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Capacity building

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742853/leadership-and-management-training-as-a-catalyst-to-health-system-strengthening-in-low-income-settings-evidence-from-implementation-of-the-zambia-management-and-leadership-course-for-district-health-managers-in-zambia
#1
Wilbroad Mutale, Anne-Thora Vardoy-Mutale, Arthur Kachemba, Roman Mukendi, Kupela Clarke, Dennis Mulenga
BACKGROUND: Research has shown that the modes of leadership and management may influence health outcomes. However, majority of health leaders and managers in many low-income countries are promoted on account of clinical expertise. It has been recognised that these new managers are often ill-prepared for managing complex health systems. In response to this challenge, the Zambian Ministry of Health (MoH) has developed the Governance and Management Capacity Building (GMCB) Strategic Plan (2012-2016), whose overarching goal is to improve health sector governance and create an environment that is result-oriented, accountable and transparent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741908/research-capacity-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-in-latin-america-an-area-for-growth
#2
Diana C Parra, Susan Vorkoper, Harold W Kohl, Benjamin Caballero, Carolina Batis, Alejandra Jauregui, Jessica Mason, Michael Pratt
BACKGROUND: The rise of childhood obesity in Latin America calls for research capacity to understand, monitor and implement strategies, policies and programmes to address it. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess current research capacity in Latin America related to childhood obesity, nutrition and physical activity. METHODS: We conducted a search of peer-reviewed articles on childhood obesity in Latin America with at least one Latin American author from 2010 to May 2015...
July 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741905/preventing-childhood-obesity-in-latin-america-an-agenda-for-regional-research-and-strategic-partnerships
#3
B Caballero, S Vorkoper, N Anand, J A Rivera
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America poses a major public health challenge to the region. In response, many countries are implementing obesity prevention programmes aimed at modifying known risk factors. However, the limited scientific evidence inhibits the development and implementation of novel, effective interventions across the region. To address these gaps, the NIH Fogarty International Center convened a workshop of researchers, policymakers, programme implementers and public health advocates who are actively engaged in the region to prevent childhood obesity...
July 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741318/protected-lithium-metal-anodes-in-batteries-from-liquid-to-solid
#4
REVIEW
Chunpeng Yang, Kun Fu, Ying Zhang, Emily Hitz, Liangbing Hu
High-energy lithium-metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. With a high specific capacity and a low reduction potential, the Li-metal anode has attracted extensive interest for decades. Dendritic Li formation, uncontrolled interfacial reactions, and huge volume effect are major hurdles to the commercial application of Li-metal anodes. Recent studies have shown that the performance and safety of Li-metal anodes can be significantly improved via organic electrolyte modification, Li-metal interface protection, Li-electrode framework design, separator coating, and so on...
July 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737220/current-state-of-pharmacovigilance-in-the-arab-and-eastern-mediterranean-region-results-of-a-2015-survey
#5
Danya M Qato
OBJECTIVES: This study describes the current state of pharmacovigilance systems in Arab and Eastern Mediterranean countries. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between May and September 2015. Data were gathered from a standardized online survey sent to pharmacovigilance leadership identified as the official national contact for the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring. In countries with no specified pharmacovigilance programme or leadership, Ministry of Health officers responsible for drug safety policies were invited to participate in the survey...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736414/community-interactive-research-workshop-series-community-members-engaged-as-team-teachers-to-conduct-research
#6
Connie Kim Nguyen-Truong, Joannie Tang, Chiao-Yun Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Vietnamese women are diagnosed with cervical cancer at twice the rate of non-Hispanic White women and the highest compared to Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Japanese women. ἀ e Vietnamese Women's Health Project, a community-based participatory research partnership, was developed to address this concern. In earlier studies, community members received research training. OBJECTIVES: To describe how we developed an innovative curricular research training framework...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736403/combating-health-disparities-in-cambodian-american-communities-a-cbpr-approach-to-building-community-capacity
#7
S Megan Berthold, Sengly Kong, Theanvy Kuoch, Elizabeth A Schilling, Rasy An, Mary Blatz, Rorng Sorn, Sivheng Ung, Yorn Yan, Mary Scully, Seiya Fukuda, Lorin Mordecai
BACKGROUND: Cambodian Americans have higher rates of health problems compared with the general U.S. POPULATION: A relatively modest community capacity for collecting data contributes to these disparities. OBJECTIVES: To (1) further develop the Cambodian American community's capacity to design and conduct health research meaningful to their community via a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, (2) train and deploy bilingual community health workers (CHWs) to gather health-related data from their communities using mobile technology, and (3) measure the feasibility and effectiveness of our efforts...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735594/facilitating-partnerships-with-community-and-faith-based-organizations-for-disaster-preparedness-and-response-results-of-a-national-survey-of-public-health-departments
#8
Rachel M Adams, Michael L Prelip, Deborah C Glik, Ian Donatello, David P Eisenman
OBJECTIVE: We identify characteristics of local health departments, which enhance collaborations with community- and faith-based organizations (CFBOs) for emergency preparedness and response. METHODS: Online survey data were collected from a sample of 273 disaster preparedness coordinators working at local health departments across the United States between August and December 2011. RESULTS: Using multiple linear regression models, we found that perceptions of CFBO trust were associated with more successful partnership planning (β=0...
