For sucrose-reinforced responding, HIV-1 Tg rats displayed no change in EC50 relative to controls, suggesting no change in sucrose reinforcement but had a downward shifted concentration-response curves, suggesting a decrease in response vigor...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775218/unilateral-movement-preparation-causes-task-specific-modulation-of-tms-responses-in-the-passive-opposite-limb
#4
Lilian Chye, Stephan Riek, Aymar de Rugy, Richard G Carson, Timothy J Carroll
Corticospinal excitability is modulated for muscles on both sides of the body during unilateral movement preparation. For the effector, there is a progressive increase in excitability, and a shift in direction of muscle twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) toward the impending movement. By contrast, the directional characteristics of excitability changes in the opposite (passive) limb have not been fully characterized. Here we assessed how preparation of voluntary forces towards four spatially distinct visual targets with the left wrist alters muscle twitches and motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by TMS of left motor cortex...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774478/number-line-estimation-and-complex-mental-calculation-is-there-a-shared-cognitive-process-driving-the-two-tasks
#5
Maria Montefinese, Carlo Semenza
It is widely accepted that different number-related tasks, including solving simple addition and subtraction, may induce attentional shifts on the so-called mental number line, which represents larger numbers on the right and smaller numbers on the left. Recently, it has been shown that different number-related tasks also employ spatial attention shifts along with general cognitive processes. Here we investigated for the first time whether number line estimation and complex mental arithmetic recruit a common mechanism in healthy adults...
May 17, 2018: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772392/effects-of-task-repetition-but-no-transfer-of-inhibitory-control-training-in-healthy-adults
#6
Tobias Talanow, Ulrich Ettinger
Executive functions (EFs) comprise the updating, shifting and inhibition dimensions. According to the Unity and Diversity Model, the inhibition dimension is fully accounted for by a general EFs factor. This suggests that training of inhibition should transfer, in part, to updating and shifting. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of a three-week inhibition training (high-conflict Stroop task) and explored near transfer effects to an untrained inhibition task (antisaccade task) and far transfer effects to untrained tasks demanding task-set shifting (number-letter-task), working memory updating (n-back task) and planning abilities (Stockings of Cambridge task)...
May 14, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771225/the-resident-physician-as-leader-within-the-healthcare-team
#7
Lyn Kathryn Sonnenberg, Lesley Pritchard-Wiart, Jamiu Busari
Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore inter-professional clinicians' perspectives on resident leadership in the context of inter-professional teams and to identify a definition for leadership in the clinical context. In 2015, CanMEDS changed the title of one of the core competencies from manager to leader. The shift in language was perceived by some as returning to traditional hierarchical and physician-dominant structures. The resulting uncertainty has resulted in a call to action to not only determine what physician leadership is but to also determine how to teach and assess it...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771204/past-present-and-future-challenges-in-health-care-priority-setting
#8
William Hall, Iestyn Williams, Neale Smith, Marthe Gold, Joanna Coast, Lydia Kapiriri, M Danis, Craig Mitton
Purpose Current conditions have intensified the need for health systems to engage in the difficult task of priority setting. As the search for a "magic bullet" is replaced by an appreciation for the interplay between evidence, interests, culture, and outcomes, progress in relation to these dimensions requires assessment of achievements to date and identification of areas where knowledge and practice require attention most urgently. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach An international survey was administered to experts in the area of priority setting...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768990/control-of-a-7-dof-robotic-arm-system-with-an-ssvep-based-bci
#9
Xiaogang Chen, Bing Zhao, Yijun Wang, Shengpu Xu, Xiaorong Gao
Although robot technology has been successfully used to empower people who suffer from motor disabilities to increase their interaction with their physical environment, it remains a challenge for individuals with severe motor impairment, who do not have the motor control ability to move robots or prosthetic devices by manual control. In this study, to mitigate this issue, a noninvasive brain-computer interface (BCI)-based robotic arm control system using gaze based steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) was designed and implemented using a portable wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766042/bc-rna-mislocalization-in-the-fragile-x-premutation
#10
Ilham A Muslimov, Taesun Eom, Anna Iacoangeli, Shih-Chieh Chuang, Renate K Hukema, Rob Willemsen, Dimitre G Stefanov, Robert K S Wong, Henri Tiedge
Fragile X premutation disorder is caused by CGG triplet repeat expansions in the 5' untranslated region of FMR1 mRNA. The question of how expanded CGG repeats cause disease is a subject of continuing debate. Our work indicates that CGG-repeat structures compete with regulatory BC1 RNA for access to RNA transport factor hnRNP A2. As a result, BC1 RNA is mislocalized in vivo, as its synapto-dendritic presence is severely diminished in brains of CGG-repeat knock-in animals (a premutation mouse model). Lack of BC1 RNA is known to cause seizure activity and cognitive dysfunction...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764618/investigating-daily-fatigue-scores-during-two-week-offshore-day-shifts
#11
Vanessa Riethmeister, Ute Bültmann, Marijke Gordijn, Sandra Brouwer, Michiel de Boer
OBJECTIVES: This study examined daily scores of fatigue and circadian rhythm markers over two-week offshore day shift periods. METHODS: A prospective cohort study among N = 60 offshore day-shift workers working two-week offshore shifts was conducted. Offshore day shifts lasted from 07:00 - 19:00 h. Fatigue was measured objectively with pre- and post-shift scores of the 3-minute psychomotor vigilance tasks (PVT-B) parameters (reaction times, number of lapses, errors and false starts) and subjectively with pre- and post-shift Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) ratings...
