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middle east coronavirus

Hui-Ju Han, Jian-Wei Liu, Hao Yu, Xue-Jie Yu
Since emerging in 2012, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been a global public health threat with a high fatality rate and worldwide distribution. There are no approved vaccines or therapies for MERS until now. Passive immunotherapy with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an effective prophylactic and therapeutic reagent against emerging viruses. In this article, we review current advances in neutralizing mAbs against MERS-CoV. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein of MERS-CoV is a major target, and mouse, camel, or human-derived neutralizing mAbs targeting RBD have been developed...
November 30, 2018: Viruses
Uzma Faridi
Middle East respiratory syndrome is the acute respiratory syndrome caused by betacoronavirus MERS-CoV. The first case of this disease was reported from Saudi Arabia in 2012. This virus is lethal and is a close relative of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), which is responsible for more than 3000 deaths in 2002-2003. According to Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. The number of new cases is 457 in 2015. Riyadh has the highest number of reports in comparison to the other cities. According to this report, males are more susceptible than female, especially after the age of 40...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Rana Abdrabalnabi, Alla Taher, Shantymole Mathew, Kamal Abdul Rahman
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) caused multiple outbreaks. Such outbreaks increase economic and infection control burdens. We studied the infection control influence of MERS-CoV using a hospital-based analysis. METHODS: Our hospital had 17 positive and 82 negative cases of MERS-CoV between April 1, 2013, and June 3, 2013. The study evaluated the impact of these cases on the use of gloves, surgical masks, N95 respirators, alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and soap, as well as hand hygiene compliance rates...
November 27, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Osnat Rosen, Leo Li-Ying Chan, Olubukola Abiona, Portia Gough, Lingshu Wang, Wei Shi, Yi Zhang, Nianshuang Wang, Wing-Pui Kong, Jason S McLellan, Barney S Graham, Kizzmekia S Corbett
The emergence of new pathogens, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), poses serious challenges to global public health and highlights the urgent need for methods to rapidly identify and characterize potential therapeutic or prevention options, such as neutralizing antibodies. Spike (S) proteins are present on the surface of MERS-CoV virions and mediate viral entry. S is the primary target for MERS-CoV vaccine and antibody development, and it has become increasingly important to understand MERS-CoV antibody binding specificity and function...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Sarah Shalhoub, Fahad Al-Hameed, Yasser Mandourah, Hanan H Balkhy, Awad Al-Omari, Ghaleb A Al Mekhlafi, Ayman Kharaba, Basem Alraddadi, Abdullah Almotairi, Kasim Al Khatib, Ahmed Abdulmomen, Ismael Qushmaq, Ahmed Mady, Othman Solaiman, Abdulsalam M Al-Aithan, Rajaa Al-Raddadi, Ahmed Ragab, Abdulrahman Al Harthy, Eman Al Qasim, Jesna Jose, Ghassan Al-Ghamdi, Laura Merson, Robert Fowler, Frederick G Hayden, Yaseen M Arabi
BACKGROUND: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) leads to healthcare-associated transmission to patients and healthcare workers with potentially fatal outcomes. AIM: We aimed to describe the clinical course and functional outcomes of critically ill healthcare workers (HCWs) with MERS. METHODS: Data on HCWs was extracted from a multi-center retrospective cohort study on 330 critically ill patients with MERS admitted between (9/2012-9/2015)...
2018: PloS One
Roberta Lecis, Mauro Mucedda, Ermanno Pidinchedda, Marco Pittau, Alberto Alberti
Bats may be natural reservoirs for a large variety of emerging viruses, including mammalian coronaviruses (CoV). The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans, with evidence that these viruses may have their ancestry in bats, highlights the importance of virus surveillance in bat populations. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of a bat β-Coronavirus, detected during a viral survey carried out on different bat species in the island of Sardinia (Italy)...
