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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341954/carbapenemase-production-of-clinical-isolates-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-from-a-bulgarian-university-hospital
#1
Atanaska P Petrova, Irina D Stanimirova, Ivan N Ivanov, Michael M Petrov, Tsonka M Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Vasil I Grivnev, Velichka S Kardjeva, Todor V Kantardzhiev, Mariana A Murdjeva
BACKGROUND: Production of Bla OXA-23, OXA-24, OXA-58 and hyperexpression of OXA-51 due to ISAba1 insertion sequence are the leading causes of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii. The loss of OprD transmembrane protein and the overexpression of some effl ux pumps are considered to be the main factors for carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas metallo-enzymes' production has a secondary role. AIM: Тo examine the carbapenem resistance due to carbapenemase production among clinically signifi cant Gram-negative non-fermenters from St George University hospital, Plovdiv: A...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341844/empiric-antibiotics-for-sepsis
#2
Sara A Buckman, Isaiah R Turnbull, John E Mazuski
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Early recognition and treatment are the cornerstones of management. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature. RESULTS: For both sepsis and septic shock "antimicrobials [should be] be initiated as soon as possible and within one hour" (Surviving Sepsis Campaign). The risk of progression from severe sepsis to septic shock increases 8% for each hour before antibiotics are started...
January 17, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340455/central-venous-catheter-related-infections-in-patients-receiving-short-term-hemodialysis-therapy-incidence-associated-factors-and-microbiological-aspects
#3
Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti, Natália Cristina Betoni, Fernando Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Elen Almeida Romão
INTRODUCTION: Bloodstream infections are the second most common cause of death among patients on hemodialysis. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors associated with central venous catheter-related infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and to identify and characterize the type and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the primary microorganisms isolated during one year of follow-up. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2014 in a hemodialysis referral center...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340452/detection-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-harboring-bla-ges-1-and-bla-ges-11-in-recife-brazil
#4
Valdemir Vicente da Silva Júnior, Laura Durão Ferreira, Lílian Rodrigues Alves, Adriane Borges Cabral, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo Jácome, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes, Maria Amélia Vieira Maciel
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important pathogen globally, presents several resistance mechanisms. This study aimed to investigate the presence of bla GES in clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from various clinical specimens from patients admitted to three different hospitals in Recife, Brazil. The Guiana extended spectrum beta-lactamase (GES) enzymes are responsible for conferring broad spectrum resistance to beta-lactam drugs, including the carbapenems. METHODS: A total of 100 carbapenem-resistant P...
November 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340299/prospective-study-of-the-feasibility-of-point-of-care-testing-strategy-for-carbapenem-resistant-organism-detection
#5
Rahul Pannala, Bruce Baldwin, Vijay Aluru, Thomas E Grys, Jordan Holmes, Laurence J Miller, M Edwyn Harrison, Cuong C Nguyen, Fred C Tenover, David Persing, Douglas O Faigel
Background/aims:  In an investigator-initiated, prospective study, we evaluated the feasibility of a five-gene sequence point-of-care (POC) testing strategy (Xpert CARBA-R Assay, Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA), compared to reference laboratory PCR (48 - 72 hours turnaround time, two gene sequences), in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and in a hospital outbreak investigation. Methods:  After informed consent, patients undergoing ERCP (September 2015 - April 2016, n = 191) at Mayo Clinic and potential hospital contacts (n = 9) of an index carbapenem-resistant organism (CRO)-positive inpatient were included...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339431/molecular-insights-into-function-and-competitive-inhibition-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-multiple-virulence-factor-regulator
#6
Tomoe Kitao, Francois Lepine, Seda Babloudi, Frederick Walte, Stefan Steinbacher, Klaus Maskos, Michael Blaesse, Michele Negri, Michael Pucci, Bob Zahler, Antonio Felici, Laurence G Rahme
New approaches to antimicrobial drug discovery are urgently needed to combat intractable infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Multiple virulence factor regulator (MvfR or PqsR), a Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing transcription factor, regulates functions important in both acute and persistent infections. Recently identified non-ligand-based benzamine-benzimidazole (BB) inhibitors of MvfR suppress both acute and persistent P. aeruginosa infections in mice without perturbing bacterial growth...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339396/efficacy-of-apramycin-against-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-the-murine-neutropenic-thigh-model
#7
Anthony D Kang, Kenneth P Smith, Anders H Berg, Katherine A Truelson, George M Eliopoulos, Christopher McCoy, James E Kirby
