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Capacity building

Bice S Martincigh, Moses A Ollengo
The photostabilizing ability of grape seed extract on three common sunscreen absorbers: 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxcinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and tert-butylmethoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDBM), was investigated. Samples were exposed to simulated solar radiation and monitored by spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. The chemical composition of the grape seed extract was determined by GC-MS and HPLC-MS and the major secondary metabolites were found to be epicatechin and catechin. Exposure of the extract to UV radiation increased the UV absorption capacity of the extract...
October 19, 2016: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Rachel Barr, Alecia Moser, Sylvia Rusnak, Laura Zimmermann, Kelly Dickerson, Herietta Lee, Peter Gerhardstein
Early childhood is characterized by memory capacity limitations and rapid perceptual and motor development [Rovee-Collier (1996). Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 385-400]. The present study examined 2-year olds' reproduction of a sliding action to complete an abstract fish puzzle under different levels of memory load and perceptual feature support. Experimental groups were compared to baseline controls to assess spontaneous rates of production of the target actions; baseline production was low across all experiments...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
David B Nicholas, Sandra Hodgetts, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Leann E Smith, Paul Shattuck, Jeremy R Parr, Olivia Conlon, Tamara Germani, Wendy Mitchell, Lori Sacrey, Margot E Stothers
Research related to supports for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is under-developed. As an example, system and service development to support successful transition to adulthood and meaningful vocation for adults has received relatively little research scrutiny until recently, with practitioners and program developers lacking evidence-informed approaches guiding service delivery. A Special Interest Group (SIG) was convened at the International Meeting for Autism Research in May 2014 and May 2015, with a focus on transitional and vocational issues in ASD...
October 17, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Jane Landon, Tim Lobstein, Fiona Godfrey, Paula Johns, Chris Brookes, David Jernigan
Background and aims The 2011 UN Summit on Non-Communicable Disease failed to call for global action on alcohol marketing despite calls in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-20 to restrict or ban alcohol advertising. In this paper we ask what it might take to match the global approach to tobacco enshrined in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), and suggest that public health advocates can learn from the development of the FCTC and the Code of Marketing on infant formula milks and the recent recommendations on restricting food marketing to children...
October 18, 2016: Addiction
Craig Morris, Ingrid Alexander
A Project Manager from the Fife Early Years Collaborative facilitated a large-scale Quality Improvement (herein QI) project to build organisational capacity and capability across the Children in Fife partnership through three separate, eight month training cohorts. This 18 month QI project enabled 32 practitioners to increase their skills, knowledge, and experiences in a variety of QI tools including the Model for Improvement which then supported the delivery of high quality improvement projects and improved outcomes for children and families...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
Sushil Chandra, Greeshma Sharma, Mansi Sharma, Devendra Jha, Alok Pakash Mittal
Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY) is a type of rhythmic breathing activity, trivially a form of Pranayama that stimulates physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being. The objective of the present work is to verify the effect of meditation in optimizing task efficiency and regulating stress. It builds on to quantitatively answer if SKY will increase workload tolerance for divided attention tasks in the people sank in it. EEG and ECG recordings were taken from a total of twenty-five subjects who had volunteered for the experiment...
