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Human Eye movement

Thomas P O'Connell, Marvin M Chun
Eye tracking has long been used to measure overt spatial attention, and computational models of spatial attention reliably predict eye movements to natural images. However, researchers lack techniques to noninvasively access spatial representations in the human brain that guide eye movements. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict eye movement patterns from reconstructed spatial representations evoked by natural scenes. First, we reconstruct fixation maps to directly predict eye movement patterns from fMRI activity...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Claudia Ackermann, Matthias Beggiato, Sarah Schubert, Josef F Krems
In the near future, more vehicles will have automated functions. The traffic system will be a shared space of automated and manually driven vehicles. In our study we focused on the perspective of vulnerable road users, namely pedestrians, in cooperative situations with automated vehicles. Established communication methods, such as eye-contact between pedestrians and drivers, may no longer work when automated vehicles represent the interaction partner. Therefore, we evaluated several human-machine-interfaces (HMI) in order to implement smooth and comfortable communication...
February 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Troy J Rand, Venkata Naga Pradeep Ambati, Mukul Mukherjee
Activities of daily living require maintaining upright posture within a variety of environmental constraints. A healthy postural control system can adapt to different environmental constraints. Afferent sensory information is used to determine where the body is in relation to the gravitational vertical and efferent motor commands make corrections with the goal of keeping the center of mass within the base of support. The purpose of this research was to understand how vision, direction of translation, and the temporal correlation of the support surface stimuli affected the persistence characteristics of postural dynamics on short and long time scales...
December 1, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Philip Graybill, Mehdi Kiani
This paper presents the design, development, and validation of the Eyelid Drive System (EDS), an assistive technology comprising a specialized pair of glasses and millimeter-sized passive resonators, attached to the wearer's eyelids, that transduce eyelid movement (blinking and winking) through inductive sensing. The theory of operation and design optimization with simulations are presented. A proof-of-concept prototype EDS was constructed using a pair of non-prescription glasses and commercial-off-the-shelf components...
November 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
K L Graham, S-E Byosiere, L C Feng, M Sanders, P C Bennett, K Caruso, C I McCowan, A White
OBJECTIVES: To describe preliminary use of a forced-choice preferential looking task for the clinical assessment of vision in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The vision of 18 pet dogs was investigated in two separate studies using a forced-choice preferential looking task: multiple observers watched eye, head and body movements on video recordings to identify cues suggesting when a dog had seen the feature of interest. Human observer reliability was determined using eight dogs and computer-generated stimuli...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Matthias Hartmann, Nils R Sommer, Lorenzo Diana, René M Müri, Aleksandra K Eberhard-Moscicka
Previous studies showed that the small leftward bias found in healthy humans' spatial judgments of lines ("pseudoneglect") shifts to the right with increasing distance between stimuli and observer. In this study, we investigated whether such a modulation of attentional asymmetry can also be observed in free visual exploration. Participants freely explored photographs of naturalistic scenes for 7 s in near (60 cm) and far (140 cm) space. After an initial leftward bias, followed by a compensatory rightward bias, gaze positions were significantly more leftward in near compared to far space (around 4 s from scene onset)...
November 22, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Caitlin R Woolcott, Stephanie Torrey, Patricia V Turner, Heather Chalmers, Lena J Levison, Karen Schwean-Lardner, Tina M Widowski
Our objective was to determine the efficacy of manual cervical dislocation vs. a mechanical cervical dislocation device for on-farm killing of poults and young turkeys. Forty-two 1- and 3-week old turkeys were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: awake manual cervical dislocation (CD), anesthetized manual cervical dislocation (aCD), or anesthetized mechanical cervical dislocation (MCD). Anesthetized birds received an intramuscular dose of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine and 30 mg/kg of ketamine to achieve a light plane of anesthesia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ryuji Takeya, Aniruddh D Patel, Masaki Tanaka
Synchronized movements with external periodic rhythms, such as dancing to a beat, are commonly observed in daily life. Although it has been well established that some vocal learning species (including parrots and humans) spontaneously develop this ability, it has only recently been shown that monkeys are also capable of predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to periodic stimuli. In our previous study, monkeys were trained to make predictive saccades for alternately presented visual stimuli at fixed stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) to obtain a liquid reward...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rachel N Denison, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg, Marisa Carrasco
Our visual input is constantly changing, but not all moments are equally relevant. Visual temporal attention, the prioritization of visual information at specific points in time, increases perceptual sensitivity at behaviorally relevant times. The dynamic processes underlying this increase are unclear. During fixation, humans make small eye movements called microsaccades, and inhibiting microsaccades improves perception of brief stimuli. Here we asked whether temporal attention changes the pattern of microsaccades in anticipation of brief stimuli...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aleya Flechsenhar, Olivia Larson, Albert End, Matthias Gamer
Eye-tracking studies on social attention have consistently shown that humans prefer to attend to other human beings. Much less is known about whether a similar preference is also evident in covert attentional processes. To enable a direct comparison, this study examined covert and overt attentional guidance within two different experimental setups using complex naturalistic scenes instead of isolated single features. In the first experiment, a modified version of the dot-probe paradigm served as a measure of covert reflexive attention toward briefly presented scenes containing a social feature in one half of the visual field compared to nonsocial elements in the other while controlling for low-level visual saliency...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep in mammals is accompanied by a decrease in core body temperature (CBT). The circadian clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates daily rhythms in both CBT and arousal states, and these rhythms are normally coupled. Reductions in metabolic heat production resulting from behavioral quiescence and reduced muscle tone along with changes in autonomic nervous system activity and thermoeffector activity contribute to the sleep-related fall in CBT. Reductions in sympathetic tone to the peripheral vasculature resulting in heat loss through the skin are reflected in a sleep-related increase in distal skin temperature that is a prominent feature of sleep onset in humans...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Manuel G Calvo, Andrés Fernández-Martín, Aida Gutiérrez-García, Daniel Lundqvist
Prior research using static facial stimuli (photographs) has identified diagnostic face regions (i.e., functional for recognition) of emotional expressions. In the current study, we aimed to determine attentional orienting, engagement, and time course of fixation on diagnostic regions. To this end, we assessed the eye movements of observers inspecting dynamic expressions that changed from a neutral to an emotional face. A new stimulus set (KDEF-dyn) was developed, which comprises 240 video-clips of 40 human models portraying six basic emotions (happy, sad, angry, fearful, disgusted, and surprised)...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bryan K Ward, Yoon H Lee, Dale C Roberts, Ethan Naylor, Americo A Migliaccio, Charles C Della Santina
HYPOTHESIS: Magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) elicits nystagmus in C57BL/6J mice but not head tilt mice lacking Nox3, which is required for normal otoconial development. BACKGROUND: Humans have vertigo and nystagmus in strong magnetic fields within magnetic resonance imaging machines. The hypothesized mechanism is a Lorentz force driven by electrical current entering the utricular neuroepithelium, acting indirectly on crista hair cells via endolymph movement deflecting cupulae...
