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PLA Applications

Jinjie Luo, Haibao Wang, Duquan Zuo, Anping Ji, Yaowen Liu
As an advanced manufacturing technology that has been developed in recent years, three-dimensional (3D) printing of macromolecular materials can create complex-shaped components that cannot be realized by traditional processing. However, only a few types of macromolecular materials are suitable for 3D printing: the structure must have a single function, and manufacturing macromolecular functional devices is difficult. In this study, using poly lactic acid (PLA) as a matrix, conductive composites were prepared by adding various contents of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)...
November 30, 2018: Micromachines
Yongli Qi, Xin Li, Yao He, Deyuan Zhang, Jiandong Ding
Strong and biodegradable materials are the key to the development of next-generation medcial devices for interventional treatment. Biodegradable polymers such as polylactide (PLA) have controllable degradation profiles, but the mechanical strength is much weaker than some metallic materials such as iron; on the other hand, tuning the corrosion rate of iron to a proper time range for biomedical applications has always been a challenge. Very recently, we have achieved a complete corrosion of iron stent in vivo within clinically required time frame by combining a PLA coating, which provides a new biomaterial type for the next-generation biodegradable coronary stents termed as metal-polymer composite stent (MPS)...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shasanka Sekhar Borkotoky, Tabli Ghosh, Purabi Bhagabati, Vimal Katiyar
The article demonstrates a simple and innocuous method for fabrication of poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/modified gum arabic (MG) based hydrophobic, microcellular, highly porous and interconnected composite foam. The observed density of the composite foams was remarkably reduced by ~86% in comparison to PLA granules. Further, there was noticed an increase in cell density and a decrease in cell size due to the addition of MG nanofiller. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of developed foam showed no significant effect of MG in maximum degradation temperature (Tmax )...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Xiangming Li, Rui Li, Guojian Yuan, Mengyao Zheng, Zhen Meng, Jia Guo, Guangyou Zhou
Ceramics with tailored pore structure are showing potential applications in some special fields. For fabricating quartz ceramics with orderly-arranged carbon filler, a combination of 3D printing, vacuum suction filtration and sintering was explored to fabricate quartz ceramics with highly-ordered and well-connected big pore channels. The spatial lattice structure in the polylactic acid (PLA) template fabricated by 3D printing together with raw material ratio and sintering temperature has great effect on the properties and pore structure of the porous quartz ceramics...
November 2018: Heliyon
Arnaldo Leal-Junior, Jonathan Casas, Carlos Marques, Maria José Pontes, Anselmo Frizera
This paper presents the development of temperature sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) embedded in 3D-printed structures made of different materials, namely polylatic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). A numerical analysis of the material behavior and its interaction with the FBG sensor was performed through the finite element method. A simple, fast and prone to automation process is presented for the FBG embedment in both PLA and TPU structures. The temperature tests were made using both PLA- and TPU-embedded FBGs as well as an unembedded FBG as reference...
November 24, 2018: Sensors
Pia Willberg-Keyriläinen, Hannes Orelma, Jarmo Ropponen
Interest in biobased polymers from renewable resources has grown in recent years due to environmental concerns, but they still have a minimal fraction of the total global market. In this study, the injection molding of thermoplastic cellulose octanate (cellulose C8) and cellulose palmitate (cellulose C16) were studied. The mechanical properties of injection-molded test specimens were analyzed by using tensile testing, and the internal structure of injection-molded objects was studied by using a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM)...
November 23, 2018: Materials
Lan Mei, Yangmei Ren, Yingchun Gu, Xiaoling Li, Chao Wang, Ying Du, RangRang Fan, Xiang Gao, Haifeng Chen, Aiping Tong, Liangxue Zhou, Gang Guo
Strengthened PLA based materials with improved mechanical performances and improved thermal resistance, notably, are prepared by introducing stereocomplex crystallite (SC), an ideal filler, into the materials. Owning to the intermolecular hydrogen bond among the stereoisomer chains, the melting point of the special crystallite is up to 200 oC, which is 50 oC higher than the isostactic crystallite. The modulus of the PLA based materials can be enhanced to several hundred MPa due to the integrated polymer chain arrangement...
