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Pupil disorders

Alice Alberici, Richard Meiser-Stedman, Jade Claxton, Patrick Smith, Anke Ehlers, Clare Dixon, Anna Mckinnon
Safety-seeking behaviors (SSBs) may be employed after exposure to a traumatic event in an effort to prevent a feared outcome. Cognitive models of posttraumatic stress disorder propose SSBs contribute to maintaining this disorder by preventing disconfirmation of maladaptive beliefs and preserving a sense of current threat. Recent research has found that SSBs impact children's posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and recovery. In this paper, we sought to develop and validate a novel 22-item Child Safety Behavior Scale (CSBS) in a school-based sample of 391 pupils (age 12-15 years) who completed a battery of questionnaires as well as 68 youths (age 8-17 years) who were recently exposed to a trauma...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Albert W Wienen, Laura Batstra, Ernst Thoutenhoofd, Peter de Jonge, Elisabeth H Bos
A growing number of studies suggest that relatively young behavior of pupils gives them a much greater likelihood of being diagnosed with a disorder such as ADHD. This 'relative age effect' has also been demonstrated for special educational needs, learning difficulties, being bullied, and so on. The current study investigated the relationship between relative age of pupils in primary education and teachers' perception of their behavior. The study sample included 1973 pupils, aged between 6 and 12. Six linear mixed models were carried out with birth day in a year as predictor variable and 'total problem score', 'problems with hyperactivity', 'behavioral problems', 'emotional problems', 'problems with peers' and 'pro-social behavior' as dependent variables...
2018: PloS One
Li Guo, Eduardo M Normando, Parth Arvind Shah, Lies De Groef, M Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and the second leading cause of dementia worldwide. With an aging population, the prevalence of the disease has dramatically increased. Clinical management has advanced through recent developments in dopaminergic imaging and genetic risk profiling. However, early and accurate diagnosis of the disorder remains a challenge, largely because of the lack of noninvasive and inexpensive reliable diagnostic tests. Besides the well-studied cerebral neurodegeneration that underlies the cardinal symptoms of PD (ie, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability), ocular changes have also been described in PD, including visual dysfunction, pupil abnormality, lens opacity, and retinal neuronal loss and dysfunction...
September 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Janine Wendt, Martina F Schmidt, Jochem König, Rainer Patzlaff, Michael Huss, Michael S Urschitz
OBJECTIVES: Young age at school entry (ASE) for students has been related to their impaired mental health in higher grades. To avoid the negative health consequences of young ASE, preschool examinations and individual school entry deferral for young children are routinely performed by some school authorities. We aimed to investigate whether ASE was associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related symptoms in pupils attending schools using a selective school enrolment procedure...
October 10, 2018: BMJ Open
Adem Aktas, Edward Rojas, Hardik A Parikh, Kathleen Pergament
A 57-year-old woman with a history of asthma, hypertension and substance abuse disorder was admitted to the medical intensive care unit with hypercapnic respiratory failure. After the history was obtained, patient admitted heroin use earlier that day. The initial physical examination revealed right eye ptosis, diplopia, fatigability of neck flexion and extension. She also presented with wheezing and a prolonged expiratory phase. Pupils were 4 mm, with sluggish response to light bilaterally. CT chest with contrast showed a large mediastinal mass...
October 7, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Amos Fleischmann, Sharief Dabbah
Little is known about the attitudes of Negev Bedouin toward attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its pharmacological treatment. This study examines the perspectives of Negev Bedouin teachers on pharmacological treatment. Thirty-six teachers are asked to consider how their views influence the way they relate to pupils' parents. A grounded-theory analysis of semistructured interviews illuminates ambivalence in teachers' attitudes. Teachers, like the rest of their community, when asked about the implications of an ADHD evaluation for their children, respond that ADHD and its pharmacological treatment cause dishonor...
October 8, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Esat Yetkin, Kemal Tekin, Hasan Kiziltoprak, Mehmet Ali Sekeroglu, Veysel Cankurtaran, Hakan Halit Yasar
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to perform a comparison of static and dynamic pupillometry measurements in patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and age-matched controls. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study consisted of 38 patients with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 80 control subjects. A quantitative pupillometry system was used to evaluate the pupil characteristics of higher hyperopic eyes (Group 1), the fellow eyes (Group 2), and healthy eyes (Group 3)...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Lauren A Watson, Andrew J K Phillips, Ihaia T Hosken, Elise M McGlashan, Clare Anderson, Leon C Lack, Steven W Lockley, Shantha M W Rajaratnam, Sean W Cain
KEY POINTS: This is the first study to demonstrate an altered circadian phase shifting response in a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) demonstrate greater sensitivity of the circadian system to the phase delaying effects of light. Increased circadian sensitivity to light is associated with later circadian timing within both control and DSWPD groups. DSWPD patients had a greater sustained pupil response after light exposure. Treatments for DSWPD should consider sensitivity of the circadian system to light as a potential underlying vulnerability, making patients susceptible to relapse...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Beatrix Feigl, Govinda Ojha, Leanne Hides, Andrew J Zele
Background: Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells (ipRGCs) signal non-imaging forming effects of environmental light for circadian phoentrainment, the pupil light reflex, and mood regulation. In seasonal affective disorder, ipRGC dysfunction is thought to cause abberant transmission of the external illumination for photoentrainment. It is not known if patients with non-seasonal depression have abnormal melanospin mediated signaling and/or irregular environmental light exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Naz Raoof
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Ophthalmology Clinics
Sylvain V Crippa, Fatima Pedrosa Domellöf, Aki Kawasaki
Chromatic pupillometry is a technique that is increasingly used to assess retinal disorders. As age may be one of the various factors which can influence the pupillary light reaction, this study aimed to evaluate the pupil responses to colored light stimuli in the pediatric population. Fifty-three children with normal vision and without any history of ocular disorders were tested with a portable pupillometer. Four test sequences were used: five dim blue (470 nm) stimuli presented in half log steps ranging from -3...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Vangelis Karavelas, Stefania Moysidou, Dimitris Mavridis, Konstantinos Pastiadis, Nicole Petalidou, Ioannis Nimatoudis, Siegfried Kasper
INTRODUCTION: This study tests the efficacy of pregabalin versus placebo as adjunctive treatment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) comorbid with unipolar major depression (UMD) and with an early nonresponse to escitalopram. METHODS: This is a double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week add-on study of pregabalin, 75-600 mg/day (n=31) versus placebo (n=29) on open-label escitalopram in outpatients meeting the DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD and UMD. The main outcome measures were change from baseline to endpoint in total STAI-S, Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B) and the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)...
