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Community health workers

J L NDiaye, B Cissé, E H Ba, J F Gomis, C T Ndour, J F Molez, F B Fall, C Sokhna, B Faye, E Kouevijdin, F K Niane, M Cairns, J F Trape, C Rogier, O Gaye, B M Greenwood, P J M Milligan
BACKGROUND: It is recommended that children aged 3 months to five years of age living in areas of seasonal transmission in the sub-Sahel should receive Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SPAQ) during the malaria transmission season. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of SMC with SPAQ in children when delivered by community health workers in three districts in Senegal where SMC was introduced over three years, in children from 3 months of age to five years of age in the first year, then in children up to 10 years of age...
2016: PloS One
Benjamin B Massenburg, Hillary E Jenny, Saurabh Saluja, John G Meara, Mark G Shrime, Nivaldo Alonso
BACKGROUND: Cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) is estimated to occur in 1 out of every 700 births, but for many people residing in low- and middle-income countries this deformity may be repaired late in life or not at all. This study aims to analyze worldwide provider-perceived barriers to the surgical repair of CLP in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: From 2011 to 2014, Smile Train distributed a multiple-choice, voluntary survey to healthcare providers to identify areas of need in CLP care worldwide...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Cecilia Benoit, Nadia Ouellet, Mikael Jansson
OBJECTIVES: This paper examines unmet health care needs in one of Canada's most hard-to-reach populations, adult sex workers, and investigates whether their reasons for not accessing health care are different from those of other Canadians. METHODS: Data gathered in 2012-2013 from sex workers aged 19 and over (n = 209) in five Canadian census metropolitan areas (CMAs) were analyzed to estimate the perceived health, health care access and level of unmet health care needs of sex workers, and their principal reasons for not accessing health care...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Janice C Zgibor, Elizabeth A Schlenk, Laura Vater, Sushma Kola, Joni Vander Bilt, Sarah Woody, Mini E Jacob, Wei-Hsuan Lo-Ciganic, Allison Brenckle, Jane Brandenstein, C Kent Kwoh, Robert Boudreau, Steven Albert, Margaret Conroy, Elizabeth Rodgers, Anne B Newman
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions exist for prevention of chronic disease in older adults. Partnering with community organizations may provide a mechanism for disseminating these interventions. OBJECTIVE: To describe the partnership and program implementation by the Arthritis Foundation (AF) and the University of Pittsburgh. METHODS: The AF Exercise Program (AFEP; an existing evidence-based program) was enhanced with the "10 Keys"™ to Healthy Aging (a prevention-focused program bundling the most common risk factors for chronic disease and disability in older adults and applies behavior change strategies to enhance prevention)...
2016: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Rajeev Gupta, Raghuvir Singh Khedar, Raja Babu Panwar
Hypertension is the most important cause of global burden of disease. It is highly prevalent in India and other low and lower-middle income countries. Prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension varies from 70-90% and is significantly greater in rural vs urban locations. Guidelines based treatment strategy has improved blood pressure (BP) control in high income countries but no context-specific guidelines exist in low and lower-middle income countries such as India. There are numerous barriers to proper BP control in these countries and include political apathy, bureaucratic inertia, weak health systems, overburdened healthcare providers and unempowered patients...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sérgio G Veloso, Gabriel S Pereira, Rosa M Delbone de Faria, Maria H Senger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Medical Education
Antonio Pangallo, Lara Zibarras, Fiona Patterson
OBJECTIVES: Relatively little research has been directed toward the assessment of resilience in the health care context. Given the stressors associated with the provision of health care, the present study describes the development and evaluation of a situational judgement test (SJT) designed to assess resilience in palliative care health care workers. METHODS: An SJT was developed to measure behaviours associated with resilience in a palliative care context. Next, SJT reliability and validity analyses were assessed in a sample of acute ward, hospice and community palliative care workers (n = 284)...
November 2016: Medical Education
Chad Rittle
Occupational health nurses are familiar with environmental exposures workers encounter in their workplaces. However, employees are only "on-the-job" about one third of each workday, with a multitude of potential exposures in other environments that can affect their health. This article addresses some of the major exposures employees encounter outside the workplace-air, water, and soil pollution, and hazardous wastes-including a discussion of several well-known national and international environmental incidents...
October 19, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Andiara Schwingel, Angela R Wiley, Margarita Teran-Garcia, Jennifer McCaffrey, Patricia Gálvez, Marcela Vizcarra
Promotoras are identified as a unique group of community health workers adept at reducing health disparities. This qualitative study was conducted to better understand perceptions of the term promotora, broadly used in research but not well documented in everyday Latina vocabulary. Six focus groups to better understand perceptions of the term promotora were conducted with 36 Latina women living in three nonmetropolitan areas in Illinois. Results suggest that Latina participants in the study do not understand the meaning of "promotora" in the same way as it is used in the literature...