November 13, 2018: Virus Genes
Parvaiz A Koul, Hyder Mir, Siddhartha Saha, Mandeep S Chadha, Varsha Potdar, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Renu B Lal, Anand Krishnan
Background & objectives: Respiratory tract infections are common among Hajj and Umrah pilgrims which pose a public health risk of spread of respiratory infections. Influenza has been reported from Indian Hajj and Umrah returning pilgrims, but data on other respiratory pathogens are sparse in India. Here we report the presence of common respiratory viral pathogens in returning Hajj and Umrah pilgrims suffering from acute respiratory illness (ARI) in 2014-2015. Methods: Respiratory specimens (nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were collected from 300 consenting pilgrims with ARI in the past one week and tested for influenza and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses using in-house standardized quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Hannah Kleine-Weber, Mahmoud Tarek Elzayat, Lingshu Wang, Barney S Graham, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Stefan Pöhlmann, Markus Hoffmann
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses a threat to public health. The virus is endemic in the Middle East but can be transmitted to other countries by travel activity. The introduction of MERS-CoV into the Republic of Korea by an infected traveler resulted in a hospital outbreak of MERS that entailed 186 cases and 38 deaths. The MERS-CoV spike (S) protein binds to the cellular protein DPP4 via its receptor binding domain (RBD) and mediates viral entry into target cells. During the MERS outbreak in Korea emergence and spread of viral variants was observed that harbored mutations in the RBD, D510G and I529T...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
F M Fusco, P Brouqui, G Ippolito
Epidemics such as viral haemorrhagic fevers, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus or yet unknown ones have few chances of disappearing. Globalization, worldwide travel, climate change, social conflicts and wars, among others, are likely to favor the emergence of epidemics. Preparedness of hospitals to prevent the spread of these outbreaks is among the prioritized political programmes of many countries. The EuroNHID network has in the past drawn a map of features and equipment of hospitals across Europe to take care of highly contagious patients...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Byoung Kwon Park, Sony Maharjan, Su In Lee, Jinsoo Kim, Joon-Yong Bae, Man-Seong Park, Hyung-Joo Kwon
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) uses the spike (S) glycoprotein to recognize and enter target cells. In this study, we selected two epitope peptide sequences within the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the MERS-CoV S protein. We used a complex consisting of the epitope peptide of the MERS-CoV S protein and CpG-DNA encapsulated in liposome complex to immunize mice, and produced the monoclonal antibodies 506-2G10G5 and 492-1G10E4E2. The western blotting data showed that both monoclonal antibodies detected the S protein and immunoprecipitated the native form of the S protein...
October 24, 2018: BMB Reports
Sarah H Alfaraj, Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ziad A Memish
BACKGROUND: Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to be reported from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data on the phenomenon of intermittent positive results for MERS-CoV on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with negative results in between are lacking. Here we describe cases with intermittent positive MERS-CoV test results and highlight the required number of tests to rule out or rule in MERS-CoV infection based on a large retrospective cohort of patients with confirmed MERS-CoV...
October 20, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Ali Zohaib, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ammar Athar, Jing Chen, Awais-Ur-Rahman Sial, Saeed Khan, Zeeshan Taj, Halima Sadia, Usman Tahir, Muhammad Haleem Tayyab, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Bing-Jie Hu, Bilal Ahmed Khan, Ikram Din Ujjan, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Yun Luo, Yan Zhu, Cecilia Waruhiu, Iahtasham Khan, Xing-Lou Yang, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Victor Max Corman, Bing Yan, Zheng-Li Shi
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing severe respiratory disease in humans. Although dromedary camels are considered as a major reservoir host, the MERS-CoV infection dynamics in camels are not fully understood. Through surveillance in Pakistan, nasal (n = 776) and serum (n = 1050) samples were collected from camels between November 2015 and February 2018. Samples were collected from animal markets, free-roaming herds and abattoirs. An in-house ELISA was developed to detect IgG against MERS-CoV...
October 11, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Modhi Alshammari, Kelly A Reynolds, Marc Verhougstraete, Mary Kay O'Rourke
This study investigated healthcare workers' perceptions of hand hygiene practices by comparing personal reports, as assessed by questionnaires, to direct observations of the workers' hand hygiene practices. The study employed a cross-sectional research design. Observations were made using a 16-item checklist, based on three sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO), and Boyce and Pittet's guidelines of hand hygiene. The checklist was used for both direct-observation and self-reported data collection purposes...
