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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311100/countrywide-survey-for-mers-coronavirus-antibodies-in-dromedaries-and-humans-in-pakistan
#1
Ali Zohaib, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Ammar Athar, Jing Chen, Awais-Ur-Rahman Sial, Saeed Khan, Zeeshan Taj, Halima Sadia, Usman Tahir, Muhammad Haleem Tayyab, Muhammad Asif Qureshi, Muhammad Khalid Mansoor, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Bing-Jie Hu, Bilal Ahmed Khan, Ikram Din Ujjan, Bei Li, Wei Zhang, Yun Luo, Yan Zhu, Cecilia Waruhiu, Iahtasham Khan, Xing-Lou Yang, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Victor Max Corman, Bing Yan, Zheng-Li Shi
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing severe respiratory disease in humans. Although dromedary camels are considered as a major reservoir host, the MERS-CoV infection dynamics in camels are not fully understood. Through surveillance in Pakistan, nasal (n = 776) and serum (n = 1050) samples were collected from camels between November 2015 and February 2018. Samples were collected from animal markets, free-roaming herds and abattoirs. An in-house ELISA was developed to detect IgG against MERS-CoV...
October 11, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30301272/comparison-of-perceived-and-observed-hand-hygiene-compliance-in-healthcare-workers-in-mers-cov-endemic-regions
#2
Modhi Alshammari, Kelly A Reynolds, Marc Verhougstraete, Mary Kay O'Rourke
This study investigated healthcare workers' perceptions of hand hygiene practices by comparing personal reports, as assessed by questionnaires, to direct observations of the workers' hand hygiene practices. The study employed a cross-sectional research design. Observations were made using a 16-item checklist, based on three sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO), and Boyce and Pittet's guidelines of hand hygiene. The checklist was used for both direct-observation and self-reported data collection purposes...
October 7, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297408/interplay-between-coronavirus-a-cytoplasmic-rna-virus-and-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-pathway
#3
Masami Wada, Kumari G Lokugamage, Keisuke Nakagawa, Krishna Narayanan, Shinji Makino
Coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV, are enveloped RNA viruses that carry a large positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and cause a variety of diseases in humans and domestic animals. Very little is known about the host pathways that regulate the stability of CoV mRNAs, which carry some unusual features. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic RNA surveillance pathway that detects mRNAs harboring aberrant features and targets them for degradation...
October 8, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294617/infectious-mers-cov-isolated-from-a-mildly-ill-patient-saudi-arabia
#4
Hail M Al-Abdely, Claire M Midgley, Abdulrahim M Alkhamis, Glen R Abedi, Azaibi Tamin, Alison M Binder, Khalid Alanazi, Xiaoyan Lu, Osman Abdalla, Senthilkumar K Sakthivel, Mutaz Mohammed, Krista Queen, Homoud S Algarni, Yan Li, Suvang Trivedi, Abdullah Algwizani, Raafat F Alhakeem, Natalie J Thornburg, Suxiang Tong, Sameeh S Ghazal, Dean D Erdman, Abdullah M Assiri, Susan I Gerber, John T Watson
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic or mildly ill to severe respiratory illness including death. We describe isolation of infectious MERS-CoV from the upper respiratory tract of a mildly ill 27-year-old female in Saudi Arabia 15 days after illness onset.
