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Long-term potentiation

Inkyong Hur, Yong Kyu Lee, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Yoshitsugu Obi
BACKGROUND: Residual kidney function (RKF) is often expected to inevitably and rapidly decline among hemodialysis patients and, hence, has been inadvertently ignored in clinical practice. The importance of RKF has been revisited in some recent studies. Given that patients with end-stage renal disease now tend to initiate maintenance hemodialysis therapy with higher RKF levels, there seem to be important opportunities for incremental hemo-dialysis by individualizing the dose and frequency according to their RKF levels...
December 11, 2018: Cardiorenal Medicine
Rana Attalla, Erin Puersten, Nidhi Jain, P Ravi Selvaganapathy
One of the primary focuses in recent years in tissue engineering has been the fabrication and integration of vascular structures into artificial tissue constructs. However, most available methodologies lack the ability to create multi-layered concentric conduits inside natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) and gels that replicate more accurately the hierarchical architecture of biological blood vessels. In this work, we present a new microfluidic nozzle design capable of multi-axial extrusion in order to 3D print and pattern bi- and tri-layered hollow channel structures...
December 11, 2018: Biofabrication
Tilen Genov, Paul D Jepson, Jonathan L Barber, Ana Hace, Stefania Gaspari, Tina Centrih, Jan Lesjak, Polona Kotnjek
Marine top predators, including marine mammals, are known to bio-accumulate persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a serious conservation concern for these species. Although PCBs declined in European seas since the 1970s-1980s ban, considerable levels still persist in European and Mediterranean waters. In cetaceans, stranded animals are a valuable source of samples for pollutant studies, but may introduce both known and unknown biases. Biopsy samples from live, free-ranging cetaceans offer a better alternative for evaluating toxicological burdens of populations, especially when linked to known histories of identified individuals...
December 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rasoul Abdollahzadeh, Abdolreza Daraei, Yaser Mansoori, Masoumeh Sepahvand, Mahsa M Amoli, Javad Tavakkoly-Bazzaz
Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently occurring malignancy in women worldwide. Despite the substantial advancement in understanding the molecular mechanisms and management of BC, it remains the leading cause of cancer death in women. One of the main reasons for this obstacle is that we have not been able to find the Achilles heel for the BC as a highly heterogeneous disease. Accumulating evidence has revealed that noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), play key roles in the development of BC; however, the involving of complex regulatory interactions between the different varieties of ncRNAs in the development of this cancer has been poorly understood...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Terrence E Murphy, Thomas M Gill, Linda S Leo-Summers, Evelyne A Gahbauer, Margaret A Pisani, Lauren E Ferrante
OBJECTIVES: To address the competing risk of death in longitudinal studies of older persons, we demonstrate sensitivity analyses that evaluate robustness of associations between exposures and three outcome types: dichotomous, count, and time to event. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community-based data from the Precipitating Events Project in New Haven, CT. PARTICIPANTS: Persons 70 years and older who were initially community dwelling and without disability in the four basic activities of daily living (N = 754)...
December 8, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Sicilia T Grady, Lorraine Britton, Katrin Hinrichs, Alan J Nixon, Ashlee E Watts
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improve the osteoarthritis condition, but the fate of MSCs after intra-articular injection is unclear. We used fluorescent nanoparticles (quantum dots; QDs) to track equine MSCs (QD-MSCs) in vivo after intra-articular injection to normal and osteoarthritic joints. One week after injection of QD-MSCs, unlabeled MSCs, or vehicle we determined the presence of QD-MSCs in synovium and articular cartilage histologically. In vitro, we evaluated the persistence of QDs in MSCs and whether QDs affected proliferation, immunophenotype or differentiation...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Desiree Abdurrachim, Xing Qi Teo, Chern Chiuh Woo, Sing Yee Ong, Nurul Farhana Salleh, Janise Lalic, Ru San Tan, Philip Teck Hock Lee
AIMS: To investigate the effects of long-term low-carbohydrate low-protein ketogenic diet (KD) on cardiac metabolism and diabetic cardiomyopathy status in lean diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic GK rats were fed with KD for 62 weeks. Cardiac function and metabolism were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13 C-MRS), at rest and under dobutamine stress. 13 C-MRS was performed following injection of hyperpolarized [3-13 C]acetoacetate, [1-13 C]butyrate, or [1-13 C]pyruvate to assess ketone body, short-chain fatty acid, or glucose utilization, respectively...
