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Eye movement human

Hung-Chi Lu, Harvey Pollack, John J Lefante, Alea A Mills, Di Tian
Sleep abnormalities are common among children with neurodevelopmental disorders. The human chr16p11.2 microdeletion is associated with a range of neurological and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Previous studies of a mouse model of human chr16p11.2 microdeletion (chr16p11.2df/+) have demonstrated pathophysiological changes at the synapses in the hippocampus and striatum; however, the impact of this genetic abnormality on system level brain functions, such as sleep and neural oscillation, has not been adequately investigated...
December 12, 2018: Sleep
Paul Hömke, Judith Holler, Stephen C Levinson
In face-to-face communication, recurring intervals of mutual gaze allow listeners to provide speakers with visual feedback (e.g. nodding). Here, we investigate the potential feedback function of one of the subtlest of human movements-eye blinking. While blinking tends to be subliminal, the significance of mutual gaze in human interaction raises the question whether the interruption of mutual gaze through blinking may also be communicative. To answer this question, we developed a novel, virtual reality-based experimental paradigm, which enabled us to selectively manipulate blinking in a virtual listener, creating small differences in blink duration resulting in 'short' (208 ms) and 'long' (607 ms) blinks...
2018: PloS One
Nora Hollenstein, Jonathan Rotsztejn, Marius Troendle, Andreas Pedroni, Ce Zhang, Nicolas Langer
We present the Zurich Cognitive Language Processing Corpus (ZuCo), a dataset combining electroencephalography (EEG) and eye-tracking recordings from subjects reading natural sentences. ZuCo includes high-density EEG and eye-tracking data of 12 healthy adult native English speakers, each reading natural English text for 4-6 hours. The recordings span two normal reading tasks and one task-specific reading task, resulting in a dataset that encompasses EEG and eye-tracking data of 21,629 words in 1107 sentences and 154,173 fixations...
December 11, 2018: Scientific Data
Katharina Voigt, Carsten Murawski, Sebastian Speer, Stefan Bode
Hard decisions between equally valued alternatives can result in preference changes, meaning that subsequent valuations for chosen items increase and decrease for rejected items. Previous research suggests that this phenomenon is a consequence of cognitive dissonance reduction after the decision, induced by the mismatch between initial preferences and decision outcomes. In contrast, this functional magnetic resonance imaging and eye-tracking study with male and female human participants found that preferences are already updated online during the process of decision making...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qiao Li, Qichen Li, Chengyu Liu, Supreeth Prajwal Shashikumar, Shamim Nemati, Gari D Clifford
This study classifies sleep stages from a single lead electrocardiogram (ECG) using beat detection, cardiorespiratory coupling in the time-frequency domain and a deep convolutional neural network (CNN). 
 Approach: An ECG-derived respiration (EDR) signal and synchronous beat-to-beat heart rate variability (HRV) time series were derived from the ECG using previously described robust algorithms. A measure of cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC) was extracted by calculating the coherence and cross-spectrogram of the EDR and HRV signal in five-minute windows...
November 23, 2018: Physiological Measurement
David Aagten-Murphy, Paul M Bays
Several times per second, humans make rapid eye movements called saccades which redirect their gaze to sample new regions of external space. Saccades present unique challenges to both perceptual and motor systems. During the movement, the visual input is smeared across the retina and severely degraded. Once completed, the projection of the world onto the retina has undergone a large-scale spatial transformation. The vector of this transformation, and the new orientation of the eye in the external world, is uncertain...
December 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Christian Quaia, Edmond J FitzGibbon, Lance M Optican, Bruce G Cumming
Purpose: Stereoscopic vision, by detecting interocular correlations, enhances depth perception. Stereodeficiencies often emerge during the first months of life, and left untreated can lead to severe loss of visual acuity in one eye and/or strabismus. Early treatment results in much better outcomes, yet diagnostic tests for infants are cumbersome and not widely available. We asked whether reflexive eye movements, which in principle can be recorded even in infants, can be used to identify stereodeficiencies...
December 3, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Thomas P O'Connell, Marvin M Chun
Eye tracking has long been used to measure overt spatial attention, and computational models of spatial attention reliably predict eye movements to natural images. However, researchers lack techniques to noninvasively access spatial representations in the human brain that guide eye movements. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to predict eye movement patterns from reconstructed spatial representations evoked by natural scenes. First, we reconstruct fixation maps to directly predict eye movement patterns from fMRI activity...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Claudia Ackermann, Matthias Beggiato, Sarah Schubert, Josef F Krems
In the near future, more vehicles will have automated functions. The traffic system will be a shared space of automated and manually driven vehicles. In our study we focused on the perspective of vulnerable road users, namely pedestrians, in cooperative situations with automated vehicles. Established communication methods, such as eye-contact between pedestrians and drivers, may no longer work when automated vehicles represent the interaction partner. Therefore, we evaluated several human-machine-interfaces (HMI) in order to implement smooth and comfortable communication...
February 2019: Applied Ergonomics
Troy J Rand, Venkata Naga Pradeep Ambati, Mukul Mukherjee
Activities of daily living require maintaining upright posture within a variety of environmental constraints. A healthy postural control system can adapt to different environmental constraints. Afferent sensory information is used to determine where the body is in relation to the gravitational vertical and efferent motor commands make corrections with the goal of keeping the center of mass within the base of support. The purpose of this research was to understand how vision, direction of translation, and the temporal correlation of the support surface stimuli affected the persistence characteristics of postural dynamics on short and long time scales...