Apramycin, an aminocyclitol aminoglycoside, was rapidly bactericidal against Acinetobacter baumannii. In a neutropenic murine thigh infection model, treatment-associated A. baumannii CFU reduction of greater than 4-log10 per thigh was observed for all exposures for which AUC/MIC was greater than 50 and Cmax/MIC was ≈10 or higher. Based on these findings, we suggest that apramycin deserves further pre-clinical exploration as a repurposed therapeutic for the treatment of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative pathogens including A...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339384/a-novel-inhibitor-of-the-lolcde-abc-transporter-essential-for-lipoprotein-trafficking-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#8
Nicholas N Nickerson, Christine C Jao, Yiming Xu, John Quinn, Elizabeth Skippington, Mary Kate Alexander, Anh Miu, Nicholas Skelton, Jessica V Hankins, Michael S Lopez, Christopher M Koth, Steven Rutherford, Mireille Nishiyama
The outer membrane is an essential structural component of Gram-negative bacteria that is composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, phospholipids, and integral β-barrel membrane proteins. A dedicated machinery, called the Lol system, ensures proper trafficking of lipoproteins from the inner to the outer membrane. The LolCDE ABC transporter is the inner membrane component, which is essential for bacterial viability. Here, we report a novel pyrrolopyrimidinedione compound, G0507, which was identified in a phenotypic screen for inhibitors of E...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339296/silent-transmission-of-an-is1294b-deactivated-mcr-1-gene-with-inducible-colistin-resistance
#9
Kai Zhou, Qixia Luo, Qin Wang, Chen Huang, Haifeng Lu, Rossen W A John, Yonghong Xiao, Lanjuan Li
The global dissemination of the mobile colistin resistance mcr-1 is of special concern, as colistin is one of the last-resort antibiotics for the treatment of severe infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we characterized an inactive form of mcr-1 in a fluoroquinolone-resistant and colistin-susceptible uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolate (ECO3347). The mcr-1 gene was deactivated by the insertion of a 1.7-Kb IS1294b element flanked by two tetramers (GTTC), and located on a 62-Kb pHNSHP45-like plasmid (p3347-mcr-1)...
January 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339082/water-mediated-interactions-enable-smooth-substrate-transport-in-a-bacterial-efflux-pump
#10
Attilio Vittorio Vargiu, Venkata Krishnan Ramaswamy, Ivana Malvacio, Giuliano Malloci, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, Paolo Ruggerone
BACKGROUND: Efflux pumps of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division superfamily confer multi-drug resistance to Gram-negative bacteria. The most-studied polyspecific transporter belonging to this class is the inner-membrane trimeric antiporter AcrB of Escherichia coli. In previous studies, a functional rotation mechanism was proposed for its functioning, according to which the three monomers undergo concerted conformational changes facilitating the extrusion of substrates. However, the molecular determinants and the energetics of this mechanism still remain unknown, so its feasibility must be proven mechanistically...
January 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338931/in-vitro-activity-of-eravacycline-against-2213-gram-negative-and-2424-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-in-canadian-hospital-laboratories-canward-surveillance-study-2014-2015
#11
George G Zhanel, Melanie R Baxter, Heather J Adam, Joyce Sutcliffe, James A Karlowsky
Gram-negative (n=2213) and Gram-positive (n=2424) pathogens isolated from patients in 13 Canadian hospitals in 2014 and 2015 were tested for in vitro susceptibility to eravacycline and comparators using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. The concentration of eravacycline inhibiting 90% of isolates (MIC90) ranged from 0.5 to 2μg/mL for 9 species of Enterobacteriaceae tested (n=2067). Eravacycline activity was largely unaffected by extended-spectrum β-lactamase phenotypes in Escherichia coli (n=141) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=21)...
December 22, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337703/new-antibiotics-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#12
Matteo Bassetti, Antionio Vena, Nadia Castaldo, Elda Righi, Maddalena Peghin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria represents a global emerging problem. Delayed prescription of an adequate treatment for VAP has been associated with higher morbidity and mortality. New molecules have been developed to face the need of compounds that are active against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current scenario of new therapeutic options for the treatment of VAP...
January 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336873/optimization-of-novel-monobactams-with-activity-against-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-identification-of-lys228
#13
Folkert Reck, Alun Bermingham, Johanne Blais, Vladimir Capka, Taryn Cariaga, Anthony Casarez, Richard Colvin, Charles R Dean, Alex Fekete, Wanben Gong, Ellie Growcott, Hongqiu Guo, Adriana K Jones, Cindy Li, Fengxia Li, Xiaodong Lin, Mika Lindvall, Sara Lopez, David McKenney, Louis Metzger, Heinz E Moser, Ramadevi Prathapam, Dita Rasper, Patrick Rudewicz, Vijay Sethuraman, Xiaoyu Shen, Jacob Shaul, Robert L Simmons, Kyuto Tashiro, Dazhi Tang, Meiliana Tjandra, Nancy Turner, Tsuyoshi Uehara, Charles Vitt, Steven Whitebread, Aregahegn Yifru, Xu Zang, Qingming Zhu
Metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs), such as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) have spread world-wide and present a serious threat. Expression of MBLs confers resistance in Gram-negative bacteria to all classes of β-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of monobactams, which are intrinsically stable to MBLs. However, existing first generation monobactam drugs like aztreonam have limited clinical utility against MBL-expressing strains because they are impacted by serine β-lactamases (SBLs), which are often co-expressed in clinical isolates...