June 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30294616/multihospital-outbreak-of-a-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-deletion-variant-jordan-a-molecular-serologic-and-epidemiologic-investigation
#5
Daniel C Payne, Holly M Biggs, Mohammad Mousa Al-Abdallat, Sultan Alqasrawi, Xiaoyan Lu, Glen R Abedi, Aktham Haddadin, Ibrahim Iblan, Tarek Alsanouri, Mohannad Al Nsour, Sami Sheikh Ali, Brian Rha, Suvang U Trivedi, Mohammed Ata Ur Rasheed, Azaibi Tamin, Mart M Lamers, Bart L Haagmans, Dean D Erdman, Natalie J Thornburg, Susan I Gerber
Background: An outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Jordan in 2015 involved a variant virus that acquired distinctive deletions in the accessory open reading frames. We conducted a molecular and seroepidemiologic investigation to describe the deletion variant's transmission patterns and epidemiology. Methods: We reviewed epidemiologic and medical chart data and analyzed viral genome sequences from respiratory specimens of MERS-CoV cases...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293534/temporal-dynamics-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-in-the-arabian-peninsula-2012-2017
#6
M A Alkhamis, A Fernández-Fontelo, K VanderWaal, S Abuhadida, P Puig, A Alba-Casals
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) remains a notable disease and poses a significant threat to global public health. The Arabian Peninsula is considered a major global epicentre for the disease and the virus has crossed regional and continental boundaries since 2012. In this study, we focused on exploring the temporal dynamics of MERS-CoV in human populations in the Arabian Peninsula between 2012 and 2017, using publicly available data on case counts and combining two analytical methods...
October 8, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292266/clinical-implication-of-radiographic-scores-in-acute-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-pneumonia-report-from-a-single-tertiary-referral-center-of-south-korea
#7
Min Jae Cha, Myung Jin Chung, Kyunga Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Tae Jung Kim, Tae Sung Kim
The aim of this study is to determine the earliest cutoff of radiographic score as a potential prognostic indicator of fatal outcomes in patients with acute Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pneumonia. The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. Serial chest radiographies (CXRs) were obtained from viral exposure until death or discharge in 35 patients with laboratory confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Radiographic scores were calculated by multiplying a four-point scale of involved lung area and three-point scale of abnormal opacification, in each of the six lung zones...
October 2018: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30290751/assessment-of-fever-in-the-returning-traveller
#8
Hannah Spencer, Andrew Ustianowski, Hamzah Farooq
Evaluation of people returning from trips abroad with fever is an important skill for all general physicians given the increasing trend in foreign travel. This evaluation should comprise a detailed travel history, thorough clinical examination, appropriate initial tests and a knowledge of when to ask for further advice. An understanding of the incubation periods of common imported infections and a syndromic approach to patients' symptoms is helpful in order to narrow down the likely diagnosis. The need to implement relevant infection control precautions has been highlighted by the recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus disease outbreaks...
October 2, 2018: British Journal of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30270605/simple-rapid-and-sensitive-portable-molecular-diagnosis-of-sfts-virus-using-reverse-transcriptional-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-rt-lamp
#9
Yun Hee Baek, Hyo-Soon Cheon, Su-Jin Park, Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Su Jeong Ahn, Ju Hwan Jeong, Won-Suk Choi, Min-Ah Yu, Hyeok-Il Kwon, Jin-Jung Kwon, Eun-Ha Kim, Young-Il Kim, Khristine Joy C Antigua, Seok-Yong Kim, Hye Won Jeong, Young Ki Choi, Min-Suk Song
Recently, human infections with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) leading to fatality, have dramatically increased in East Asia. With the unavailability of vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent and/or treat SFTSV infection, early rapid diagnosis is critical for prevention and control of the disease. Here, we report the development of a simple, rapid and sensitive portable detection method for SFTSV infection applying reverse transcription-loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) combined with one-pot colorimetric visualization and electro-free reaction platform...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256968/elevated-human-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-expression-reduces-the-susceptibility-of-hdpp4-transgenic-mice-to-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-infection-and-disease
#10
Abdullah Algaissi, Anurodh S Agrawal, Song Han, Bi-Hung Peng, Chuming Luo, Fang Li, Teh-Sheng Chan, Robert B Couch, Chien-Te K Tseng
