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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507237/emotional-modulation-of-the-pupil-response-in-psychopathy
#1
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathy is a form of personality disorder associated with a deficit in emotional processing. However, there is debate whether this deficit applies to all emotions or exists only for negative emotions. The pupil dilates rapidly in response to emotional stimuli, allowing a time-sensitive index of emotional processing. Across 3 experiments using (a) visual images of real-world scenes, (b) auditory sound clips, and (c) videos of dynamic facial expressions, we measured emotional modulation of the pupil response to both negative and positive stimuli...
December 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500813/how-pupil-responses-track-value-based-decision-making-during-and-after-reinforcement-learning
#2
Joanne C Van Slooten, Sara Jahfari, Tomas Knapen, Jan Theeuwes
Cognition can reveal itself in the pupil, as latent cognitive processes map onto specific pupil responses. For instance, the pupil dilates when we make decisions and these pupil size fluctuations reflect decision-making computations during and after a choice. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how pupil responses relate to decisions driven by the learned value of stimuli. This understanding is important, as most real-life decisions are guided by the outcomes of earlier choices. The goal of this study was to investigate which cognitive processes the pupil reflects during value-based decision-making...
November 30, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470215/problematic-social-networking-site-usage-and-substance-use-by-young-adolescents
#3
Alessandra Buja, Luigi Gallimberti, Sonia Chindamo, Camilla Lion, Alberto Terraneo, Michele Rivera, Elena Marini, Luis Javier Gomez-Perez, Emanuele Scafato, Vincenzo Baldo
BACKGROUND: Substance use and abuse by young adolescents has become a serious issue for public health services, and several socio-environmental factors can influence how vulnerable a young adolescent may be to their appeal. The present study was devised to examine whether substance use in early adolescence is associated with problematic social networking site usage (PSNSU). METHODS: In the academic year 2013-2014, secondary schools in Padua (north-eastern Italy) were involved in a survey called "Pinocchio"...
November 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30469373/using-pupillometry-to-assess-the-atypical-pupillary-light-reflex-and-lc-ne-system-in-asd
#4
REVIEW
Georgina Lynch
With recent advances in technology, there has been growing interest in use of eye-tracking and pupillometry to assess the visual pathway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within emerging literature, an atypical pupillary light reflex (PLR) has been documented, holding potential for use as a clinical screening biomarker for ASD. This review outlines dominant theories of neuropathology associated with ASD and integrates underlying neuroscience associated with the atypical PLR through a reciprocal model of brainstem involvement and cortical underconnectivity...
November 21, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30444671/pupillary-contagion-in-autism
#5
Martyna A Galazka, Jakob Åsberg Johnels, Nicole R Zürcher, Loyse Hippolyte, Eric Lemonnier, Eva Billstedt, Christopher Gillberg, Nouchine Hadjikhani
Pupillary contagion is an involuntary change in the observer's pupil size in response to the pupil size of another person. This effect, presumed to be an important adaption for individuals living in groups, has been documented in both typical infants and adults. Here, for the first time, we report pupillary contagion in individuals with autism, a disorder of social communication. We found that, compared with a typical group ( n = 63), individuals with autism ( n = 54) exhibited comparable pupillary contagion when observing pictures of emotional faces, despite less spontaneous attention toward the eye region...
November 16, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374296/visual-encoding-of-social-cues-contributes-to-moral-reasoning-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-an-eye-tracking-study
#6
Mathieu Garon, Baudouin Forgeot d'Arc, Marie M Lavallée, Evelyn V Estay, Miriam H Beauchamp
Eye-tracking studies suggest that visual encoding is important for social processes such as socio-moral reasoning. Alterations to the visual encoding of faces, for example, have been linked to the social phenotype of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and are associated with social and communication impairments. Yet, people with ASD often perform similarly to neurotypical participants on measures of moral reasoning, supporting the hypothesis of differential mechanisms of moral reasoning in ASD. The objective of this study was to document visual encoding and moral reasoning in ASD and neurotypical individuals using a visual, ecological, sociomoral reasoning paradigm paired with eye-tracking...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371501/the-use-of-social-robots-for-supporting-language-training-of-children
#7
Kristin S Fuglerud, Ivar Solheim
A number of studies have found that robots can contribute to engagement and motivation in educational settings. We wanted to explore the possibilities and challenges of using a social robot as an assistive tool for learning and training of basic concepts and words. Robots are considered promising tools in language training because they can contribute to systematic interaction and repetition. A prototype was developed using an Aldebaran NAO robot combined with pictures that could be presented on a tablet, PC or on the wall using a projector...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30347053/evidence-that-leonardo-da-vinci-had-strabismus
#8
Christopher W Tyler
Importance: Strabismus is a binocular vision disorder characterized by the partial or complete inability to maintain eye alignment on the object that is the target of fixation, usually accompanied by suppression of the deviating eye and consequent 2-dimensional monocular vision. This cue has been used to infer the presence of strabismus in a substantial number of famous artists. Objective: To provide evidence that Leonardo da Vinci had strabismus. Design, Setting, and Participants: In exotropia, the divergent eye alignment is typically manifested as an outward shift in the locations of the pupils within the eyelid aperture...