October 7, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Masami Wada, Kumari G Lokugamage, Keisuke Nakagawa, Krishna Narayanan, Shinji Makino
Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, are enveloped RNA viruses that carry a large positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and cause a variety of diseases in humans and domestic animals. Very little is known about the host pathways that regulate the stability of CoV mRNAs, which carry some unusual features. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic RNA surveillance pathway that detects mRNAs harboring aberrant features and targets them for degradation...
October 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hail M Al-Abdely, Claire M Midgley, Abdulrahim M Alkhamis, Glen R Abedi, Azaibi Tamin, Alison M Binder, Khalid Alanazi, Xiaoyan Lu, Osman Abdalla, Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Mutaz Mohammed, Krista Queen, Homoud S Algarni, Yan Li, Suvang Trivedi, Abdullah Algwizani, Raafat F Alhakeem, Natalie J Thornburg, Suxiang Tong, Sameeh S Ghazal, Dean D Erdman, Abdullah M Assiri, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic or mildly ill to severe respiratory illness including death. We describe isolation of infectious MERS-CoV from the upper respiratory tract of a mildly ill 27-year-old female in Saudi Arabia 15 days after illness onset.
June 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Daniel C Payne, Holly M Biggs, Mohammad Mousa Al-Abdallat, Sultan Alqasrawi, Xiaoyan Lu, Glen R Abedi, Aktham Haddadin, Ibrahim Iblan, Tarek Alsanouri, Mohannad Al Nsour, Sami Sheikh Ali, Brian Rha, Suvang U Trivedi, Mohammed Ata Ur Rasheed, Azaibi Tamin, Mart M Lamers, Bart L Haagmans, Dean D Erdman, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber
Background: An outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Jordan in 2015 involved a variant virus that acquired distinctive deletions in the accessory open reading frames. We conducted a molecular and seroepidemiologic investigation to describe the deletion variant's transmission patterns and epidemiology. Methods: We reviewed epidemiologic and medical chart data and analyzed viral genome sequences from respiratory specimens of MERS-CoV cases...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
M A Alkhamis, A Fernández-Fontelo, K VanderWaal, S Abuhadida, P Puig, A Alba-Casals
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains a notable disease and poses a significant threat to global public health. The Arabian Peninsula is considered a major global epicentre for the disease and the virus has crossed regional and continental boundaries since 2012. In this study, we focused on exploring the temporal dynamics of MERS-CoV in human populations in the Arabian Peninsula between 2012 and 2017, using publicly available data on case counts and combining two analytical methods...
October 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Min Jae Cha, Myung Jin Chung, Kyunga Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Tae Jung Kim, Tae Sung Kim
The aim of this study is to determine the earliest cutoff of radiographic score as a potential prognostic indicator of fatal outcomes in patients with acute Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pneumonia. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Serial chest radiographies (CXRs) were obtained from viral exposure until death or discharge in 35 patients with laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Radiographic scores were calculated by multiplying a four-point scale of involved lung area and three-point scale of abnormal opacification, in each of the six lung zones...
October 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Hannah Spencer, Andrew Ustianowski, Hamzah Farooq
Evaluation of people returning from trips abroad with fever is an important skill for all general physicians given the increasing trend in foreign travel. This evaluation should comprise a detailed travel history, thorough clinical examination, appropriate initial tests and a knowledge of when to ask for further advice. An understanding of the incubation periods of common imported infections and a syndromic approach to patients' symptoms is helpful in order to narrow down the likely diagnosis. The need to implement relevant infection control precautions has been highlighted by the recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus disease outbreaks...
October 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
Yun Hee Baek, Hyo-Soon Cheon, Su-Jin Park, Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Su Jeong Ahn, Ju Hwan Jeong, Won-Suk Choi, Min-Ah Yu, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Jin-Jung Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Khristine Joy C Antigua, Seok-Yong Kim, Hye Won Jeong, Young Ki Choi, Min-Suk Song
Recently, human infections with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) leading to fatality, have dramatically increased in East Asia. With the unavailability of vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent and/or treat SFTSV infection, early rapid diagnosis is critical for prevention and control of the disease. Here, we report the development of a simple, rapid and sensitive portable detection method for SFTSV infection applying reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) combined with one-pot colorimetric visualization and electro-free reaction platform...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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