January 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336763/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-a-trauma-population-does-decolonization-prevent-infection
#14
Robert A Maxwell, Chasen A Croft, C Buddy Creech, Isaac Thomsen, Nicole Soper, Laura E Brown, Vicente A Mejia, Benjamin W Dart, Donald E Barker
The purpose of this study was to determine if a decolonization regimen reduces the frequency of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and if colonization isolates are genetically related to subsequent infectious strains. Trauma patients admitted to the intensive care unit with positive MRSA nasal swabs were randomized to either daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) baths and mupirocin (MUP) ointment to the nares or soap and water baths and placebo ointment for five days. Nasal swabs performed at the end of treatment and invasive MRSA infections during the remaining hospitalization were compared with the original nasal isolate via polymerase chain reaction for genetic relatedness as well as CHG and MUP resistance genes...
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334931/in-vitro-antibacterial-and-antibiotic-modifying-activity-of-crude-extract-fractions-and-3-4-7-trihydroxyflavone-from-myristica-fragrans-houtt-against-mdr-gram-negative-enteric-bacteria
#15
Joachim K Dzotam, Ingrid Konga Simo, Gabin Bitchagno, Ilhami Celik, Louis P Sandjo, Pierre Tane, Victor Kuete
BACKGROUND: Nutmeg is the seed kernel inside the fruit of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae). It possesses various pharmacological activities but is used in Cameroon only for its flavor in making cakes. The present study thus aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity and antibiotic modifying activities of crude seed kernel methanol extract (MFS), fractions (MFSa-e) as well as 3',4',7-trihydroxyflavone from Myristica fragrans against a panel of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria...
January 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334366/modified-colistin-regimen-for-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-renal-impairment-and-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#16
Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Alessia Mattei, Dario Cappiello, Giorgio Minotti, Massimiliano Carassiti
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections. Colistin is administered intravenously in the form of its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). For patients with acute kidney impairment and continuous renal replacement therapy high extracorporeal clearance may cause a substantial removal of active colistin from the bloodstream, eventually decreasing its antibacterial efficacy. Currently recommended doses of CMS may therefore be inadequate for these patients...
December 22, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333490/inhibition-of-bacterial-adhesion-on-nanotextured-stainless-steel-316l-by-electrochemical-etching
#17
Yeongseon Jang, Won Tae Choi, Christopher T Johnson, Andrés J García, Preet M Singh, Victor Breedveld, Dennis W Hess, Julie A Champion
Bacterial adhesion to stainless steel 316L (SS316L), which is an alloy typically used in many medical devices and food processing equipment, can cause serious infections along with substantial healthcare costs. This work demonstrates that nanotextured SS316L surfaces produced by electrochemical etching effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion of both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, but exhibit cytocompatibility and no toxicity toward mammalian cells in vitro. Additionally, the electrochemical surface modification on SS316L results in formation of superior passive layer at the surface, improving corrosion resistance...
January 8, 2018: ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331783/comparative-study-of-novel-in-situ-decorated-porous-chitosan-selenium-scaffolds-and-porous-chitosan-silver-scaffolds-towards-antimicrobial-wound-dressing-application
#18
Dhee P Biswas, Neil M O'Brien-Simpson, Eric C Reynolds, Andrea J O'Connor, Phong A Tran
Dermal defects caused by trauma or disease are challenging to treat due to difficult-to-treat infections that impair wound healing. Due to the widespread emergence of drug-resistant bacteria and dwindling discoveries of new antibiotics, there is currently an urgent need to introduce novel antimicrobials effective against antibiotic-resistant bacteria without causing damage to host tissues. As selenium (Se) and silver (Ag) are known for their antimicrobial properties, we investigated the separate loading of these materials into porous chitosan/PVA (CS) scaffolds through a simple in situ deposition method to create two distinct wound dressing materials (CS-Se and CS-Ag)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331375/xanthomonas-tal-effectors-hijack-host-basal-transcription-factor-iia-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-subunits-for-invasion
#19
Ling Ma, Qiang Wang, Meng Yuan, Tingting Zou, Ping Yin, Shiping Wang
The Xanthomonas genus includes Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria, which infect a broad range of crops and wild plant species, cause symptoms with leaf blights, streaks, spots, stripes, necrosis, wilt, cankers and gummosis on leaves, stems and fruits in a wide variety of plants via injecting their effector proteins into the host cell during infection. Among these virulent effectors, transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) interact with the γ subunit of host transcription factor IIA (TFIIAγ) to activate the transcription of host disease susceptibility genes...
January 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331154/predicting-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacterial-colonization-and-associated-infection-on-hospital-admission-methodological-issues
#20
Kamyar Mansori, Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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