October 18, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338580/the-preliminary-development-and-validation-of-a-trauma-related-safety-seeking-behavior-measure-for-youth-the-child-safety-behavior-scale-csbs
#9
Alice Alberici, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Jade Claxton, Patrick Smith, Anke Ehlers, Clare Dixon, Anna Mckinnon
Safety-seeking behaviors (SSBs) may be employed after exposure to a traumatic event in an effort to prevent a feared outcome. Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder propose SSBs contribute to maintaining this disorder by preventing disconfirmation of maladaptive beliefs and preserving a sense of current threat. Recent research has found that SSBs impact children's posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and recovery. In this paper, we sought to develop and validate a novel 22-item Child Safety Behavior Scale (CSBS) in a school-based sample of 391 pupils (age 12-15 years) who completed a battery of questionnaires as well as 68 youths (age 8-17 years) who were recently exposed to a trauma...
October 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332456/teachers-perceptions-of-behavioral-problems-in-dutch-primary-education-pupils-the-role-of-relative-age
#10
Albert W Wienen, Laura Batstra, Ernst Thoutenhoofd, Peter de Jonge, Elisabeth H Bos
A growing number of studies suggest that relatively young behavior of pupils gives them a much greater likelihood of being diagnosed with a disorder such as ADHD. This 'relative age effect' has also been demonstrated for special educational needs, learning difficulties, being bullied, and so on. The current study investigated the relationship between relative age of pupils in primary education and teachers' perception of their behavior. The study sample included 1973 pupils, aged between 6 and 12. Six linear mixed models were carried out with birth day in a year as predictor variable and 'total problem score', 'problems with hyperactivity', 'behavioral problems', 'emotional problems', 'problems with peers' and 'pro-social behavior' as dependent variables...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311977/oculo-visual-abnormalities-in-parkinson-s-disease-possible-value-as-biomarkers
#11
REVIEW
Li Guo, Eduardo M Normando, Parth Arvind Shah, Lies De Groef, M Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and the second leading cause of dementia worldwide. With an aging population, the prevalence of the disease has dramatically increased. Clinical management has advanced through recent developments in dopaminergic imaging and genetic risk profiling. However, early and accurate diagnosis of the disorder remains a challenge, largely because of the lack of noninvasive and inexpensive reliable diagnostic tests. Besides the well-studied cerebral neurodegeneration that underlies the cardinal symptoms of PD (ie, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability), ocular changes have also been described in PD, including visual dysfunction, pupil abnormality, lens opacity, and retinal neuronal loss and dysfunction...
September 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309989/young-age-at-school-entry-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-related-symptoms-during-primary-school-results-of-a-prospective-cohort-study-conducted-at-german-rudolf-steiner-schools
#12
Janine Wendt, Martina F Schmidt, Jochem König, Rainer Patzlaff, Michael Huss, Michael S Urschitz
OBJECTIVES: Young age at school entry (ASE) for students has been related to their impaired mental health in higher grades. To avoid the negative health consequences of young ASE, preschool examinations and individual school entry deferral for young children are routinely performed by some school authorities. We aimed to investigate whether ASE was associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms in pupils attending schools using a selective school enrolment procedure...
