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Gram negative resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923922/mechanisms-of-evolution-in-high-consequence-drug-resistance-plasmids
#1
Susu He, Michael Chandler, Alessandro M Varani, Alison B Hickman, John P Dekker, Fred Dyda
: The dissemination of resistance among bacteria has been facilitated by the fact that resistance genes are usually located on a diverse and evolving set of transmissible plasmids. However, the mechanisms generating diversity and enabling adaptation within highly successful resistance plasmids have remained obscure, despite their profound clinical significance. To understand these mechanisms, we have performed a detailed analysis of the mobilome (the entire mobile genetic element content) of a set of previously sequenced carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center...
December 6, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921270/halogenated-indoles-eradicate-bacterial-persister-cells-and-biofilms
#2
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Giyeon Gwon, Thomas K Wood, Jintae Lee
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches to combat recalcitrant bacterial infections. Persister cells, often found in biofilms, are metabolically dormant, and thus, are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics and represent a major drug resistance mechanism. In the present study, 36 diverse indole derivatives were investigated with the aim of identifying novel compounds that inhibit persisters and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920982/clinical-implications-of-paracoccus-yeeii-bacteremia-in-a-patient-with-decompensated-cirrhosis
#3
Jordan Sack, David R Peaper, Pramod Mistry, Maricar Malinis
Infections in patients with cirrhosis are common among those who develop variceal hemorrhage. Prophylactic antimicrobial treatment with third generation cephalosporins is recommended in patients with advanced cirrhosis and gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However no infectious source is identified in up to 50% of patients with cirrhosis and clinical sepsis. We report the first case of Paracoccus yeeii bacteremia in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis who presented with variceal hemorrhage. This rare gram negative organism that occurs naturally in the soil has been difficult to isolate until recent technological advances and may not be susceptible to third generation cephalosporins...
2017: IDCases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920755/finding-potential-therapeutic-targets-against-shigella-flexneri-through-proteome-exploration
#4
Mohammad Uzzal Hossain, Md Arif Khan, Abu Hashem, Md Monirul Islam, Mohammad Neaz Morshed, Chaman Ara Keya, Md Salimullah
Background:Shigella flexneri is a gram negative bacteria that causes the infectious disease "shigellosis." S. flexneri is responsible for developing diarrhea, fever, and stomach cramps in human. Antibiotics are mostly given to patients infected with shigella. Resistance to antibiotics can hinder its treatment significantly. Upon identification of essential therapeutic targets, vaccine and drug could be effective therapy for the treatment of shigellosis. Methods: The study was designed for the identification and qualitative characterization for potential drug targets from S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918447/enhanced-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activity-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles-synthesised-using-sargassum-incisifolium-aqueous-extracts
#5
Mokone Mmola, Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Kim Durrell, John J Bolton, Nicole Sibuyi, Mervin E Meyer, Denzil R Beukes, Edith Antunes
A detailed, methodical approach was used to synthesise silver and gold nanoparticles using two differently prepared aqueous extracts of the brown algae Sargassum incisifolium. The efficiency of the extracts in producing nanoparticles were compared to commercially available brown algal fucoidans, a major constituent of brown algal aqueous extracts. The nanoparticles were characterised using TEM, XRD and UV/Vis spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements. The rate of nanoparticle formation was assessed using UV/Vis spectroscopy and related to the size, shape and morphology of the nanoparticles as revealed by TEM...