December 11, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Cordelia Schulz, Dirk Eßer, Steffen Rosahl, Izet Baljić, Sabrina Kösling, Stefan K Plontke
Vestibular schwannomas are benign neoplasms originating from the Schwann cells of the vestibular vestibular nerve of the vestibulocochlear nerve, and rarely from the pars cochlearis. These are tumors that are in contact with the nerve but do not bind the fibers. Benign neoplasms of the Schwann cells of the auditory and equilibrium nerves can also occur primarily in the inner ear and are referred to as intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS). Vestibular schwannomas represent 6-7 % of all intracranial and 90 % of cerebellopontine angle tumors...
December 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Pranas Katauskis, Feliksas Ivanauskas, Aidas Alaburda
Information in the brain is stored in a form of an altered synaptic strength between neurons. The long-term potentiation (LTP), a phenomenon when a short-term increase in neural activity is transformed into a long-lasting increase in strengths of synaptic connectivity, provides an experimental substrate of memory. Using reaction-diffusion equations, we established an LTP model, describing the dynamics of glutamate (Glu), calcium (Ca2+ ) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to the stimulus-a presynaptic action potential...
December 10, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Judy Luigjes, Rebecca Segrave, Niels de Joode, Martijn Figee, Damiaan Denys
It is important to find new treatments for addiction due to high relapse rates despite current interventions and due to expansion of the field with non-substance related addictive behaviors. Neuromodulation may provide a new type of treatment for addiction since it can directly target abnormalities in neurocircuits. We review literature on five neuromodulation techniques investigated for efficacy in substance related and behavioral addictions: transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), (repetitive) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), EEG, fMRI neurofeedback and deep brain stimulation (DBS) and additionally report on effects of these interventions on addiction-related cognitive processes...
December 7, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
Ritsuko Hanajima, Nobuyuki Tanaka, Ryosuke Tsutsumi, Yuichiro Shirota, Takahiro Shimizu, Yasuo Terao, Yoshikazu Ugawa
Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to affect sleep-awake cycles, the stress response, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that caffeine influences synaptic plasticity, but the effects of caffeine on synaptic plasticity in the human brain remain unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects in the primary motor cortex of healthy humans. Twelve healthy participants (six women and six men; mean age: 44.8 ± 1...
December 10, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ning Liao, Baolong Luo, Jing Gao, Xiaojuan Li, Zhixia Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yongqing Ni, Fengwei Tian
OBJECTIVES: Four kinds of oligosaccharides were used as co-encapsulating agents to test the effect of extrusion-based microencapsulation on protection of Lactobacillus fermentum L7 against exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices as well as long-term refrigeration storage at 4 °C. RESULTS: The combination of alginate with galacto-oligosaccharides, isomalto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides, and xylo-oligosaccharides, or alginate alone exhibited good properties of the beads...
