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Long-term potentiation

Alicia Caroline Jarosz, Alaa Badawi
BACKGROUND: Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the commonest vector-borne disease in the North America. It is an inflammatory disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The role of the inflammatory processes mediated by prostaglandins (PGs), thromboxanes and leukotrienes (LTs) in LB severity and symptoms resolution is yet to be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: We aim to systematically review and evaluate the role of PGs and related lipid mediators in the induction and resolution of inflammation in LB...
August 18, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Arash Haghikia, Johannes Schwab, Jens Vogel-Claussen, Dominik Berliner, Tobias Pfeffer, Tobias König, Carolin Zwadlo, Valeska Abou Moulig, Annegret Franke, Marziel Schwarzkopf, Philipp Ehlermann, Roman Pfister, Guido Michels, Ralf Westenfeld, Verena Stangl, Uwe Kühl, Edith Podewski, Ingrid Kindermann, Michael Böhm, Karen Sliwa, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Johann Bauersachs
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction predicts adverse outcome in peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM). We recently demonstrated beneficial effects associated with the prolactin release inhibitor bromocriptine at different doses when added to standard heart failure therapy in PPCM. Here, we evaluated for the first time the therapeutic potential of bromocriptine particularly in PPCM patients with RV involvement. METHODS: In this study, 40 patients with PPCM were included, of whom 24 patients had reduced RV ejection fraction (RVEF < 45%)...
August 18, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Hong Zhang, Lian Xue, Bingyan Li, Hailin Tian, Zengli Zhang, Shasha Tao
Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) is a well-known air pollutant threatening public health. Studies has confirmed that long-term exposure to the particles could reduce the pulmonary function, cause exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary desease, and increase incidence and mortality of lung cancer. Bixin is a natural compound that is widely used as a food additive. Our previous studies demonstrated that bixin i.p. administration could protect against particles intratracheal exposure (56 days)-induced lung injury in an Nrf2-dependent manner...
August 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
D M Gilmore, E Grogan, I D Feurer, H Hoy, S A Rega, J Barnes, R Park, M Staykov, M Via, C M Shaver, C W Pinson, E Lambright
BACKGROUND: While single (SLT) and double lung transplantation (DLT) are associated with differences in morbidity and mortality, the effects of transplant type on patient-reported outcomes are not widely reported and conclusions have differed. Previous studies compared mean health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores but did not evaluate potentially different temporal trajectories in the context of longitudinal follow up. To address this uncertainty, this study is designed to evaluate longitudinal HRQOL after SLT and DLT with the hypothesis that temporal trajectories differ between SLT and DLT...
August 15, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Michele M Comerota, Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Balaji Krishnan, Rakez Kayed, Giulio Taglialatela
Tau oligomers are emerging as a key contributor to the synaptic dysfunction that drives cognitive decline associated with the clinical manifestation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, there is ample consensus that interventions that target tau oligomers may slow or halt the progression of AD. With this ultimate goal in mind, in the present study, we investigated tau oligomer accumulation and its synaptic and behavioral consequences after an in vivo treatment with near infrared (NIR) light (600-1000 nm) in two transgenic mouse models, overexpressing human tau either alone (hTau mice) or in combination with amyloid beta (3xTgAD mice)...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Takahisa Tainaka, Hiroo Uchida, Yujiro Tanaka, Akinari Hinoki, Chiyoe Shirota, Wataru Sumida, Kazuki Yokota, Satoshi Makita, Kazuo Oshima, Kosuke Chiba, Tetsuya Ishimaru, Hiroshi Kawashima
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP) is a minimally invasive procedure in which the levator ani muscle is left to potentially improve postoperative fecal continence. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate postoperative complications and long-term outcomes of fecal continence after LAARP and compare them to those after posterior sagittal anorectoplasty (PSARP). METHODS: Forty-five male patients with high and intermediate anorectal malformation (aged ≥ 4 years) who underwent LAARP or PSARP (LAARP 29, PSARP 16) from 1999 to 2013 were included...
