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Eye movement human

Raimondas Zemblys, Diederick C Niehorster, Kenneth Holmqvist
Existing event detection algorithms for eye-movement data almost exclusively rely on thresholding one or more hand-crafted signal features, each computed from the stream of raw gaze data. Moreover, this thresholding is largely left for the end user. Here we present and develop gazeNet, a new framework for creating event detectors that do not require hand-crafted signal features or signal thresholding. It employs an end-to-end deep learning approach, which takes raw eye-tracking data as input and classifies it into fixations, saccades and post-saccadic oscillations...
October 17, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Jacob G Martin, Charles E Davis, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Simon J Thorpe
While several studies have shown human subjects' impressive ability to detect faces in individual images in paced settings (Crouzet et al., 2010), we here report the details of an eye movement dataset in which subjects rapidly and continuously targeted single faces embedded in different scenes at rates approaching six face targets each second (including blinks and eye movement times). In this paper, we describe details of a large publicly available eye movement dataset of this new psychophysical paradigm (Martin et al...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jonas Knöll, Jonathan W Pillow, Alexander C Huk
Much study of the visual system has focused on how humans and monkeys integrate moving stimuli over space and time. Such assessments of spatiotemporal integration provide fundamental grounding for the interpretation of neurophysiological data, as well as how the resulting neural signals support perceptual decisions and behavior. However, the insights supported by classical characterizations of integration performed in humans and rhesus monkeys are potentially limited with respect to both generality and detail: Standard tasks require extensive amounts of training, involve abstract stimulus-response mappings, and depend on combining data across many trials and/or sessions...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marcus O Harrington, Kristel Klaus, Mariliis Vaht, Jaanus Harro, Kyla Pennington, Simon J Durrant
Emotional memory may be modulated by BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. However, the influence of these genetic variants on the overnight retention of emotional memories has not been investigated in humans. Thirty-six healthy female students were selected to participate in this study based on 5-HTTLPR genotype status (L'/L', L'/S', S'/S'). Participants were also genotyped for BDNF Val66Met (Val/Val, Met carriers). We measured recognition performance for positive, neutral and negative images before and after overnight sleep...
October 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Matthias Beggiato, Franziska Hartwich, Josef Krems
As technological advances lead to rapid progress in driving automation, human-machine interaction (HMI) issues such as comfort in automated driving gain increasing attention. The research project KomfoPilot at Chemnitz University of Technology aims to assess discomfort in automated driving using physiological parameters from commercially available smartbands, pupillometry and body motion. Detected discomfort should subsequently be used to adapt driving parameters as well as information presentation and prevent potentially safety-critical take-over situations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Leena Tähkämö, Timo Partonen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen
Light is necessary for life, and artificial light improves visual performance and safety, but there is an increasing concern of the potential health and environmental impacts of light. Findings from a number of studies suggest that mistimed light exposure disrupts the circadian rhythm in humans, potentially causing further health impacts. However, a variety of methods has been applied in individual experimental studies of light-induced circadian impacts, including definition of light exposure and outcomes. Thus, a systematic review is needed to synthesize the results...
October 12, 2018: Chronobiology International
Pim Mostert, Anke Marit Albers, Loek Brinkman, Larisa Todorova, Peter Kok, Floris P de Lange
A relatively new analysis technique, known as neural decoding or multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), has become increasingly popular for cognitive neuroimaging studies over recent years. These techniques promise to uncover the representational contents of neural signals, as well as the underlying code and the dynamic profile thereof. A field in which these techniques have led to novel insights in particular is that of visual working memory (VWM). In the present study, we subjected human volunteers to a combined VWM/imagery task while recording their neural signals using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
July 2018: ENeuro
Martine Hausberger, Anthony Boigné, Clémence Lesimple, Laurine Belin, Laurence Henry
Raptors are one of the most important causes of fatalities due to their collisions with aircrafts as well as being the main victims of collisions with constructions. They are difficult to deter because they are not influenced by other airspace users or ground predators. Because vision is the primary sensory mode of many diurnal raptors, we evaluated the reactions of captive raptors to a "superstimulus" (a "paradoxical effect whereby animals show greater responsiveness to an exaggerated stimulus than to the natural stimulus") that combined an "eye shape" stimulus (as many species have an aversion for this type of stimulus) and a looming movement (LE)...
2018: PloS One
Rodrigo Balp, Florian Waszak, Thérèse Collins
Saccadic eye movements cause displacements of the image of the visual world projected on the retina. Despite the ubiquitous nature of saccades, subjective experience of the world is continuous and stable. In five experiments, we addressed the mechanisms that may support visual stability: matching of pre- and postsaccadic locations of the target by an internal copy of the saccade, or retention of the visual attributes of the target in short-term memory across the saccade. Healthy human adults were instructed to make a saccade to a peripheral Gabor patch...
October 10, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Bahman Abdi Sargezeh, Ahmad Ayatollahi, Mohammad Reza Daliri
Eye movement studies are subject of interest in human cognition. Cortical activity and cognitive load impress eye movement influentially. Here, we investigated whether fluid intelligence (FI) has any effect on eye movement pattern in a comparative visual search (CVS) task. FI of individuals was measured using the Cattell test, and participants were divided into three groups: low FI, middle FI, and high FI. Eye movements of individuals were then recorded during the CVS task. Eye movement patterns were extracted and compared statistically among the three groups...