December 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Isha Puri, David D Cox
Research in neuroscience and vision science relies heavily on careful measurements of animal subject's gaze direction. Rodents are the most widely studied animal subjects for such research because of their economic advantage and hardiness. Recently, video based eye trackers that use image processing techniques have become a popular option for gaze tracking because they are easy to use and are completely noninvasive. Although significant progress has been made in improving the accuracy and robustness of eye tracking algorithms, unfortunately, almost all of the techniques have focused on human eyes, which does not account for the unique characteristics of the rodent eye images, e...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Federico Wadehn, David J Mack, Thilo Weber, Hans-Andrea Loeliger
Eye movements reveal a great wealth of information about the visual system and the brain. Therefore, eye movements can serve as diagnostic markers for various neurological disorders. For an objective analysis, it is crucial to have an automatic and robust procedure to extract relevant eye movement parameters. An essential step towards this goal is to detect and separate different types of eye movements such as fixations, saccades and smooth pursuit. We have developed a model-based approach to perform signal detection and separation on eye movement recordings, using source separation techniques from sparse Bayesian learning...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sara Mahvash Mohammadi, Majdi Alnowami, Sofia Khan, Derk-Jan Dijk, Adrian Hilton, Kevin Wells
Sleep is a process of rest and renewal that is vital for humans. However, there are several sleep disorders such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome (RLS) that can have an impact on a significant portion of the population. These disorders are known to be associated with particular behaviours such as specific body positions and movements. Clinical diagnosis requires patients to undergo polysomnography (PSG) in a sleep unit as a gold standard assessment...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Jui-Yang Chang, Matteo Fecchio, Andrea Pigorini, Marcello Massimini, Giulio Tononi, Barry D Van Veen
BACKGROUND: The basic mechanisms underlying the electroencephalograpy (EEG) response to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human cortex are not well understood. NEW METHOD: A state-space modeling methodology is developed to gain insight into the network nature of the TMS/EEG response. Cortical activity is modeled using a multivariariate autoregressive model with exogenous stimulation parameters representing the effect of TMS. An observation equation models EEG measurement of cortical activity...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
David J Schaeffer, Kyle M Gilbert, Maryam Ghahremani, Joseph S Gati, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered recent attention as a potentially powerful preclinical model and complement to other canonical mammalian models of human brain diseases (e.g., rodents and Old World non-human primates). With a granular frontal cortex and the advent of transgenic modifications, marmosets are well positioned to serve as neuropsychiatric models of prefrontal cortex dysfunction. A critical step in the development of marmosets for such models is to characterize functional network topologies of frontal cortex in healthy, normally functioning marmosets...
November 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Rachel Ege, A John Van Opstal, Marc M Van Wanrooij
Sensory representations are typically endowed with intrinsic noise, leading to variability and inaccuracies in perceptual responses. The Bayesian framework accounts for an optimal strategy to deal with sensory-motor uncertainty, by combining the noisy sensory input with prior information regarding the distribution of stimulus properties. The maximum-a-posteriori (MAP) estimate selects the perceptual response from the peak (mode) of the resulting posterior distribution that ensure optimal accuracy-precision trade-off when the underlying distributions are Gaussians (minimal mean-squared error, with minimum response variability)...
November 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Paul William Miller, Iain William McGowan, Uri Bergmann, Derek Farrell, Derek Francis McLaughlin
EMDR therapy is recommended in several guidelines in the International field of psychological trauma. The dual attention stimuli/alternating bilateral stimulation (DAS/ABS) element of EMDR therapy has no proposed mechanism of action agreed upon, which explains the rapid shifts in cognitions and dysfunctional traumatic memory networks that are central to its observable efficacy. This paper discusses an innate, biological mechanism found in biological systems, including the human nervous system that may explain the efficacy of DAS/ABS...
December 2018: Medical Hypotheses
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