Background: The ongoing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus (CoV) infections pose threats to public health worldwide, making an understanding of MERS pathogenesis and development of effective medical countermeasures (MCMs) urgent. Methods: We used homozygous (+/+) and heterozygous (+/-) human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) transgenic mice to study the effect of hDPP4 on MERS-CoV infection. Specifically, we determined values of 50% lethal dose (LD50) of MERS-CoV for the two strains of mice, compared and correlated their levels of soluble (s) hDPP4 expression to susceptibility, and explored recombinant (r) shDPP4 as an effective MCM for MERS infection...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242057/overexpression-of-the-nucleocapsid-protein-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-up-regulates-cxcl10
#11
James Odame Aboagye, Chow Wenn Yew, Oi-Wing Ng, Vanessa M Monteil, Ali Mirazimi, Yee-Joo Tan
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes respiratory diseases in humans and has a high mortality rate. During infection, MERS-CoV regulates several host cellular processes including antiviral response genes. In order to determine if the nucleocapsid protein of MERS-CoV (MERS-N) plays a role in viral-host interactions, a murine monoclonal antibody was generated so as to allow detection of the protein in infected cells as well as in overexpression system. Then, MERS-N was stably overexpressed in A549 cells, and a PCR array containing 84 genes was used to screen for genes transcriptionally regulated by it...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241410/human-coronavirus-infections-in-israel-epidemiology-clinical-symptoms-and-summer-seasonality-of-hcov-hku1
#12
Nehemya Friedman, Hadar Alter, Musa Hindiyeh, Ella Mendelson, Yonat Shemer Avni, Michal Mandelboim
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) cause mild to severe respiratory diseases. Six types of HCoVs have been discovered, the most recent one termed the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The aim of this study is to monitor the circulation of HCoV types in the population during 2015⁻2016 in Israel. HCoVs were detected by real-time PCR analysis in 1910 respiratory samples, collected from influenza-like illness (ILI) patients during the winter sentinel influenza survey across Israel. Moreover, 195 HCoV-positive samples from hospitalized patients were detected during one year at Soroka University Medical Center...
September 21, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30240813/post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-in-healthcare-workers
#13
So Yeon Park, Jin Seo Lee, Jun Seong Son, Jae-Hoon Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Younghee Jung, Heung Jeong Woo, Young Soo Joo, Joong Sik Eom, Hyejin Shi
An effective post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategy may limit the spread of infection. However, there is no consensus regarding PEP for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. We assessed the efficacy of ribavirin and lopinavir/ritonavir as PEP for healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to patients with severe MERS-CoV pre-isolation pneumonia. We assessed the safety of PEP regimen. We retrospectively enrolled HCWs with high-risk exposure to MERS-CoV pre-isolation pneumonia. HCWs who received PEP therapy were classified into the PEP group...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30238634/knowledge-and-practices-regarding-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-among-camel-handlers-in-a-slaughterhouse-kenya-2015
#14
Esther Kamau, Juliette Ongus, George Gitau, Tura Galgalo, Sara A Lowther, Austine Bitek, Peninah Munyua
Dromedary camels are implicated as reservoirs for the zoonotic transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) with the respiratory route thought to be the main mode of transmission. Knowledge and practices regarding MERS among herders, traders and slaughterhouse workers were assessed at Athi-River slaughterhouse, Kenya. Questionnaires were administered, and a check list was used to collect information on hygiene practices among slaughterhouse workers. Of 22 persons, all washed hands after handling camels, 82% wore gumboots, and 65% wore overalls/dustcoats...
September 20, 2018: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30224971/evaluation-of-visual-triage-for-screening-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-patients
#15
S H Alfaraj, J A Al-Tawfiq, P Gautret, M G Alenazi, A Y Asiri, Z A Memish
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in September 2012 in Saudi Arabia had attracted the attention of the global health community. In 2017 the Saudi Ministry of Health released a visual triage system with scoring to alert healthcare workers in emergency departments (EDs) and haemodialysis units for the possibility of occurrence of MERS-CoV infection. We performed a retrospective analysis of this visual score to determine its sensitivity and specificity. The study included all cases from 2014 to 2017 in a MERS-CoV referral centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...