December 2, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917692/once-daily-high-dose-tigecycline-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-based-dosing-for-optimal-clinical-effectiveness-dosing-matters-revisited
#6
Burke A Cunha, Jeffrey Baron, Cheston B Cunha
Tigecycline has emerged as first line therapy for serious systemic infections due to important pathogens (except P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp.), including multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Gram negative bacilli (GNB), including carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriae. Tigecycline has a "low resistance potential," is protective against C. difficile, and is often the only antibiotic effective against MDR GNB, e.g., Klebsiella sp. Areas covered: Standard dose tigecycline therapy has been used for intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin/skin structure infections (cSSSIs), and CAP...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917206/anticancer-and-antibacterial-secondary-metabolites-from-the-endophytic-fungus-penicillium-sp-cam64-against-multi-drug-resistant-gram-negative-bacteria
#7
Jean-Bosco Jouda, Jean-de-Dieu Tamokou, Céline Djama Mbazoa, Prodipta Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar Bag, Jean Wandji
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multiple-drug resistance bacteria has become a major threat and thus calls for an urgent need to search for new effective and safe anti-bacterial agents. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to evaluate the anticancer and antibacterial activities of secondary metabolites from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus associated with leaves of Garcinia nobilis. METHODS: The culture filtrate from the fermentation of Penicillium sp...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917170/isolation-and-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-recovered-from-campylobacter-selective-medium
#8
Dinesh M Fernando, Izhar U H Khan, Rakesh Patidar, David R Lapen, Guylaine Talbot, Edward Topp, Ayush Kumar
Acinetobacter baumannii, a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen, is known to cause multidrug resistant infections. This organism has primarily been isolated from clinical environments and its environmental reservoirs remain largely unknown. In the present study, we recovered seven isolates of A. baumannii growing under conditions selective for Campylobacter spp. (microaerophilic at 42°C and in the presence of antibiotics) from dairy cattle manure storage tank or surface water impacted by livestock effluents...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916800/lead-discovery-strategies-for-identification-of-chlamydia-pneumoniae-inhibitors
#9
REVIEW
Leena Hanski, Pia Vuorela
Throughout its known history, the gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae has remained a challenging target for antibacterial chemotherapy and drug discovery. Owing to its well-known propensity for persistence and recent reports on antimicrobial resistence within closely related species, new approaches for targeting this ubiquitous human pathogen are urgently needed. In this review, we describe the strategies that have been successfully applied for the identification of nonconventional antichlamydial agents, including target-based and ligand-based virtual screening, ethnopharmacological approach and pharmacophore-based design of antimicrobial peptide-mimicking compounds...
November 28, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#10
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915108/how-should-we-respond-to-the-emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-humans-and-animals
#11
REVIEW
Jaffar A Al-Tawfiq, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Marc Mendelson
OBJECTIVE: The widespread use of antibiotics in humans and animals contributes to growing rates of antibiotic resistance. Previously treatable bacterial infections now require the last line of antibiotics or are untreatable. For carbapenem-resistant, Gram-negative bacterial infections the antibiotic of last resort is now often colistin. In this review, we present the evidence for the shifting pattern of colistin resistance and discuss how the international community should respond. METHODS: This is a literature review of colistin resistance...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914962/efflux-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-diverse-clones-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-aquatic-environment
#12
Santosh Kumar Singh, Mitali Mishra, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Harapriya Mohapatra
The peptide drug colistin is commonly used to treat carbapenem resistant gram negative bacterial infections. In the present study, we report efflux mediated colistin resistance in multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to ST200 and ST1296, isolated from a fresh water environment. The isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to human serum, possessed Type 1 fimbriae and harbored blaSHV-34 and blaTEM-1 genes. Our results highlight the evolving nature of these clones in the country. These observations emphasize the need for judicious usage of antibiotics to prevent the imminent danger of losing out on currently available therapeutic options...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914949/anion-inhibition-profiles-of-the-%C3%AE-carbonic-anhydrase-from-the-pathogenic-bacterium-burkholderia-pseudomallei-responsible-of-melioidosis-and-highly-drug-resistant-to-common-antibiotics
#13
Sonia Del Prete, Daniela Vullo, Pietro Di Fonzo, Sameh M Osman, Zeid AlOthman, Claudiu T Supuran, Clemente Capasso
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative saprophytic bacterium responsible of melioidosis, an endemic disease of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. A recombinant γ-CA (BpsγCA) identified in the genome of this bacterium was cloned and purified. Its catalytic activity and anion inhibition profiles were investigated. The enzyme was an efficient catalyst for the CO2 hydration showing a kcat of 5.3×10(5)s(-1) and kcat/Km of 2.5×10(7)M(-1)×s(-1). The best BpsγCA inhibitors were sulfamide, sulfamic acid, phenylboronic acid and phenylarsonic acid, which showed KI in the range of 49-83μM (these inhibitors showed millimolar inhibition constant against hCA II), followed by diethyldithiocarbamate, selenate, tellurate, perrhenate, selenocyanate, trithiocarbonate, tetraborato, pyrophosphate, stannate, carbonate, bicarbonate, azide, cyanide, thiocyanate and cyanate with KIs in the range of 0...