December 10, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Odunayo O Mugisho, Colin R Green, David M Squirrell, Sarah Bould, Helen V Danesh-Meyer, Jie Zhang, Monica L Acosta, Ilva D Rupenthal
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a vascular disease of the neuroretina characterised by hyperglycaemia and inflammation. Current DR therapies target late-stage vascular defects and there is evidence to suggest that they contribute to geographic atrophy and retinal ganglion cell death long term. Therefore, alternative treatments that target common upstream disease mechanisms are needed. Recent studies have shown that connexin43 hemichannel blockers can reduce inflammation and prevent vessel leak in brain and spinal cord lesions...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Daniel Sanford, Leon Luong, Arielle Gabalski, Suwan Oh, John P Vu, Joseph R Pisegna, Patrizia Germano
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide expressed both centrally and peripherally. CGRP has been shown to be involved in arteriolar dilation, cardiovascular regulation, pain transmission, migraine, and gastrointestinal physiology. Our current research is aimed at analyzing CGRP's impact on appetite/satiety, body metabolism, and energy homeostasis. Our study investigated the effects of a single-dose intraperitoneal (IP) treatment with CGRP on food and water consumption, energy expenditure, physical activity, respirometry, and a panel of plasma metabolic hormones in C57Bl/6 wild-type (WT) mice...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Chun Wang, Weiqi Wang, Jordi Sardans, Ankit Singla, Congsheng Zeng, Derrick Yu Fo Lai, Josep Peñuelas
Steel slag, a by-product of the steel industry, contains high amounts of active iron oxide and silica which can act as an oxidizing agent in agricultural soils. Biochar is a rich source of carbon, and the combined application of biochar and steel slag is assumed to have positive impacts on soil properties as well as plant growth, which are yet to be validated scientifically. We conducted a field experiment for two rice paddies (early and late paddy) to determine the individual and combined effects of steel slag and biochar amendments on CO2 , CH4 , and N2 O emission, and rice productivity in a subtropical paddy field of China...
December 7, 2018: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Yuting Song, Ruth A Anderson, Bei Wu, Kezia Scales, Eleanor McConnell, Angela Y M Leung, Kirsten N Corazzini
Background and Objectives: Pain and functional limitations can severely impede older adults' quality of life. In Chinese residential care facilities, limited research suggests that residents potentially have significant unmet care needs with pain and related functional limitations. Therefore, we aimed to explore residents' challenges and self-management strategies in these two areas. This knowledge is essential to developing care interventions to improve quality of care and quality of life in Chinese residential care facilities...
December 8, 2018: Gerontologist
Sarah Appel, Jon Grothe, Sarah Storck, Ruth Janoschek, Inga Bae-Gartz, Maria Wohlfarth, Marion Handwerk, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Alexandra Gellhaus, Jörg Dötsch
Obesity and an unhealthy nutrition are on the rise and affect also women in childbearing age and hence, during pregnancy. Despite normal or even high birth weight the offspring suffers from long term metabolic risks. We hypothesized that fetal growth is disturbed during different intrauterine phases. Underlying molecular events remain elusive. Female mice were fed either a control diet (SD) or a high fat diet (HFD) after weaning until mating and during pregnancy. Pregnant mice were sacrificed at gestational time points G15...
December 10, 2018: Endocrinology
Mirko Feldmann, Daniela Beckmann, Ulf T Eysel, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Although by adulthood cortical structures and their capacity for processing sensory information have become established and stabilized, under conditions of cortical injury, or sensory deprivation, rapid reorganization occurs. Little is known as to the impact of this kind of adaptation on cellular processes related to memory encoding. However, imaging studies in humans suggest that following loss or impairment of a sensory modality, not only cortical but also subcortical structures begin to reorganize. It is likely that these processes are supported by neurotransmitter receptors that enable synaptic and cortical plasticity...
December 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Jay S Johnson, Lance H Baumgard
Postnatal heat stress negatively impacts pig productivity and well-being as animals attempt to manage the resultant strain response. This is especially true when postnatal heat stress is combined with production stressors (e.g., mixing, weaning, transport, handling, and isolation) that have the potential to increase disease occurrence, morbidity and mortality. While pigs can utilize adaptive physiological mechanisms to compensate, these are often unfavorable to efficient livestock production. Specifically, postnatal heat stress decreases weight gain, reduces growth and production efficiency, alters carcass composition, and increases morbidity and mortality...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Gordon H Sasaki
Background: Numerous methodologies have been suggested to enhance fat graft survival, but few long-term studies are available. Objectives: The authors of this institutional review board-approved study investigated the safety and efficacy of utilizing platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Methods: Each of 10 patients received equal volumes of syringe-harvested, centrifuged fat to opposing midfaces with a lateral submuscular aponeurotic system-plication or no face lift and hands that were combined with equal volumes of either concentrated PRP or normal saline...
December 10, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
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