July 24, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735357/promoting-and-protecting-public-health-how-the-european-union-pharmacovigilance-system-works
#9
Aniello Santoro, Georgy Genov, Almath Spooner, June Raine, Peter Arlett
This article provides an overview of the European Union pharmacovigilance system resulting from the rationalisation and strengthening delivered through the implementation of the revised pharmacovigilance legislation. It outlines the system aims, underlying principles, components and drivers for future change. At its core, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee is responsible for assessing all aspects of the risk management of medicinal products, thus ensuring that medicines approved for the European Union market are optimally used by maximising their benefits and minimising risks...
July 22, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734363/multi-energy-calibration-applied-to-atomic-spectrometry
#10
Alex Virgilio, Daniel A Gonçalves, Tina McSweeney, José A Gomes Neto, Joaquim A Nóbrega, George L Donati
Multi-energy calibration (MEC) is a novel strategy that explores the capacity of several analytes of generating analytical signals at many different wavelengths (transition energies). Contrasting with traditional methods, which employ a fixed transition energy and different analyte concentrations to build a calibration plot, MEC uses a fixed analyte concentration and multiple transition energies for calibration. Only two calibration solutions are required in combination with the MEC method. Solution 1 is composed of 50% v v(-1) sample and 50% v v(-1) of a standard solution containing the analytes...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733726/enhancing-capacity-among-faith-based-organizations-to-implement-evidence-based-cancer-control-programs-a-community-engaged-approach
#11
Bryan Leyva, Jennifer D Allen, Hosffman Ospino, Laura S Tom, Rosalyn Negrón, Richard Buesa, Maria Idalí Torres
Evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to promote cancer control among Latinos have proliferated in recent years, though adoption and implementation of these interventions by faith-based organizations (FBOs) is limited. Capacity building may be one strategy to promote implementation. In this qualitative study, 18 community key informants were interviewed to (a) understand existing capacity for health programming among Catholic parishes, (b) characterize parishes' resource gaps and capacity-building needs implementing cancer control EBIs, and (c) elucidate strategies for delivering capacity-building assistance to parishes to facilitate implementation of EBIs...
July 21, 2017: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729443/theta-and-beta-band-neural-activity-reflect-independent-syllable-tracking-and-comprehension-of-time-compressed-speech
#12
Maria Pefkou, Luc H Arnal, Lorenzo Fontolan, Anne-Lise Giraud
Recent psychophysics data suggest that speech perception is not limited by the capacity of the auditory system to encode fast acoustic variations through neural gamma activity, but rather by the time given to the brain to decode them. Whether the decoding process is bounded by the capacity of theta rhythm to follow speech syllabic rhythm, or constrained by a more endogenous top-down mechanism, e.g. involving beta activity, is unknown. We addressed the dynamics of auditory decoding in speech comprehension by challenging syllable tracking and speech decoding using comprehensible and incomprehensible time-compressed auditory sentences...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728970/the-staphylococcus-aureus-fasii-bypass-escape-route-from-fasii-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Claire Morvan, David Halpern, Gérald Kénanian, Amit Pathania, Jamila Mondoloni-Anba, Gilles Lamberet, Alexandra Gruss, Karine Gloux
Antimicrobials targeting the fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway are being developed as alternative treatments for bacterial infections. Emergence of resistance to FASII inhibitors was mainly considered as a consequence of mutations in the FASII target genes. However, an alternative and efficient anti-FASII resistance strategy, called here FASII bypass, was uncovered. Bacteria that bypass FASII make use of exogenous fatty acids to build their membranes, and thus dispense with the need for FASII. This strategy is used by numerous Gram-positive low GC% bacteria, including streptococci, enterococci, and staphylococci...
July 17, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727178/tailored-band-gaps-in-sulphur-and-nitrogen-containing-porous-donor-acceptor-polymers-snps
#14
Dana Schwarz, Yaroslav S Kochergin, Amitava Acharja, Arun Ichangi, Maksym V Opanasenko, Jiří Čejka, Uwe Lappan, Pal Arki, Junjie He, Johannes Schmidt, Petr Nachtigall, Arne Thomas, Michael Janus Bojdys
Donor-acceptor dyads hold the key to tuning of electrochemical properties and enhanced mobility of charge carriers, yet their incorporation into a heterogeneous polymer network proves difficulty due to the fundamentally different chemistry of the donor- and acceptor-subunits. We present a family of sulphur and nitrogen containing porous polymers (SNPs) that are obtained via Sonogashira-Hagihara cross-coupling and that combine electron-withdrawing triazine (C3N3) and electron donating, sulphur-containing linkers...