November 14, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913093/genome-of-the-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-isolate-elizabethkingia-miricola-em_chuv-and-comparative-genomics-with-elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-and-elizabethkingia-anophelis-evidence-for-intrinsic-multidrug-resistance-trait-of-emerging-pathogens
#14
Onya Opota, Seydina M Diene, Claire Bertelli, Guy Prod'hom, Philippe Eckert, Gilbert Greub
Elizabethkingia miricola is a Gram-negative non-fermenting rod emerging as a life-threatening human pathogen. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase-producing clinical isolate E. miricola EM_CHUV was recovered in the setting of severe nosocomial pneumonia. In this study, the genome of E. miricola EM_CHUV was sequenced and a functional analysis was performed, including a comparative genomic study with Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis. The resistome of EM_CHUV revealed the presence of a high number of resistance genes, including the presence of the blaGOB-13 and blaB-9 carbapenemase-encoding genes...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#15
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#16
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907875/s-substituted-3-5-dinitrophenyl-1-3-4-oxadiazole-2-thiols-and-tetrazole-5-thiols-as-highly-efficient-antitubercular-agents
#17
Galina Karabanovich, Jan Němeček, Lenka Valášková, Alejandro Carazo, Klára Konečná, Jiřina Stolaříková, Alexandr Hrabálek, Oto Pavliš, Petr Pávek, Kateřina Vávrová, Jaroslav Roh, Věra Klimešová
Two new classes of antitubercular agents, namely 5-alkylsulfanyl-1-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-tetrazoles and 2-alkylsulfanyl-5-(3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazoles, and their structure-activity relationships are described. These compounds possessed excellent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including the clinically isolated multidrug (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains, with no cross resistance with first or second-line anti-TB drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the most promising compounds reached 0...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905262/should-the-patients-colonized-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-e-gnb-coming-to-hospital-from-the-community-with-pneumonia-get-anti-e-gnb-active-empirical-treatment
#18
Lara Peterlin, Mateja Žagar, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Marija Paladin, Bojana Beović
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to several beta-lactam antibiotics, including those prescribed for treatment pneumonia. To evaluate the importance of colonization with E-GNB for the choice of empirical treatment we performed a retrospective case-control study including 156 patients, hospitalized for treatment of pneumonia from 2009 through 2013. Empirical treatment success and in-hospital survival were significantly lower in patients colonized with E-GNB compared to non-colonized (p = 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904045/puerarin-prevents-lps-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-bone-loss-via-inhibition-of-akt-activation
#19
Yun Zhang, Ming Yan, Qing-Feng Yu, Pei-Fan Yang, Hai-Dong Zhang, Yong-Hong Sun, Zhi-Fen Zhang, Yun-Feng Gao
Osteolysis induced by chronic Gram-negative bacterial infection underlies many bone diseases such as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and periodontitis. Drugs that inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced osteolysis are critically needed for the prevention of bone destruction in infective bone diseases. In this study, we assessed the effect of puerarin, a natural isoflavone isolated from Pueraria lobata OHWI root, on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Our in vitro study showed that puerarin significantly inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast differentiation from osteoclast precursor RAW264...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903852/topical-honey-in-the-management-of-pediatric-peritoneal-dialysis-exit-sites
#20
Thomas A Forbes, Loren Shaw, Catherine Quinlan
International guidelines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) advocate for regular application of topical mupirocin in chronic PD exit-site care. A strong evidence base links this treatment to reduced rates of exit-site infections and peritonitis. However, emerging reports of increasing mupirocin resistance and gram-negative infections are threatening the long-term viability of topical antibiotic ointments as a prophylactic treatment. Medical grade honey has multiple proven antibacterial and wound healing properties...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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