October 10, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297489/myasthenia-gravis-crisis-coinciding-with-asthma-exacerbation-in-a-patient-with-recent-heroin-use-three-causes-of-acute-hypercarbic-respiratory-failure
#13
Adem Aktas, Edward Rojas, Hardik A Parikh, Kathleen Pergament
A 57-year-old woman with a history of asthma, hypertension and substance abuse disorder was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with hypercapnic respiratory failure. After the history was obtained, patient admitted heroin use earlier that day. The initial physical examination revealed right eye ptosis, diplopia, fatigability of neck flexion and extension. She also presented with wheezing and a prolonged expiratory phase. Pupils were 4 mm, with sluggish response to light bilaterally. CT chest with contrast showed a large mediastinal mass...
October 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30293479/negev-bedouin-teachers-attitudes-toward-adhd-and-its-pharmacological-treatment
#14
Amos Fleischmann, Sharief Dabbah
Little is known about the attitudes of Negev Bedouin toward attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its pharmacological treatment. This study examines the perspectives of Negev Bedouin teachers on pharmacological treatment. Thirty-six teachers are asked to consider how their views influence the way they relate to pupils' parents. A grounded-theory analysis of semistructured interviews illuminates ambivalence in teachers' attitudes. Teachers, like the rest of their community, when asked about the implications of an ADHD evaluation for their children, respond that ADHD and its pharmacological treatment cause dishonor...
October 8, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284453/evaluation-of-static-and-dynamic-pupil-characteristics-in-hyperopic-anisometropic-amblyopia
#15
Esat Yetkin, Kemal Tekin, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Veysel Cankurtaran, Hakan Halit Yasar
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to perform a comparison of static and dynamic pupillometry measurements in patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and age-matched controls. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 38 patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 80 control subjects. A quantitative pupillometry system was used to evaluate the pupil characteristics of higher hyperopic eyes (Group 1), the fellow eyes (Group 2), and healthy eyes (Group 3)...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281150/increased-sensitivity-of-the-circadian-system-to-light-in-delayed-sleep-wake-phase-disorder
#16
Lauren A Watson, Andrew J K Phillips, Ihaia T Hosken, Elise M McGlashan, Clare Anderson, Leon C Lack, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Sean W Cain
KEY POINTS: This is the first study to demonstrate an altered circadian phase shifting response in a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Patients with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) demonstrate greater sensitivity of the circadian system to the phase-delaying effects of light. Increased circadian sensitivity to light is associated with later circadian timing within both control and DSWPD groups. DSWPD patients had a greater sustained pupil response after light exposure. Treatments for DSWPD should consider sensitivity of the circadian system to light as a potential underlying vulnerability, making patients susceptible to relapse...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271376/melanopsin-driven-pupil-response-and-light-exposure-in-non-seasonal-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Beatrix Feigl, Govinda Ojha, Leanne Hides, Andrew J Zele
Background: Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) signal non-imaging forming effects of environmental light for circadian phoentrainment, the pupil light reflex, and mood regulation. In seasonal affective disorder, ipRGC dysfunction is thought to cause abberant transmission of the external illumination for photoentrainment. It is not known if patients with non-seasonal depression have abnormal melanospin mediated signaling and/or irregular environmental light exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239362/disorders-of-the-pediatric-pupil
#18
Naz Raoof
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Ophthalmology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174642/chromatic-pupillometry-in-children
#19
Sylvain V Crippa, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf, Aki Kawasaki
Chromatic pupillometry is a technique that is increasingly used to assess retinal disorders. As age may be one of the various factors which can influence the pupillary light reaction, this study aimed to evaluate the pupil responses to colored light stimuli in the pediatric population. Fifty-three children with normal vision and without any history of ocular disorders were tested with a portable pupillometer. Four test sequences were used: five dim blue (470 nm) stimuli presented in half log steps ranging from -3...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30170329/efficacy-of-add-on-pregabalin-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-and-unipolar-major-depression-with-an-early-nonresponse-to-escitalopram-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#20
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Vangelis Karavelas, Stefania Moysidou, Dimitris Mavridis, Konstantinos Pastiadis, Nicole Petalidou, Ioannis Nimatoudis, Siegfried Kasper
INTRODUCTION: This study tests the efficacy of pregabalin versus placebo as adjunctive treatment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) comorbid with unipolar major depression (UMD) and with an early nonresponse to escitalopram. METHODS: This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week add-on study of pregabalin, 75-600 mg/day (n=31) versus placebo (n=29) on open-label escitalopram in outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD and UMD. The main outcome measures were change from baseline to endpoint in total STAI-S, Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B) and the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)...
August 31, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
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