November 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qing Min, Jiaoyan Liu, Jing Li, Ying Wan, Jiliang Wu
Chitosan(CH)-polylactide(PLA) copolymers containing varied PLA percentages were synthesized using a group-protection method and one of them with solubility in water-based solvents was used to prepare CH-PLA/hyaluronic acid (HA) complex microspheres for the delivery of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). An emulsification processing method was developed for producing TGF-β1-loaded CH-PLA/HA microspheres using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as ionic crosslinker and the size of the microspheres was devised to the micron level in order to achieve high encapsulating efficiency...
November 17, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Daniela-Geta Petre, Nathan W Kucko, Anna Abbadessa, Tina Vermonden, Alessandro Polini, Sander C G Leeuwenburgh
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are frequently used as synthetic bone substitute, but their intrinsic low fracture toughness impedes their application in highly loaded skeletal sites. However, fibers can be used to reduce the brittleness of these CPCs provided that the affinity between the fibers and cement matrix facilitates the transfer of loads from the matrix to the fibers. The aim of the present work was to improve the interface between hydrophobic polylactic acid (PLA) microfibers and hydrophilic CPC...
November 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Patina K Mendez, Sangyeon Lee, Chris E Venter
Availability of 3D-printed laboratory equipment holds promise to improve arthropod digitization efforts. A 3D-printed specimen scanning box was designed to image fluid-based arthropod collections using a consumer-grade flatbed scanner. The design was customized to accommodate double-width microscope slides and printed in both Polylactic Acid (PLA) and nylon (Polyamide). The workflow with two or three technicians imaged Trichoptera lots in batches of six scanning boxes. Individual images were cropped from batch imagess using an R script...
2018: ZooKeys
Tokuma Fukuoka, Tomotake Morita, Azusa Saika, Hiroshi Habe
Surface properties of cast films of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) containing 1 wt% of several glycolipid-type biosurfactants (BSs) were investigated. The wettability of PLA films containing a homologue of mannosylerythritol lipids (MEL-B), lactone-form sophorolipid (LSL), or cellobiose lipid (CL) was drastically higher than that of untreated PLA and several synthetic surfactants-containing PLA. Surface wettability was also dependent on the hydrophilicity of the substrate used during solvent casting of the PLA films...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Aleksandra Grząbka-Zasadzińska, Łukasz Klapiszewski, Sławomir Borysiak, Teofil Jesionowski
In this paper, silica⁻lignin hybrid materials were used as fillers for a polylactide (PLA) matrix. In order to simulate biodegradation, PLA/hybrid filler composite films were kept in soil of neutral pH for six months. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) allowed analysis of nonisothermal crystallization behavior of composites, thermal analysis provided information about their thermal stability, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was applied to define morphology of films. The influence of biodegradation was also investigated in terms of changes in mechanical properties and color of samples...
November 13, 2018: Materials
Giovanni Spinelli, Patrizia Lamberti, Vincenzo Tucci, Rumiana Kotsilkova, Sonia Tabakova, Radost Ivanova, Polya Angelova, Verislav Angelov, Evgeni Ivanov, Rosa Di Maio, Clara Silvestre, Darya Meisak, Alesia Paddubskaya, Polina Kuzhir
The limitation of poor mechanical stability and difficulties in printing electrically conductive components can be overcome owing to the recent introduction of nanotechnology into the field of additive manufacturing (AM) and the consequent development of nonconventional polymer nanocomposites suitable for 3D printing. In the present work, different weight percentages (up to 6 wt % in total) of carbon-based nanostructures-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), and a combination of both fillers (MWCNTs/GNPs)-were incorporated into poly(lactic) acid (PLA, Ingeo™) in an attempt to overcome several limitations of conventional 3D manufacturing based on insulating materials...
November 13, 2018: Materials
Shibo Zou, Daniel Therriault, Frédérick P Gosselin
Instability-assisted 3D printing is a method for producing microstructured fibers with sacrificial bonds and hidden lengths that mimic nature's toughening mechanisms found in spider silk. This hierarchical structure increases the effective toughness of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers by 240-340% in some specimens. Nevertheless, many specimens show worse toughness as low as 25% of that of the benchmark straight fiber due to the incomplete release of hidden lengths caused by premature failures. Here, we report the mechanical tests and simulations of microstructured fibers with coiling loops that identify the material plastic deformation as being crucial to fully release the hidden lengths...