September 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764270/drunk-decisions-alcohol-shifts-choice-from-habitual-towards-goal-directed-control-in-adolescent-intermediate-risk-drinkers
#12
Elisabeth Obst, Daniel J Schad, Quentin Jm Huys, Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. METHODS: Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760410/motivational-changes-that-develop-in-a-mouse-model-of-inflammation-induced-depression-are-independent-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase
#13
Elisabeth G Vichaya, Geoffroy Laumet, Diana L Christian, Aaron J Grossberg, Darlene J Estrada, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer
Despite years of research, our understanding of the mechanisms by which inflammation induces depression is still limited. As clinical data points to a strong association between depression and motivational alterations, we sought to (1) characterize the motivational changes that are associated with inflammation in mice, and (2) determine if they depend on inflammation-induced activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO1). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated or spared nerve injured (SNI) wild type (WT) and Ido1 -/- mice underwent behavioral tests of antidepressant activity (e...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760227/socioeconomic-status-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-challenges-and-interventions
#14
REVIEW
William M Schultz, Heval M Kelli, John C Lisko, Tina Varghese, Jia Shen, Pratik Sandesara, Arshed A Quyyumi, Herman A Taylor, Martha Gulati, John G Harold, Jennifer H Mieres, Keith C Ferdinand, George A Mensah, Laurence S Sperling
Socioeconomic status (SES) has a measurable and significant effect on cardiovascular health. Biological, behavioral, and psychosocial risk factors prevalent in disadvantaged individuals accentuate the link between SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Four measures have been consistently associated with CVD in high-income countries: income level, educational attainment, employment status, and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. In addition, disparities based on sex have been shown in several studies. Interventions targeting patients with low SES have predominantly focused on modification of traditional CVD risk factors...
May 15, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760180/the-affective-and-neural-correlates-of-heroin-vs-cocaine-use-in-addiction-are-influenced-by-environmental-setting-but-in-opposite-directions
#15
Silvana De Pirro, Gaspare Galati, Luigi Pizzamiglio, Aldo Badiani
Previous studies have shown that individuals with heroin and cocaine addiction prefer to use these drugs in distinct settings: mostly at home in the case of heroin and mostly outside the home in the case of cocaine. Here we investigated whether the context would modulate the affective and neural responses to these drugs in a similar way. First, we used a novel emotional task to assess the affective state produced by heroin or cocaine in different settings, based on the recollections of male and female drug users...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759259/1-300-days-and-counting-a-risk-model-approach-to-preventing-retained-foreign-objects-rfos
#16
Erika G Duggan, Jimmy Fernandez, Mary May Saulan, Dave L Mayers, Mira Nikolaj, Tamara M Strah, Lystra M Swift, Larissa Temple
BACKGROUND: A retained foreign object (RFO) is a devastating surgical complication that typically results in additional surgeries, increased length of stay, and risk of infections and is potentially fatal. Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) convened a multidisciplinary task force to undertake an improvement initiative to reduce the frequency of RFO incidents. METHODS: A needs assessment was undertaken using focus group interviews, review of past RFOs, and operating room (OR) observations, and a comprehensive intervention plan was initiated...
May 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757353/development-and-evaluation-of-a-deep-learning-model-for-protein-ligand-binding-affinity-prediction
#17
Marta M Stepniewska-Dziubinska, Piotr Zielenkiewicz, Pawel Siedlecki
Motivation: Structure based ligand discovery is one of the most successful approaches for augmenting the drug discovery process. Currently, there is a notable shift towards machine learning (ML) methodologies to aid such procedures. Deep learning has recently gained considerable attention as it allows the model to "learn" to extract features that are relevant for the task at hand. Results: We have developed a novel deep neural network estimating the binding affinity of ligand-receptor complexes...
May 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756458/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-adding-vibrotactile-feedback-to-myoelectric-prosthesis-users-on-performance-and-visual-attention-in-a-dual-task-paradigm
#18
Eitan Raveh, Jason Friedman, Sigal Portnoy
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of adding vibrotactile feedback to myoelectric prosthesis users on the performance time and visual attention in a dual-task paradigm. DESIGN: A repeated-measures design with a counterbalanced order of two conditions. SETTING: Laboratory setting. SUBJECTS: Transradial amputees using a myoelectric prosthesis with normal or corrected eyesight ( N = 12, median age = 65 ± 13 years)...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755402/default-mode-network-oscillatory-coupling-is-increased-following-concussion
#19
Benjamin T Dunkley, Karolina Urban, Leodante Da Costa, Simeon M Wong, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Concussion is a common form of mild traumatic brain injury. Despite the descriptor "mild," a single injury can leave long-lasting and sustained alterations to brain function, including changes to localized activity and large-scale interregional communication. Cognitive complaints are thought to arise from such functional deficits. We investigated the impact of injury on neurophysiological and functionally specialized resting networks, known as intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs), using magnetoencephalography...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755385/sex-age-and-emotional-valence-revealing-possible-biases-in-the-reading-the-mind-in-the-eyes-task
#20
Jana Kynast, Matthias L Schroeter
The 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET) assesses a specific socio-cognitive ability, i.e., the ability to identify mental states from gaze. The development of this ability in a lifespan perspective is of special interest. Whereas former investigations were limited mainly to childhood and adolescence, the focus has been shifted towards aging, and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases recently. Although the RMET is frequently applied in developmental psychology and clinical settings, stimulus characteristics have never been investigated with respect to potential effects on test performance...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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