October 8, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Amy M Smith, Constanze Depp, Brent J Ryan, Geoffrey I Johnston, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Samuel Evetts, Michal Rolinski, Fahd Baig, Claudio Ruffmann, Anna Katharina Simon, Michele T M Hu, Richard Wade-Martins
BACKGROUND: Although primarily a neurodegenerative process, there is increasing awareness of peripheral disease mechanisms in Parkinson's disease. To investigate disease processes in accessible patient cells, we studied peripheral blood mononuclear cells in recently diagnosed PD patients and rapid eye movement-sleep behavior disorder patients who have a greatly increased risk of developing PD. We hypothesized that peripheral blood mononuclear cells may recapitulate cellular pathology found in the PD brain and investigated these cells for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress...
October 7, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Andreas Schindler, Andreas Bartels
A key question in vision research concerns how the brain compensates for self-induced eye and head movements to form the world-centered, spatiotopic representations we perceive. Although human V3A and V6 integrate eye movements with vision, it is unclear which areas integrate head motion signals with visual retinotopic representations, as fMRI typically prevents head movement executions. Here we examined whether human early visual cortex V3A and V6 integrate these signals. A previously introduced paradigm allowed participant head movement during trials, but stabilized the head during data acquisition utilizing the delay between blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) and neural signals...
September 28, 2018: iScience
Enikő Kovács, András Kosztolányi, Anna Kis
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are excellent models of human behavior as during domestication they have adapted to the same environment as humans. There have been many comparative studies on dog behavior; however, several easily measurable and analyzable psychophysiological variables that are widely used in humans are still largely unexplored in dogs. One such measure is rapid eye movement density (REMD) during REM sleep. The aim of this study was to test the viability of measuring REMD in dogs and to explore the relationship between the REMD and different variables (sex, age, body size, and REM sleep duration)...
September 27, 2018: Learning & Behavior
M Muntaseer Mahfuz, Michael C Schubert, William V C Figtree, Christopher J Todd, Americo A Migliaccio
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is the main gaze stabilising system during rapid head movements. The VOR is highly plastic and its gain (eye/head velocity) can be increased via training that induces an incrementally increasing retinal image slip error signal to drive VOR adaptation. Using the unilateral incremental VOR adaptation technique and horizontal active head impulses as the vestibular stimulus, we sought to determine the factors important for VOR adaptation including: the total training time, ratio and number of head impulses to each side (adapting and non-adapting sides; the adapting side was pseudo-randomised left or right) and exposure time to the visual target during each head impulse...
September 24, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Jessica Burgstaller, Markus Paulus, Michaela Pfundmair
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been suggested to facilitate social cognition and behavior. As predicting others' behavior is at the core of human social-cognitive abilities and is indispensable for successful social interaction, we hypothesized that OT would increase action prediction. To test this hypothesis, 61 male and female healthy participants self-administered OT or placebo intranasally and their anticipatory eye-movements were recorded using eye-tracking techniques. We found that the ability to predict others' future actions was enhanced following OT treatment...
September 20, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Johannes Grüntzig, Frank Hollmann
Due to its accessible position and tissue heterogeneity, the eye is ideally suited for studying the lymphatic system. As early as the 19th century, questions about the origin and function of this system were discussed. For example, whether Schlemm's canal, which is of particular importance in the pathogenesis of glaucoma, is a lymphatic vessel, or does this vascular system begin with finger-shaped protuberances? Despite the discovery of lymphatic endothelial molecules and the use of molecular imaging technologies, these questions are still discussed controversially today...
September 18, 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Nobuhiko Wagatsuma, Mika Urabe, Ko Sakai
Figure-ground (FG) segregation that separates an object from the rest of the image is a fundamental problem in vision science. A majority of neurons in monkey V2 showed the selectivity to border ownership (BO) that indicates which side of a contour owns the border. Although BO could be a precursor of FG segregation, the contribution of BO to FG segregation has not been clarified. Because FG segregation is the perception of the global region that belongs to an object, whereas BO determination provides the local direction of figure (DOF) along a contour, a spatial integration of BO might be expected for the generation of FG...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Gahangir Hossain, Mark H Myers, Robert Kozma
Research in last few years on neurophysiology focused on several areas across the cortex during cognitive processing to determine the dominant direction of electrical activity. However, information about the frequency and direction of episodic synchronization related to higher cognitive functions remain unclear. Our aim was to determine whether neural oscillations carry perceptual information as spatial patterns across the cortex, which could be found in the scalp EEG of human subjects while being engaged in visual sensory stimulation...
2018: Neuroscience Journal
Benjamin Baird, Anna Castelnovo, Brady A Riedner, Antoine Lutz, Fabio Ferrarelli, Melanie Boly, Richard J Davidson, Giulio Tononi
It is often assumed that during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep the cerebral cortex homogenously shows electroencephalogram (EEG) activity highly similar to wakefulness. However, to date no studies have compared neural oscillatory activity in human REM sleep to resting wakefulness with high spatial sampling. In the current study, we evaluated high-resolution topographical changes in neural oscillatory power between both early and late naturalistic REM sleep and resting wakefulness in adult humans. All-night recordings with 256-channel high-density EEG (hd-EEG) were collected in healthy volunteers ( N = 12)...
July 2018: ENeuro
Xiuwen Jiang, Takao Imai, Tomoko Okumura, Yumi Ohta, Yasuhiro Osaki, Takashi Sato, Hidenori Inohara
This study was conducted to evaluate the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (lVOR) mediated by the saccule, and to investigate the relationship between the lVOR and the ability to distinguish the direction of centripetal acceleration during centric and eccentric rotation. Participants sat on a chair in darkness, with the right ear facing downwards, either directly above the center of rotation, or with their nose out, nose in, right shoulder out, or left shoulder out against the center of rotation (eccentric rotation)...
September 11, 2018: Neuroscience Research
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