November 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192544/de-novo-design-of-%C3%AE-helical-lipopeptides-targeting-viral-fusion-proteins-a-promising-strategy-for-relatively-broad-spectrum-antiviral-drug-discovery
#16
Chao Wang, Lei Zhao, Shuai Xia, Tianhong Zhang, Ruiyuan Cao, Guodong Liang, Yue Li, Guangpeng Meng, Weicong Wang, Weiguo Shi, Wu Zhong, Shibo Jiang, Keliang Liu
Class I enveloped viruses share similarities in their apparent use of a hexameric coiled-coil assembly to drive the merging of virus and host cell membranes. Inhibition of coiled coil-mediated interactions using bioactive peptides that replicate an α-helical chain from the viral fusion machinery has significant antiviral potential. Here, we present the construction of a series of lipopeptides composed of a de novo heptad repeat sequence-based α-helical peptide plus a hydrocarbon tail. Promisingly, the constructs adopted stable α-helical conformations and exhibited relatively broad-spectrum antiviral activities against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and influenza A viruses (IAVs)...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30159042/screening-for-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-among-febrile-indonesian-hajj-pilgrims-a-study-on-28-197-returning-pilgrims
#17
M Amin, A Bakhtiar, M Subarjo, E B Aksono, P Widiyanti, K Shimizu, Y Mori
There were 211,000 Indonesian Hajj pilgrims going to Mecca through 11 main airports in 2015 who were at risk of contracting the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We aimed to find out whether there was any occurrence of MERS-CoV by performing screening on 28,197 returning pilgrims. Those with a body temperature of > 38 °C and respiratory symptoms were sent to the airport clinic to have an oropharyngeal swab and a bacterial culture. Fifteen pilgrims had fever (> 38 °C) accompanied by respiratory symptoms; of these, 12 patients were diagnosed with upper and lower respiratory tract infections and three patients with pneumonia...
September 2018: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146782/modulation-of-the-immune-response-by-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus
#18
REVIEW
Somayeh Shokri, Shahab Mahmoudvand, Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour
Coronavirus (CoV) infections are commonly associated with respiratory and enteric disease in humans and animals. In 2012, a new human disease called Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) emerged in the Middle East. MERS was caused by a virus that was originally called human coronavirus-Erasmus Medical Center/2012 but was later renamed as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV causes high fever, cough, acute respiratory tract infection, and multiorgan dysfunction that may eventually lead to the death of the infected individuals...
August 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30145428/a-screening-campaign-in-sea-urchin-egg-homogenate-as-a-platform-for-discovering-modulators-of-naadp-dependent-ca-2-signaling-in-human-cells
#19
Gihan S Gunaratne, Malcolm E Johns, Hallie M Hintz, Timothy F Walseth, Jonathan S Marchant
The Ca2+ mobilizing second messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) regulates intracellular trafficking events, including translocation of certain enveloped viruses through the endolysosomal system. Targeting NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signaling may therefore be an effective strategy for discovering novel antivirals as well as therapeutics for other disorders. To aid discovery of novel scaffolds that modulate NAADP-evoked Ca2+ signaling in human cells, we have investigated the potential of using the sea urchin egg homogenate system for a screening campaign...
November 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142928/a-human-dpp4-knockin-mouse-s-susceptibility-to-infection-by-authentic-and-pseudotyped-mers-cov
#20
Changfa Fan, Xi Wu, Qiang Liu, Qianqian Li, Susu Liu, Jianjun Lu, Yanwei Yang, Yuan Cao, Weijin Huang, Chunnan Liang, Tianlei Ying, Shibo Jiang, Youchun Wang
Infection by the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes respiratory illness and has a high mortality rate (~35%). The requirement for the virus to be manipulated in a biosafety level three (BSL-3) facility has impeded development of urgently-needed antiviral agents. Here, we established anovel mouse model by inserting human dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4) into the Rosa26 locus using CRISPR/Cas9, resulting in global expression of the transgene in a genetically stable mouse line. The mice were highly susceptible to infection by MERS-CoV clinical strain hCoV-EMC, which induced severe diffuse pulmonary disease in the animals, and could also be infected by an optimized pseudotyped MERS-CoV...
August 23, 2018: Viruses
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