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Gram negative resistance

Michael Wesbrook Staude, David A Leonard, Jeffrey W Peng
Gram-negative bacteria resist β-lactam antibiotics primarily by deploying β-lactamase proteins that hydrolytically destroy the antibiotics. In clinical settings, these bacteria are producing variant β-lactamases with "gain of activity" mutations that inactivate a broader range of β-lactams. Learning how these mutations broaden substrate activity is important for coping with β-lactam resistance. Here, we investigate a gain of activity mutation in OXA-24/40, a carbapenem-hydrolyzing Class D β-lactamase (CHDL) in Acinetobacter baumannii...
October 26, 2016: Biochemistry
T Rashid, H Vonville, I Hasan, K W Garey
Shoe soles have been shown to transfer infectious microorganisms to floor and ground surfaces. However, the possible modes of transmission of infectious agents from floors or ground surfaces to human contact for infection have not been systematically reviewed. A systematic review was performed on articles indexed in medical databases (Medline, EMBASE, PubMed) using a pre-defined search strategy and MeSH terms (date of last search: 15 March 2016). Only primary research studies in English that investigated the transmission dynamics of infectious microorganisms from floor or ground surfaces to human infection were included...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
Raquel Girardello, Marina Visconde, Rodrigo Cayô, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo, Marcelo Alves da Silva Mori, Nilton Lincopan, Ana Cristina Gales
Polymyxins have become drugs of last resort for treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. However, the mechanisms of resistance to this compound have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance to this antimicrobial in two A. baumannii clinical isolates, respectively, susceptible (A027) and resistant (A009) to polymyxin B before and after polymyxin B exposure (A027(ind) and A009(ind)). The pmrAB and lpxACD were sequenced and their transcriptional levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR...
October 8, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Stephanie Bjerrum, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates is usually difficult due to minimal symptoms at presentation; thus early empirical therapy guided by local antibiotic susceptibility profile is necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. METHODS: A review of neonatal blood cultures submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Anthony A Iwuafor, Folasade T Ogunsola, Rita O Oladele, Oyin O Oduyebo, Ibironke Desalu, Chukwudi C Egwuatu, Agwu U Nnachi, Comfort N Akujobi, Ita O Ita, Godwin I Ogban
BACKGROUND: Infections are common complications in critically ill patients with associated significant morbidity and mortality. AIM: This study determined the prevalence, risk factors, clinical outcome and microbiological profile of hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study, patients were recruited and followed up between September 2011 and July 2012 until they were either discharged from the ICU or died...
2016: PloS One
Jessica M Andriolo, Richard J Rossi, Casey A McConnell, Baili I Connors, Kevin Trout, M K Hailer, Marisa L Pedulla, Jack L Skinner
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that each year, two million people in the United States become infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, of which, approximately 23 000 die as a direct result of these infections. Phage therapy, or the treatment of bacterial infection by specific, antagonistic viruses, provides one alternative to traditional antibiotics. Bacteriophages, or phages, are bacteriaspecific viruses that possess biological traits that allow for not only the removal of bacterial infection, but also the evasion of bacterial resistance which renders antibiotics ineffective...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Elie A Saade, Nuntra Suwantarat, Trina F Zabarsky, Brigid Wilson, Curtis J Donskey
BACKGROUND: Recent reports suggest that infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) are an increasingly common complication of transrectal biopsy of the prostate (TBP) in the United States. A better understanding of the magnitude and scope of these infections is needed to guide prevention efforts. Our objective is to determine whether the incidence of infections due to fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli after TBP has increased nationwide in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System and to identify risk factors for infection...
2016: Pathogens & Immunity
Glenn S Tillotson
Antibiotic resistance has been emerged as a major global health problem. In particular, gram-negative species pose a significant clinical challenge as bacteria develop or acquire more resistance mechanisms. Often, these bacteria possess multiple resistance mechanisms, thus nullifying most of the major classes of drugs. Novel approaches to this issue are urgently required. However, the challenges of developing new agents are immense. Introducing novel agents is fraught with hurdles, thus adapting known antibiotic classes by altering their chemical structure could be a way forward...
2016: Infectious Diseases
Kazufumi Kasuya, Tilusha Manchanayake, Kei Uenoyama, Sayaka Kawa, Kou Takayama, Naoto Imai, Tomoyuki Shibahara
An imported crossbred Angus beef steer aged eight to twelve months died suddenly on the eighth day of a quarantine period in Japan. Gross examination showed the peritoneum and mesentery consisted of numerous nodules of various sizes. Histological examination revealed chronic suppurative granulomatous peritonitis with eosinophilic rosettes surrounding colonies of Gram-negative bacilli. The bacteria isolated from the nodules were confirmed to be Actinobacillus lignieresii based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immunohistochemistry...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
M A Tazón-Varela, H Alonso-Valle, P Muñoz-Cacho, J Gallo-Terán, X Piris-García, L A Pérez-Mier
INTRODUCTION: Knowing the most common microorganisms in our environment can help us to make proper empirical treatment decisions. The aim is to identify those microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, descriptive and prospective study was conducted, including patients over 14 years with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during a 383 consecutive day period. A record was made of sociodemographic variables, personal history, prognostic severity scales, progress, and pathogenic agents...
