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Pupil disorders

Ponson Laura, Gomot Marie, Blanc Romuald, Barthelemy Catherine, Roux Sylvie, Munnich Arnold, Romana Serge, Aguillon-Hernandez Nadia, Malan Valérie, Bonnet-Brilhault Frédérique
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is related to terminal 22q13 deletions of various sizes affecting the SHANK3 gene. In this neurodevelopmental disorder, behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported in half of cases. Extensive clinical and neurophysiological characterization is lacking to understand the genotype-phenotype correlation. Eighteen patients (8 males, mean age 12.7 years, SD = 9.2) with known 22q13 deletions were fully explored with determination of deletion size, along with behavioural, language and cognitive standardized assessments...
August 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Katherine O Gotham, Greg J Siegle, Gloria T Han, Andrew J Tomarken, Rachel N Crist, David M Simon, James W Bodfish
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by repetitive thinking and high rates of depression. Understanding the extent to which repetitive negative thinking in ASD reflects autistic stereotypy versus general depressive thinking patterns (e.g., rumination) could help guide treatment research to improve emotional health in ASD. We compared associations between rumination, depressive symptoms, and pupil response to social-emotional material in adults with ASD and typically developing (TD) adults with and without depression...
2018: PloS One
Paula Teixeira Marques, Francisco Manoel Branco Germiniani, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Renato Puppi Munhoz, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Professor Charcot had several pupils in his famous neurological service at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France. Among them, Édouard Brissaud was one of Charcot's favorite pupils, temporarily becoming his successor after Charcot's death. Brissaud's neurological contributions were significant, including the description of hemifacial spasm, "geste antagoniste" in dystonia, pseudobulbar affect, post-traumatic stress disorder, the Brissaud-Sicard syndrome, and Brissaud's sign. Additionally, Brissaud was the first to suggest that Parkinson's disease pathology could be related to the substantia nigra...
July 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Verena Keil, Robert Hepach, Severin Vierrath, Detlef Caffier, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Christoph Klein, Julian Schmitz
Cognitive models and adult research associate social anxiety disorder (SAD) with hypervigilant-avoidant processing of social information, such as eye contact. However, processing biases in childhood SAD remain mostly unexplored. We examined 10- to 13-year-old children's eye contact processing and pupil dilation in response to happy, neutral, and angry faces in three groups: SAD (n = 31), mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 30), and healthy controls (HC; n = 32). Compared to HC, SAD children showed faster first fixations on the eye region of neutral faces and shorter first fixation durations on the eye region of all faces...
August 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Changgeng Liu, Beatrice Pazzucconi, Juan Liu, Lei Liu, Xincheng Yao
We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye...
January 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Himani Mahesh Joshi, Mubashir Angolkar
BACKGROUND: ADHD is one of the most common childhood-onset psychiatric disorders. Even though there is no global consensus on ADHD prevalence, the estimated prevalence of ADHD worldwide ranges between 5.29% and 7.1%. In the Indian scenario, the prevalence of ADHD falls in range of 2% to 17%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children of Belagavi, India. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was done among 156 children aged between 6 to 11 years (Grade 1 to 5)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
N K Serova, E I Butenko, A N Konovalov, N N Grigor'eva, D I Pitskhelauri, I T Abramov, G V Danilov
The most common clinical manifestations of space-occupying lesions of the midbrain and pineal region are oculomotor and pupil disorders and ophthalmoscopic signs of intracranial hypertension. PURPOSE: To identify patterns of neuro-ophthalmic symptoms before and after surgical treatment in patients with space-occupying lesions of the midbrain and pineal region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed neurological symptoms in 231 patients with space-occupying lesions of the midbrain and pineal region before and after surgical treatment...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Umberto Raucci, Pasquale Parisi, Nicola Vanacore, Valentina Ferro, Giacomo Garone, Federica Sancetta, Sergio Petroni, Stefano Pro, Rossella Rossi, Antonino Reale, Nicola Pirozzi
BACKGROUND: Acute ocular motility disorders (OMDs) in children admitted to Emergency Department (ED) represents a not so rare condition with a wide spectrum of different etiologies. The emergency physician must be skilled in rapidly identifying patients with potentially life threatening (LT) forms, requiring further diagnostic procedures. The aim of the study was to assess characteristics of children with acute Ocular Motility Disorders (OMDs), and to identify "red flags" for recognition of underlying life-threatening (LT) conditions...
May 29, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Carolina Marpaung, Maurits K A van Selms, Frank Lobbezoo
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of pain-related temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among Indonesian children and adolescents, and to investigate which risk indicators are associated with it. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 1,800 questionnaires were distributed among pupils of schools in the greater Jakarta area. This was done for 2 samples: children with ages ranging from 7 to 12 years (parental report) and adolescents aged 13-18 years (self-report)...
August 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Max Schneider, Laura Leuchs, Michael Czisch, Philipp G Sämann, Victor I Spoormaker
The reward system may provide an interesting intermediate phenotype for anhedonia in affective disorders. Reward anticipation is characterized by an increase in arousal, and previous studies have linked the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to arousal responses such as dilation of the pupil. Here, we examined pupil dynamics during a reward anticipation task in forty-six healthy human subjects and evaluated its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Pupil size showed a strong increase during monetary reward anticipation, a moderate increase during verbal reward anticipation and a decrease during control trials...