July 18, 2016: Brain Informatics
Debjani Mueller, Iñaki Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Tara Schuller, Marco Chiumente, Jeonghoon Ahn, Andres Pichon-Riviere, Sebastian García-Martí, David Grainger, Elizabeth Cobbs, Marco Marchetti
OBJECTIVES: Health technology assessment (HTA) yields information that can be ideally used to address deficiencies in health systems and to create a wider understanding of the impact of different policy considerations around technology reimbursement and use. The structure of HTA programs varies across different jurisdictions according to decision-maker needs. Moreover, conducting HTA requires specialized skills. Effective decision making should include multiple criteria (medical, economic, technical, ethical, social, legal, and cultural) and requires multi-disciplinary teams of experts working together to produce these assessments...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Sara E Fischer, Olusegun I Alatise, Akinwunmi O Komolafe, Aba I Katung, Adedeji A Egberongbe, Samuel A Olatoke, Olayide S Agodirin, Oladapo A Kolawole, Olaejerinde O Olaofe, Omobolaji O Ayandipo, Olorunda Rotimi, Murray F Brennan, T Peter Kingham
PURPOSE: There is an increasing effort in the global public health community to strengthen research capacity in low- and middle-income countries, but there is no consensus on how best to approach such endeavors. Successful consortia that perform research on HIV/AIDS and other infectious diseases exist, but few papers have been published detailing the challenges faced and lessons learned in setting up and running a successful research consortium. METHODS: Members of the African Research Group for Oncology (ARGO) participated in generating lessons learned regarding the foundation and maintenance of a cancer research consortium in Nigeria...
October 14, 2016: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Charles A Mkony, Ephata E Kaaya, Alex J Goodell, Sarah B Macfarlane
BACKGROUND: Faced with one of the lowest physician-to-population ratios in the world, the Government of Tanzania is urging its medical schools to train more physicians. The annual number of medical students admitted across the country rose from 55 in the 1990s to 1,680 approved places for the 2015/16 academic year. These escalating numbers strain existing faculty. OBJECTIVE: To describe the availability of faculty in medical schools in Tanzania. DESIGN: We identified faculty lists published on the Internet by five Tanzanian medical schools for the 2011/12 academic year and analyzed the appointment status, rank, discipline, and qualifications of faculty members...
2016: Global Health Action
Michael L Parchman, Lyle J Fagnan, David A Dorr, Peggy Evans, Andrea J Cook, Robert B Penfold, Clarissa Hsu, Allen Cheadle, Laura-Mae Baldwin, Leah Tuzzio
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to quality improvement (QI) capacity within smaller primary care practices which comprise nearly half of all primary care settings. Strategies for external support to build such capacity include practice facilitation (PF), shared learning opportunities, and educational outreach. Although PF has proven effectiveness, little is known about the comparative effectiveness of combining these strategies. Here, we describe the protocol of the "Healthy Hearts Northwest" (H2N) study, a randomized trial designed to address these questions while improving risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
October 13, 2016: Implementation Science: IS
Michael Parker, Patricia Kingori
There has been a dramatic rise in the scale and scope of collaborative global health research. A number of structural and scientific factors explain this growth and there has been much discussion of these in the literature. Little, if any, attention has been paid, however, to the factors identified by scientists and other research actors as important to successful research collaboration. This is surprising given that their decisions are likely to play a key role in the sustainability and effectiveness of global health research initiatives...
2016: PloS One
Paola Friedrich, Catherine G Lam, Geetinder Kaur, Elena Itriago, Raul C Ribeiro, Ramandeep S Arora
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing treatment abandonment (TxA) is crucial for bridging the pediatric cancer survival gap between high-income (HIC) and low-and middle-income countries (LMC). In childhood cancer, TxA is defined as failure to start or complete curative cancer therapy and known to be a complex phenomenon. With rising interest on causes and consequences of TxA in LMC, this study aimed to establish the lay-of-the-land regarding determinants of TxA globally, perform and promote comparative research, and raise awareness on this subject...
2016: PloS One
Anne E Heggen, Anthony W Solomon, Paul Courtright
PURPOSE: Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect people living in the poorest regions of the world and their debilitating effects perpetuate the poverty cycle. Understanding the distribution of NTDs is crucial for effective intervention delivery. In 2012, the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP) was initiated to map >1800 suspected trachoma endemic districts by March 2015. This research was carried out to better understand the implementation experience and identify lessons which might inform the GTMP and similar initiatives...
October 11, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Salla Atkins, Sophie Marsden, Vishal Diwan, Merrick Zwarenstein
BACKGROUND: Research capacity enhancement is needed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) for improved health, wellbeing, and health systems' development. In this article, we discuss two capacity-building projects, the African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) in Health Systems and Services Research (HSSR) and Research on Social Determinants of Health (RSDH), implemented from 2011 to 2015. The two projects focussed on providing courses in HSSR and social determinants of health research, and on developing collaborations between universities, along with capacity in LMIC universities to manage research grant submissions, financing, and reporting...