November 14, 2018: Soft Matter
Lukas Gritsch, Gioacchino Conoscenti, Vincenzo La Carrubba, Patcharakamon Nooeaid, Aldo R Boccaccini
In a large number of medical devices, a key feature of a biomaterial is the ability to successfully bond to living tissues by means of engineered mechanisms such as the enhancement of biomineralization on a bone tissue engineering scaffold or the mimicking of the natural structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This ability is commonly referred to as "bioactivity". Materials sciences started to grow interest in it since the development of bioactive glasses by Larry Hench five decades ago. As the main goal in applications of biomedical devices and tissue scaffolds is to obtain a seamless tissue-material interface, achieving optimal bioactivity is essential for the success of most biomaterial-based tissue replacement and regenerative approaches...
January 1, 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Catalina Castillo, Aleksandra Nesic, Nestor Urra, Alvaro Maldonado
In this work, the influence of different concentrations of thermoplasticized starch on thermal, mechanical, biodegradation and phytotoxic properties of biodegradable blend carrier composed of poly(lactic acid) and poly(butylene adipate‑co‑terephtalate) was investigated. The results showed that the addition of poly(butylene adipate‑co‑terephtalate) increased elasticity of PLA materials, whereas the presence of thermoplasticized starch promoted higher biodegradation rate of the investigated materials...
November 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
S Mary Stella, U Vijayalakshmi
In the present investigation, the natural cellulose was extracted from Luffa cylindrica vegetable sponge by Chemical Modification. Both chemically modified and unmodified luffa was characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, and EDAX. The chemically modified cellulose was used for the preparation of a nanofibrous scaffold using the electrospinning method. In order to achieve the uniform and bead free fibers with desired fiber diameter the parameters such as applied voltage, tip to collector distance, solution concentration were optimized...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Milica Markovic, Shimon Ben-Shabat, Shahar Keinan, Aaron Aponick, Ellen M Zimmermann, Arik Dahan
Nowadays, the prodrug approach is used already at the early stages of drug development. Lipidic prodrug approach is a growing field for improving a number of drug properties/delivery/therapy aspects, and can offer solutions for various unmet needs. This approach includes drug moiety bound to the lipid carrier, which can be triglyceride, fatty acids, steroid, or phospholipid (PL). The focus of this article is PL-based prodrugs, which includes a PL carrier covalently bound to the active drug moiety. An overview of relevant physiological lipid processing pathways and absorption barriers is provided, followed by drug delivery/therapeutic application of PL-drug conjugates, as well as computational modeling techniques, and a modern bioinformatics tool that can aid in the optimization of PL conjugates...
November 1, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Mathieu Arseneault, Viktor Granskog, Sara Khosravi, Ilona Maria Heckler, Pablo Mesa-Antunez, Daniel Hult, Yuning Zhang, Michael Malkoch
The identification of a unique set of advanced materials that can bear extraordinary loads for use in bone and tooth repair will inevitably unlock unlimited opportunities for clinical use. Herein, the design of high-performance thermosets is reported based on triazine-trione (TATO) monomers using light-initiated thiol-yne coupling (TYC) chemistry as a polymerization strategy. In comparison to traditional thiol-ene coupling (TEC) systems, TYC chemistry has yielded highly dense networks with unprecedented mechanical properties...
November 2, 2018: Advanced Materials
Luis Quiles-Carrillo, Nestor Montanes, Fede Pineiro, Amparo Jorda-Vilaplana, Sergio Torres-Giner
The present study describes the preparation and characterization of binary and ternary blends based on polylactide (PLA) with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and thermoplastic starch (TPS) to develop fully compostable plastics with improved ductility and toughness. To this end, PLA was first melt-mixed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder with up to 40 wt % of different PCL and TPS combinations and then shaped into pieces by injection molding. The mechanical, thermal, and thermomechanical properties of the resultant binary and ternary blend pieces were analyzed and related to their composition...
October 30, 2018: Materials
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