August 17, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Danbee Kang, Im-Ryung Kim, Eun-Kyung Choi, Young Hyuck Im, Yeon Hee Park, Jin Seok Ahn, Jeong Eon Lee, Seok Jin Nam, Hae Kwang Lee, Ji-Hye Park, Dong-Youn Lee, Mario E Lacouture, Eliseo Guallar, Juhee Cho
BACKGROUND: Although chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is considered temporary, some patients report persistent alopecia several years after chemotherapy. There is, however, a paucity of long-term prospective data on the incidence and impact of permanent CIA (PCIA). The objective of our study was to estimate the long-term incidence of PCIA in a cohort of patients with breast cancer whose hair volume and density were measured prior to chemotherapy and who were followed for 3 years after chemotherapy...
August 17, 2018: Oncologist
Elizabeth S Barnert, Ryan J Coller, Bergen B Nelson, Lindsey R Thompson, Thomas S Klitzner, Moira Szilagyi, Abigail M Breck, Paul J Chung
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Defining and measuring health for children with medical complexity (CMC) is poorly understood. We engaged a diverse national sample of stakeholder experts to generate and then synthesize a comprehensive list of health outcomes for CMC. METHODS: With national snowball sampling of CMC caregiver, advocate, provider, researcher, and policy or health systems experts, we identified 182 invitees for group concept mapping (GCM), a rigorous mixed-methods approach...
August 17, 2018: Pediatrics
Kelly E Carstens, Serena M Dudek
Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus is thought to play a vital role in both the refinement of neuronal circuits during development and in learning in the mature brain. Synapses in hippocampal area CA1 are known for a robust capacity for long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas synapses in the stratum radiatum of hippocampal area CA2 are particularly resistant to such changes. Although we have yet to fully understand the mechanisms behind this resistance to plasticity, a number of genes and extracellular matrix components highly expressed in CA2 appear to function as molecular brakes on plasticity and develop postnatally in the rodent brain...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Bart M G Baekelandt, Morten W Fagerland, Marianne J Hjermstad, Turid Heiberg, Knut J Labori, Trond A Buanes
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of complications in pancreatic surgery have not been systematically evaluated. The objectives were to assess potential effects of complications on survival and patient reported outcomes (PROs) as well as feasibility of PRO questionnaires in patients with periampullary and pancreatic tumors. METHODS: From October 2008 to December 2011, 208 patients undergoing pancreatic surgery were included in a prospective observational study. ESAS, EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PAN26 questionnaires were completed at inclusion, then every third month...
August 14, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Lisa C Power, Gina L O'Grady, Tim S Hornung, Craig Jefferies, Silmara Gusso, Paul L Hofman
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is the most common paediatric neuromuscular disorder. Mutations in the DMD gene on the X-chromosome result in progressive skeletal muscle weakness as the main clinical manifestation. However, cardiac muscle is also affected, with cardiomyopathy becoming an increasingly recognised cause of morbidity, and now the leading cause of mortality in this group. The diagnosis of cardiomyopathy has often been made late due to technical limitations in transthoracic echocardiograms and delayed symptomatology in less mobile patients...
June 6, 2018: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
Lauren M Fletcher, Javier Atalah, Barrie M Forrest
The colonial ascidian Didemnum vexillum is a high-profile marine invader, with a geographically widespread distribution after introductions to several temperate regions. D. vexillum has been the focus of several eradication and control programmes globally and the need for specific biological knowledge that relates to establishment processes, persistence, impacts and potential for spread remains. The present study describes temporal patterns of D. vexillum percent cover on experimental substrates over 1.5-years in relation to seasonality of substratum availability, in conjunction with key physical (i...
August 7, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
Edward Baker, Andreas Xyrichis, Christine Norton, Philip Hopkins, Geraldine Lee
BACKGROUND: Major Trauma remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Blunt Thoracic Injury (BTI) accounts for > 15% of United Kingdom (UK) trauma admissions and is consistently associated with respiratory related complications that include pneumonia and respiratory failure. Despite this, it is unclear in current clinical practice how BTI impacts on the recovering trauma patients after discharge from hospital. This study aimed to investigate the state of knowledge on the impact of BTI on the long-term outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL)...