July 20, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727145/transcriptional-control-of-photosynthetic-capacity-conservation-and-divergence-from-arabidopsis-to-rice
#15
REVIEW
Peng Wang, Ross-William Hendron, Steven Kelly
1 I. 1 II. 2 III. 5 IV. 10 12 References 12 SUMMARY: Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes on Earth. It provides the consumable energy upon which almost all organisms are dependent, and modulates the composition of the planet's atmosphere. To carry out photosynthesis, plants require a large cohort of genes. These genes encode proteins that capture light energy, store energy in sugars and build the subcellular structures required to facilitate this energy capture. Although the function of many of these genes is known, little is understood about the transcriptional networks that coordinate their expression...
July 20, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726795/a-retrospective-analysis-of-hypertension-screening-at-a-mass-gathering-in-india-implications-for-non-communicable-disease-control-strategies
#16
S Balsari, P Vemulapalli, M Gofine, K Oswal, R Merchant, S Saunik, G Greenough, T Khanna
Cardiovascular disease is the leading case of mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCD) in India. The government's National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke seeks to increase capacity building, screening, referral and management of NCDs across India, and includes community-based outreach and screening programmes. The government in India routinely provides basic care at religious mass gatherings. However, in 2015, at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik and Trimbakeshwar, the state government extended its services to include a hypertension screening programme...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Human Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725578/transperineal-vs-transrectal-biopsy-in-mri-targeting
#17
REVIEW
Jeremy Grummet, Lana Pepdjonovic, Sean Huang, Elliot Anderson, Boris Hadaschik
Prostate biopsy is typically performed via either the transrectal or transperineal approach. MRI-targeted biopsy, whether using any of the three options of cognitive fusion, MRI-ultrasound fusion software, or in-bore MRI-guided biopsy, can also be performed via either transrectal or transperineal approaches. As an extension of traditional random prostate biopsy, the transrectal approach is far more commonly used for MRI-targeted biopsy due to its convenience. However, in the context of today's increasing multi-drug resistance of rectal flora, the transperineal approach is being used more often due to its lack of septic complications...
June 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725261/health-risk-behavior-among-chronically-ill-adolescents-a-systematic-review-of-assessment-tools
#18
REVIEW
Derrick Ssewanyana, Moses Kachama Nyongesa, Anneloes van Baar, Charles R Newton, Amina Abubakar
BACKGROUND: Adolescents living with chronic illnesses engage in health risk behaviors (HRB) which pose challenges for optimizing care and management of their ill health. Frequent monitoring of HRB is recommended, however little is known about which are the most useful tools to detect HRB among chronically ill adolescents. AIMS: This systematic review was conducted to address important knowledge gaps on the assessment of HRB among chronically ill adolescents. Its specific aims were to: identify HRB assessment tools, the geographical location of the studies, their means of administration, the psychometric properties of the tools and the commonest forms of HRB assessed among adolescents living with chronic illnesses globally...
2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723811/the-afya-bora-fellowship-an-innovative-program-focused-on-creating-an-interprofessional-network-of-leaders-in-global-health
#19
Wendy M Green, Carey Farquhar, Yohana Mashalla
PROBLEM: Most current health professions education programs are focused on the development of clinical skills. As a result, they may not address the complex and interconnected nature of global health. Trainees require relevant clinical, programmatic, and leadership skills to meet the challenges of practicing in an increasingly globalized environment. APPROACH: To develop health care leaders within sub-Saharan Africa, the Afya Bora Consortium developed a one-year fellowship for medical doctors and nurses...
July 18, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722555/understanding-the-state-of-health-policy-and-systems-research-in-west-africa-and-capacity-strengthening-needs-scoping-of-peer-reviewed-publications-trends-and-patterns-1990-2015
#20
Selina Defor, Aku Kwamie, Irene Akua Agyepong
BACKGROUND: The need for locally-driven, locally-generated evidence to guide health policy and systems decision-making and implementation in West Africa remains urgent. Thus, health policy and systems research (HPSR) is a field with great potential for addressing many of the sub-region's intransigent health challenges. This paper presents an analysis of trends and patterns of peer-reviewed HPSR publications across the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), to help understand trends and patterns of HPSR publication and the degree of involvement of West African researchers in HPSR evidence generation in the sub-region...
July 12, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
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