October 18, 2016: Health Promotion Practice
Frances M Cowan, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Eduard J Sanders, Nelly R Mugo, Fernand A Guedou, Michel Alary, Luc Behanzin, Owen Mugurungi, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: Of the two million new HIV infections in adults in 2014, 70% occurred in sub-Saharan Africa. Several African countries have already approved guidelines for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for individuals at substantial risk of HIV as part of combination HIV prevention but key questions remain about how to identify and deliver PrEP to those at greatest need. Throughout the continent, individuals in sero-discordant relationships, and members of key populations (sex workers, men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender women and injection drug users) are likely to benefit from the availability of PrEP...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Thet Thet Mu, Aye Aye Sein, Tint Tint Kyi, Myo Min, Ne Myo Aung, Nicholas M Anstey, Myat Phone Kyaw, Chit Soe, Mar Mar Kyi, Josh Hanson
BACKGROUND: There has been an impressive recent reduction in the global incidence of malaria, but the development of artemisinin resistance in the Greater Mekong Region threatens this progress. Increasing artemisinin resistance is particularly important in Myanmar, as it is the country in the Greater Mekong Region with the greatest malaria burden. If malaria is to be eliminated in the region, it is essential to define the spatial and temporal epidemiology of the disease in Myanmar to inform control strategies optimally...
October 18, 2016: Malaria Journal
Tilahun Tewabe
BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding within one hour after birth and exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of infant life along with continuation of breastfeeding up to two years. Timely initiation of breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 22 % of neonatal deaths. The objective of this study was to assess timely initiation of breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers who have infants less than six months of age in Motta town, East Gojjam, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia...
October 19, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Grant J Aaron, Nicholas Strutt, Nathaniel Amoh Boateng, Ernest Guevarra, Katja Siling, Alison Norris, Shibani Ghosh, Mercy Nyamikeh, Antoine Attiogbe, Richard Burns, Esi Foriwa, Yasuhiko Toride, Satoshi Kitamura, Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Daniel Sarpong, Mark Myatt
The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house)...
2016: PloS One
Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francis Dzabeng, Yeetey Enuameh, George Adjei, Grace Manu, Kwaku Poku Asante, Seth Owusu-Agyei
The objective of this review is to synthesize evidence on the experiences of community health workers (CHWs) of mobile device-enabled clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) interventions designed to support maternal newborn and child health (MNCH) in low-and middle-income countries.Specific objectives.
September 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
John Howard, Vladimir Murashov, Paul Schulte
Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
David A Rodríguez, Kristien Verdonck, Karen Bissell, Juan José Victoria, Mohammed Khogali, Diana Marín, Ernesto Moreno
Objective To measure time between onset of tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and start of treatment, and to identify factors associated with delay in eight Colombian cities. Methods Operational research with a retrospective analytical cohort design was conducted in 2014 using routinely collected data about new smear-positive pulmonary TB patients from eight cities in Colombia (Barranquilla, Bogotá, Bucaramanga, Cali, Cúcuta, Medellín, Pereira, and Villavicencio). Date of symptom onset was sourced from TB surveillance databases...
January 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Tazeen Jafar
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) defined as reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or presence of albuminuria, progresses to end stage renal disease (ESRD), needing dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life, and is associated with increased risks of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. CKD ranked 18 leading (and most rapidly rising cause of mortality by the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The social and economic consequences of CKD are far worse in low and middle income countries (LMICs) including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Rajeev Gupta
High BP is the most important cause of mortality and disease burden globally as well as in South Asian region. Global Burden of Diseases Study has reported that in year 2013 high systolic BP globally led to 10.8 million deaths and 208.1 million DALYs and in South Asian countries led to 2.1 million deaths (19.4%) and 49.9 million DALYs (24.0%). Global Burden of Chronic Disease Risk Factors study has reported from years 1980 to 2008 that while mean BP declined in high income countries, it increased in South Asian countries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jesús E Ospina, Àngels Orcau, Joan-Pau Millet, Miriam Ros, Sonia Gil, Joan A Caylà
BACKGROUND: The increase in immigration in Barcelona between 2000 and 2008 forced a reorganization of the control of tuberculosis (TB). TB clinical units (TBCU) were created and community health workers (CHW) were gradually included. OBJECTIVE: To understand trends in the incidence of TB among immigrants, their main characteristics and treatment compliance during the period 1991-2013. DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based study of cases detected among immigrants by the Tuberculosis Program in Barcelona, Spain...
2016: PloS One
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