December 1, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Philip Graybill, Mehdi Kiani
This paper presents the design, development, and validation of the Eyelid Drive System (EDS), an assistive technology comprising a specialized pair of glasses and millimeter-sized passive resonators, attached to the wearer's eyelids, that transduce eyelid movement (blinking and winking) through inductive sensing. The theory of operation and design optimization with simulations are presented. A proof-of-concept prototype EDS was constructed using a pair of non-prescription glasses and commercial-off-the-shelf components...
November 20, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
K L Graham, S-E Byosiere, L C Feng, M Sanders, P C Bennett, K Caruso, C I McCowan, A White
OBJECTIVES: To describe preliminary use of a forced-choice preferential looking task for the clinical assessment of vision in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The vision of 18 pet dogs was investigated in two separate studies using a forced-choice preferential looking task: multiple observers watched eye, head and body movements on video recordings to identify cues suggesting when a dog had seen the feature of interest. Human observer reliability was determined using eight dogs and computer-generated stimuli...
November 25, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Matthias Hartmann, Nils R Sommer, Lorenzo Diana, René M Müri, Aleksandra K Eberhard-Moscicka
Previous studies showed that the small leftward bias found in healthy humans' spatial judgments of lines ("pseudoneglect") shifts to the right with increasing distance between stimuli and observer. In this study, we investigated whether such a modulation of attentional asymmetry can also be observed in free visual exploration. Participants freely explored photographs of naturalistic scenes for 7 s in near (60 cm) and far (140 cm) space. After an initial leftward bias, followed by a compensatory rightward bias, gaze positions were significantly more leftward in near compared to far space (around 4 s from scene onset)...
November 22, 2018: Brain and Cognition
Caitlin R Woolcott, Stephanie Torrey, Patricia V Turner, Heather Chalmers, Lena J Levison, Karen Schwean-Lardner, Tina M Widowski
Our objective was to determine the efficacy of manual cervical dislocation vs. a mechanical cervical dislocation device for on-farm killing of poults and young turkeys. Forty-two 1- and 3-week old turkeys were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups: awake manual cervical dislocation (CD), anesthetized manual cervical dislocation (aCD), or anesthetized mechanical cervical dislocation (MCD). Anesthetized birds received an intramuscular dose of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine and 30 mg/kg of ketamine to achieve a light plane of anesthesia...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ryuji Takeya, Aniruddh D Patel, Masaki Tanaka
Synchronized movements with external periodic rhythms, such as dancing to a beat, are commonly observed in daily life. Although it has been well established that some vocal learning species (including parrots and humans) spontaneously develop this ability, it has only recently been shown that monkeys are also capable of predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to periodic stimuli. In our previous study, monkeys were trained to make predictive saccades for alternately presented visual stimuli at fixed stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) to obtain a liquid reward...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Rachel N Denison, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg, Marisa Carrasco
Our visual input is constantly changing, but not all moments are equally relevant. Visual temporal attention, the prioritization of visual information at specific points in time, increases perceptual sensitivity at behaviorally relevant times. The dynamic processes underlying this increase are unclear. During fixation, humans make small eye movements called microsaccades, and inhibiting microsaccades improves perception of brief stimuli. Here we asked whether temporal attention changes the pattern of microsaccades in anticipation of brief stimuli...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aleya Flechsenhar, Olivia Larson, Albert End, Matthias Gamer
Eye-tracking studies on social attention have consistently shown that humans prefer to attend to other human beings. Much less is known about whether a similar preference is also evident in covert attentional processes. To enable a direct comparison, this study examined covert and overt attentional guidance within two different experimental setups using complex naturalistic scenes instead of isolated single features. In the first experiment, a modified version of the dot-probe paradigm served as a measure of covert reflexive attention toward briefly presented scenes containing a social feature in one half of the visual field compared to nonsocial elements in the other while controlling for low-level visual saliency...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Ronald Szymusiak
Sleep in mammals is accompanied by a decrease in core body temperature (CBT). The circadian clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates daily rhythms in both CBT and arousal states, and these rhythms are normally coupled. Reductions in metabolic heat production resulting from behavioral quiescence and reduced muscle tone along with changes in autonomic nervous system activity and thermoeffector activity contribute to the sleep-related fall in CBT. Reductions in sympathetic tone to the peripheral vasculature resulting in heat loss through the skin are reflected in a sleep-related increase in distal skin temperature that is a prominent feature of sleep onset in humans...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Manuel G Calvo, Andrés Fernández-Martín, Aida Gutiérrez-García, Daniel Lundqvist
Prior research using static facial stimuli (photographs) has identified diagnostic face regions (i.e., functional for recognition) of emotional expressions. In the current study, we aimed to determine attentional orienting, engagement, and time course of fixation on diagnostic regions. To this end, we assessed the eye movements of observers inspecting dynamic expressions that changed from a neutral to an emotional face. A new stimulus set (KDEF-dyn) was developed, which comprises 240 video-clips of 40 human models portraying six basic emotions (happy, sad, angry, fearful, disgusted, and surprised)...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bryan K Ward, Yoon H Lee, Dale C Roberts, Ethan Naylor, Americo A Migliaccio, Charles C Della Santina
HYPOTHESIS: Magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS) elicits nystagmus in C57BL/6J mice but not head tilt mice lacking Nox3, which is required for normal otoconial development. BACKGROUND: Humans have vertigo and nystagmus in strong magnetic fields within magnetic resonance imaging machines. The hypothesized mechanism is a Lorentz force driven by electrical current entering the utricular neuroepithelium, acting indirectly on crista hair cells via endolymph movement deflecting cupulae...
December 2018: Otology & Neurotology
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