August 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Cosimo Carriere, Davide Stolfo, Valeria Baglio, Riccardo Gerloni, Marco Merlo, Giulia Barbati, Antonio Cannatà, Gianni Biolo, Gianfranco Sinagra
BACKGROUND: The multidimensional prognostic index (MPI) is a validated tool for prognostic stratification in acute and chronic setting of geriatric patients. However, only few data are available on patients with cardiovascular diseases. AIM: To evaluate the potential role of MPI as predictor of 1-year and long-term outcome in ultra-octogenarians patients hospitalized for cardiovascular diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a prospective study on 216 patients (mean age 85 ± 4 years) hospitalized for cardiovascular disease enrolled from September 2011 to February 2014 in both Cardiology and Internal Medicine Departments...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Xiao Ma, Yayi Wang
Although anammox bacteria are commonly exposed to long-term starvation during transportation and preservation process, physiological changes in these organisms during long-term starvation are not well understood, nor are the molecular bases of their starvation survival strategies. To reveal survival mechanisms during long-term anaerobic and anoxic starvation (60 days at 20 ± 1 °C), metaproteomic technology was utilized to identify differentially expressed proteins in Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis...
August 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Azeem Tariq, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Bjoern Ole Sander, Stephane de Tourdonnet, Per Lennart Ambus, Phan Huu Thanh, Mai Van Trinh, Andreas de Neergaard
Water drainage is an important mitigation option for reducing CH4 (methane) emissions from residue-amended paddy soils. Several studies have indicated a long-term reduction in CH4 emissions, even after re-flooding, suggesting that the mechanism goes beyond creating temporary oxidized conditions in the soil. In this pot trial, the effects of different drainage patterns on straw-derived CH4 and CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions were compared to identify the balance between straw-carbon CH4 and CO2 emissions influenced by soil aeration over different periods, including effects of drainage on emissions during re-flooding...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mohamed Gadelkarim, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Esraa Ghanem, Ali Mohamed Hamaad, Anas M Saad, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
With the increasing global prevalence of diabetes mellitus, a significant rise in the number of patients suffering from non-healing wounds is expected. However, available treatments, such as revascularization surgery and foot care education are often insufficient to ensure satisfactory wound healing. One therapeutic strategy that has been identified as particularly promising utilizes adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Through a comprehensive literature search of published and ongoing studies, we aimed to provide an overview of the experimental basis, the scientific background, and advances in the delivery of ADSCs for treating non-healing diabetic wounds...
August 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Fatemeh Bakhtiarzadeh, Fatemeh Siavoshi, Sevda Gheibi, Khosrow Kashfi, Roghaieh Samadi, Sajad Jeddi, Asghar Ghasemi
INTRODUCTION: Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is associated with obesity. Nitrate could act as a substrate for production of NO and is a novel therapeutic agent in obesity. This study aims at determining effects of long-term nitrate administration on obesity indices in normal adult female rats. METHODS: Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 10/each): i.e. control group received tap water and three treatment groups received water containing 50, 100 and 150 mg/L sodium nitrate for 6 months...
August 14, 2018: Life Sciences
Mustafa Balkaya, Sunghee Cho
Stroke leads to long term sensory, motor and cognitive impairments. Most patients experience some degree of spontaneous recovery which is mostly incomplete and varying greatly among individuals. The variation in recovery outcomes has been attributed to numerous factors including lesion size, corticospinal tract integrity, age, gender and race. It is well accepted that genetics play a crucial role in stroke incidence and accumulating evidence suggests that it is also a significant determinant in recovery. Among the number of genes and variations implicated in stroke recovery the val66met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene influences post-stroke plasticity in the most significant ways...
August 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Ryo Inagaki, Shigeki Moriguchi, Kohji Fukunaga
Anxiety disorder is a major psychiatric disorder characterized by fear, worry, and excessive rumination. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neural plasticity and anxiety remain unclear. Here, we utilized a mouse model of anxiety-like behaviors induced by the chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to determine the exact mechanism of each region of the fear circuits in the anxiety disorders. Chronic CORT treated mice showed significant increase in anxiety-related behaviors as assessed by the elevated plus maze, light-dark, open-field, and marble-burying tasks...
August 14, 2018: Neuroscience
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