August 31, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
Delia Gagliardi, Irene Faravelli, Luisa Villa, Guglielmo Pero, Claudia Cinnante, Roberta Brusa, Eleonora Mauri, Laura Tresoldi, Francesca Magri, Alessandra Govoni, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi, Stefania Corti
Bilateral cavernous carotid aneurysms (CCAs) represent a rare medical condition that can mimic other disorders. We present a rare case of bilateral CCAs simulating an ocular myasthenia. A 76-year-old woman presented with a history of fluctuating bilateral diplopia and unilateral ptosis, which led to the suspicion of ocular myasthenia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain showed the presence of large bilateral aneurysms of the carotid cavernous tract. After an unsuccessful attempt with steroid therapy, the patient underwent endovascular treatment, with mild improvement...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Ponson Laura, Gomot Marie, Blanc Romuald, Barthelemy Catherine, Roux Sylvie, Munnich Arnold, Romana Serge, Aguillon-Hernandez Nadia, Malan Valérie, Bonnet-Brilhault Frédérique
Phelan-McDermid syndrome is related to terminal 22q13 deletions of various sizes affecting the SHANK3 gene. In this neurodevelopmental disorder, behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported in half of cases. Extensive clinical and neurophysiological characterization is lacking to understand the genotype-phenotype correlation. Eighteen patients (8 males, mean age 12.7 years, SD = 9.2) with known 22q13 deletions were fully explored with determination of deletion size, along with behavioural, language and cognitive standardized assessments...
August 8, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Katherine O Gotham, Greg J Siegle, Gloria T Han, Andrew J Tomarken, Rachel N Crist, David M Simon, James W Bodfish
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by repetitive thinking and high rates of depression. Understanding the extent to which repetitive negative thinking in ASD reflects autistic stereotypy versus general depressive thinking patterns (e.g., rumination) could help guide treatment research to improve emotional health in ASD. We compared associations between rumination, depressive symptoms, and pupil response to social-emotional material in adults with ASD and typically developing (TD) adults with and without depression...
2018: PloS One
Paula Teixeira Marques, Francisco Manoel Branco Germiniani, Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo, Renato Puppi Munhoz, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive
Professor Charcot had several pupils in his famous neurological service at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France. Among them, Édouard Brissaud was one of Charcot's favorite pupils, temporarily becoming his successor after Charcot's death. Brissaud's neurological contributions were significant, including the description of hemifacial spasm, "geste antagoniste" in dystonia, pseudobulbar affect, post-traumatic stress disorder, the Brissaud-Sicard syndrome, and Brissaud's sign. Additionally, Brissaud was the first to suggest that Parkinson's disease pathology could be related to the substantia nigra...
July 2018: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Verena Keil, Robert Hepach, Severin Vierrath, Detlef Caffier, Brunna Tuschen-Caffier, Christoph Klein, Julian Schmitz
Cognitive models and adult research associate social anxiety disorder (SAD) with hypervigilant-avoidant processing of social information, such as eye contact. However, processing biases in childhood SAD remain mostly unexplored. We examined 10- to 13-year-old children's eye contact processing and pupil dilation in response to happy, neutral, and angry faces in three groups: SAD (n = 31), mixed anxiety disorders (MAD; n = 30), and healthy controls (HC; n = 32). Compared to HC, SAD children showed faster first fixations on the eye region of neutral faces and shorter first fixation durations on the eye region of all faces...
August 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Changgeng Liu, Beatrice Pazzucconi, Juan Liu, Lei Liu, Xincheng Yao
We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye...
January 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
Himani Mahesh Joshi, Mubashir Angolkar
BACKGROUND: ADHD is one of the most common childhood-onset psychiatric disorders. Even though there is no global consensus on ADHD prevalence, the estimated prevalence of ADHD worldwide ranges between 5.29% and 7.1%. In the Indian scenario, the prevalence of ADHD falls in range of 2% to 17%. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of ADHD in primary school children of Belagavi, India. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was done among 156 children aged between 6 to 11 years (Grade 1 to 5)...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
N K Serova, E I Butenko, A N Konovalov, N N Grigor'eva, D I Pitskhelauri, I T Abramov, G V Danilov
The most common clinical manifestations of space-occupying lesions of the midbrain and pineal region are oculomotor and pupil disorders and ophthalmoscopic signs of intracranial hypertension. PURPOSE: To identify patterns of neuro-ophthalmic symptoms before and after surgical treatment in patients with space-occupying lesions of the midbrain and pineal region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed neurological symptoms in 231 patients with space-occupying lesions of the midbrain and pineal region before and after surgical treatment...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
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