2016: Global Health Action
Rosanna Färnman, Vishal Diwan, Merrick Zwarenstein, Salla Atkins
INTRODUCTION: Increasing efforts are being made globally on capacity building. North-south research partnerships have contributed significantly to enhancing the research capacity in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over the past few decades; however, a lack of skilled researchers to inform health policy development persists, particularly in LMICs. The EU FP7 funded African/Asian Regional Capacity Development (ARCADE) projects were multi-partner consortia aimed to develop a new generation of highly trained researchers from universities across the globe, focusing on global health-related subjects: health systems and services research and research on social determinants of health...
2016: Global Health Action
Salla Atkins, Dinansha Varshney, Elnta Meragia, Merrick Zwarenstein, Vishal Diwan
BACKGROUND: Capacity development in health research is high on the agenda of many low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVE: The ARCADE projects, funded by the EU, have been working in Africa and Asia since 2011 in order to build postgraduate students' health research capacity. In this short communication, we describe one initiative in these projects, that of research clinics - online journal clubs connecting southern and northern students and experts. DESIGN: We describe the implementation of these research clinics together with student and participant experiences...
2016: Global Health Action
Myroslava Protsiv, Salla Atkins
BACKGROUND: Growing demand for Global Health (GH) training and the internationalisation of education requires innovative approaches to training. Blended learning (BL, a form of e-learning combining face-to-face or real-time interaction with computer-assisted learning) is a promising approach for increasing GH research capacity in low- to middle-income countries. Implementing BL, however, requires additional skills and efforts from lecturers. This paper explores lecturers' views and experiences of delivering BL courses within the context of two north-south collaborative research capacity building projects, ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH...
2016: Global Health Action
Salla Atkins, Weirong Yan, Elnta Meragia, Hassan Mahomed, Senia Rosales-Klintz, Donald Skinner, Merrick Zwarenstein
BACKGROUND: As blended learning (BL; a combination of face-to-face and e-learning methods) becomes more commonplace, it is important to assess whether students find it useful for their studies. ARCADE HSSR and ARCADE RSDH (African Regional Capacity Development for Health Systems and Services Research; Asian Regional Capacity Development for Research on Social Determinants of Health) were unique capacity-building projects, focusing on developing BL in Africa and Asia on issues related to global health...
2016: Global Health Action
Keymanthri Moodley, Shenuka Singh
BACKGROUND: Biobanks are precariously situated at the intersection of science, genetics, genomics, society, ethics, the law and politics. This multi-disciplinarity has given rise to a new discourse in health research involving diverse stakeholders. Each stakeholder is embedded in a unique context and articulates his/her biobanking activities differently. To researchers, biobanks carry enormous transformative potential in terms of advancing scientific discovery and knowledge. However, in the context of power asymmetries in Africa and a distrust in science born out of historical exploitation, researchers must balance the scientific imperative of collecting, storing and sharing high quality biological samples with obligations to donors/participants, communities, international collaborators, regulatory and ethics authorities...
October 10, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Xi Peng, Canyi Lu, Zhang Yi, Huajin Tang
A lot of works have shown that frobenius-norm-based representation (FNR) is competitive to sparse representation and nuclear-norm-based representation (NNR) in numerous tasks such as subspace clustering. Despite the success of FNR in experimental studies, less theoretical analysis is provided to understand its working mechanism. In this brief, we fill this gap by building the theoretical connections between FNR and NNR. More specially, we prove that: 1) when the dictionary can provide enough representative capacity, FNR is exactly NNR even though the data set contains the Gaussian noise, Laplacian noise, or sample-specified corruption and 2) otherwise, FNR and NNR are two solutions on the column space of the dictionary...
October 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
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