September 2018: NeuroImage
Bharti Nigam, Pragati Garg, Lubna Ahmad, Ritika Mullick
Purpose: Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides high resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, vitreous humor, and optic nerve head with an axial resolution of 5 μm and a reproducibility of 1.6 μm. An integrated normative database is available only for adult subjects ≥18 years of age; the normal reference ranges of the macular thicknesses of pediatric subjects are not available. The purpose of this study was to determine the normal reference range of macular thickness of pediatric...
April 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
Jonathan Broad, Megan Wallace
OBJECTIVE: Doctors play an important role in the identification of nutritional disorders and as advocates for a healthy diet, and although the key tenets of good nutrition education for medical students have been discussed, reports on implementation are sparse. The present commentary responds to a gap in UK medical students' understanding of nutrition and public health and suggests ways to improve it. DESIGN: We review literature about nutrition education in medical schools and discuss a 6-week elective in public health nutrition for medical students...
April 30, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Zoltán Lénárt, Eszter Szabó-Szemenyei, Adrienn A Tóth, Lajos Kullmann
International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health: Children and Youth Version has shown an increasing role in the assessment of children with cerebral palsy (CP), but just a few researchers use it for individuals' self-assessment. In this study, we present the self-assessment of functioning of students with CP and changes by the end of a school year. Thirty-seven pupils with spastic CP involving upper limbs, 24 pupils with typical development, and 20 pupils with speech and language disorders were studied by International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health core sets for CP...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Marija Zivcevska, Shaobo Lei, Alan Blakeman, Herbert C Goltz, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: To develop an objective psychophysical method to quantify light-induced visual discomfort, and to measure the effects of viewing condition and stimulus wavelength. Methods: Eleven visually normal subjects participated in the study. Their pupils were dilated (2.5% phenylephrine) before the experiment. A Ganzfeld system presented either red (1.5, 19.1, 38.2, 57.3, 76.3, 152.7, 305.3 cd/m2) or blue (1.4, 7.1, 14.3, 28.6, 42.9, 57.1, 71.4 cd/m2) randomized light intensities (1 s each) in four blocks...
March 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Anji T Yetman, Lois J Starr
We describe a neonatal patient with fixed dilated pupils and pulmonary, bladder, and bowel dysfunction suspicious for the presence of ACTA2 R179 mediated multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome. Whole exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in MYH11 after ACTA2 specific testing revealed no abnormalities. The child lived until 18 months of age and represents the only reported case of an MYH11 compound heterozygote with widespread smooth muscle dysfunction.
April 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
A Lopez-Lopez, A Lopez-Lafuente, J Eiris-Punal, F Mulas, E Cardo, Grupo de Trabajo Tdah de la Sociedad Espanola de Neuropediatria Grupo de Trabajo Tdah de la Sociedad Espanola de Neuropediatria
INTRODUCTION: The high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with at least one pupil per classroom, poses a challenge for all the professionals in contact with them, especially for teachers. AIM: To examine how much primary school teachers know about ADHD in three areas (general information, symptoms and diagnosis, and treatment). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 125 primary school teachers from different communities answered the Knowledge of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Scale (KADDS)...
March 1, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Abhishek Goyal, Abhijit P Pakhare, Girish C Bhatt, Bharat Choudhary, Rajesh Patil
Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent but often neglected disorder. There is paucity of reports on the prevalence of pediatric OSA from India. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of OSA in school children aged 5-10 years and its association with academic performance. Methodology: This school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on sociodemographic variables, school performance, sleeping pattern, and a validated 22-item pediatrics sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) scale was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools...
March 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Hannah Weinberg-Wolf, Nicholas A Fagan, George M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Olga Dal Monte, Steve W C Chang
Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are often associated with impaired serotonergic function. However, serotonergic interventions yield inconsistent effects on behavioral impairments. To better understand serotonin's role in these pathologies, we investigated the role of serotonin in a behavior frequently impaired in depression and anxiety, attention. In this study, we used a quantitative, repeated, within-subject, design to test how L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate serotonin precursor, modulates central serotoninergic function and attention in macaques...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Gamze Uçan Gündüz, Neslihan Parmak Yener, Oğuzhan Kılınçel, Cem Gündüz
PURPOSE: To evaluate anterior segment parameters and intraocular pressure (IOP) modifications in patients using serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) due to major depressive disorder. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 170 eyes of 85 subjects. All subjects were divided into three groups: group 1 included 44 healthy control subjects, group 2 included 22 patients receiving antidepressants for 1 week to 6 months, and group 3 included 19 patients receiving antidepressants for >6 months...
May 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Azucena García-Palacios, Albert Costa, Diana Castilla, Eva Del Río, Aina Casaponsa, Jon Andoni Duñabeitia
Emotions are at the core of human nature. There is evidence that emotional reactivity in foreign languages compared to native languages is reduced. We explore whether this emotional distance could modulate fear conditioning, an essential mechanism for the understanding and treatment of anxiety disorders. A group of participants was verbally informed (either in a foreign or in a native language) that two different stimuli could be either cueing the potential presence of a threat stimulus or its absence. We registered pupil size and electrodermal activity and calculated the difference in psychophysiological responses to conditioned and to unconditioned stimuli...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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