October 20, 2016: Semergen
Worawut Choeyprasert, Suradej Hongeng, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama
Bacteremia during neutropenic episodes is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We have used oral ciprofloxacin and penicillin V, from the start of the conditioning regimen until engraftment, for the prophylaxis of bacterial infection. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the prevalence of and risk factors for breakthrough bacteremia during neutropenic episodes in autologous and allogeneic HSCT patients. There were 215 patients enrolled, with a median age of 8...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
M Muzslay, G Moore, N Alhussaini, A P R Wilson
BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the healthcare setting and in the community despite established infection control guidelines indicates that these microorganisms may possess survival strategies that allow them to persist in the environment. AIMS: To determine the extent and variation in endemic ESBL-carrying species in different ward environments, and to investigate the potential for cephalosporin resistance to be transferred from environmental isolates to human pathogens...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
T Koiava, D Gonçalves, J Palmeira, K Arobelidze, M Tediashvili, L Akhvlediani, H Ferreira
Research describing the epidemiology of antibiotic resistant microbes is vital to the proactive development of new antimicrobial agents. In the last years, CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have emerged worldwide and have replaced classical TEM and SHV-type ESBLs in many countries. CTX-M-15 is currently the most frequent, with a pandemic distribution, and its rapid spread is facilitated by incorporation of resistance genes in mobile genetic elements. The ESBL is efficacious in Gram-negative bacteria and thus closely associated with nosocomial environments, often colonizing the intestines, particularly in older and dependent patients...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
T Didbaridze, L Saginashvili, L Akhmeteli, B Iremashvili, N Gogokhia
This study provides a contemporary epidemiology of aspirates taken during surgery from the abdominal cavity among patients with bacterial peritonitis to identify the isolates and study their sensitivity to antibiotics. Our bacteriology investigations included isolation of poor cultures, and detection of microbes was conducted using a rapid identification system (API20E, API Staph, API Strep, API Ana, BioMerieux). Rapid tests for detection of oxidase and catalase activity were also used. Susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics was defined by the disc-diffusion method using standard discs (EUCAST guidelines 2015) according to Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) protocols (ATB strips: ATB G, ATB Staph, ATBANA, ATBPse, ATBStrep...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Héloïse Coté, Marie-Anne Boucher, André Pichette, Benoit Roger, Jean Legault
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oleoresin of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. was used by Aboriginal people of the boreal forest of Canada and French Canadians to treat various infections, suggesting that oleoresin has antibacterial properties. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the antibacterial activity of whole oleoresin from A. balsamea was investigated against E. coli, S. aureus and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains using a new sensitive assay developed to evaluate hydrophobic matrix and compounds...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
J F Leal, I S Henriques, A Correia, E B H Santos, V I Esteves
Oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in aquaculture. The main concern related to its use is the bacterial resistance, when ineffective treatments are applied for its removal or inactivation. OTC photo-degradation has been suggested as an efficient complementary process to conventional methods used in intensive fish production (e.g.: ozonation). Despite this, and knowing that the complete mineralization of OTC is difficult, few studies have examined the antibacterial activity of OTC photoproducts...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Sanjib K Shrestha, Liliia M Kril, Keith D Green, Stefan Kwiatkowski, Vitaliy M Sviripa, Justin R Nickell, Linda P Dwoskin, David S Watt, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
The emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial and fungal strains poses a threat to human health that requires the design and synthesis of new classes of antimicrobial agents. We evaluated bis(N-amidinohydrazones) and N-(amidino)-N'-aryl-bishydrazones for their antibacterial and antifungal activities against panels of Gram-positive/Gram-negative bacteria as well as fungi. We investigated their potential to develop resistance against both bacteria and fungi by a multi-step resistance-selection method, explored their potential to induce the production of reactive oxygen species, and assessed their toxicity...
October 10, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jeremiah Seni, Enock Sweya, Amri Mabewa, Stephen E Mshana, Japhet M Gilyoma
BACKGROUND: Secondary peritonitis is a common surgical emergence with deadly outcomes when not timely and promptly intervened. The emergence of Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing bacteria (ESBL) poses treatment challenge at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC); hence a need to evaluate the magnitude of ESBL so as to guide specific therapy. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study conducted at BMC from May 2014 to April 2015 involving patients with secondary peritonitis...
October 21, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
Troy A Skwor, Stephanie Klemm, Hanyu Zhang, Brianna Schardt, Stephanie Blaszczyk, Matthew A Bork
Increasing rates of antibiotic resistance coupled with the lack of novel antibiotics threatens proper clinical treatment and jeopardizes their use in prevention. A photodynamic approach appears to be an innovative treatment option, even for multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Three components are utilized in photodynamic inactivation: a photosensitizer, light source, and oxygen. Variations in photosensitizers strongly influence microbial binding and bactericidal activity. In this study, four different cationic metalloporphyrins (Cu(2+), Fe(2+), Pd(2+), Zn(2+)) were compared to the free-base ligand 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin regarding their electronic properties and generation of reactive oxygen species upon subsequent 405nm violet-blue irradiation...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Narges Abdali, Jerry Matthew Parks, Keith Haynes, Julie L Chaney, Adam T Green, David Wolloscheck, John K Walker, Valentin V Rybenkov, Jerome Yves Baudry, Jeremy C Smith, Helen I Zgurskaya
Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for development of effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. Here, we describe EPIs that interact with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel...
October 21, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
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