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Diabetes or Hypertension and Heart Failure

Nooraldaem Yousif, Slayman Obeid, Ronald Binder, Andrea Denegri, Mohammady Shahin, Christian Templin, Thomas F Lüscher
Backgound: The influence of gender on clinical outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was considerably discrepant in previous studies. We aimed to investigate the impact of gender in our registry. Methods: The study is a retrospective observational analysis of a prospectively designed cohort (546 consecutive patients treated at the University Hospital Zurich who were enrolled in Swiss TAVI Cohort from May 2008 to April 2014). The Study took place in University Heart Centre at University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland...
June 2018: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
Ryo Furuuchi, Ippei Shimizu, Yohko Yoshida, Yuka Hayashi, Ryutaro Ikegami, Masayoshi Suda, Goro Katsuumi, Takayuki Wakasugi, Masaaki Nakao, Tohru Minamino
Endothelial cells have an important role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Age-related disorders (including obesity, diabetes, and hypertension) or aging per se induce endothelial dysfunction that predisposes to the development of atherosclerosis. Polyphenols have been reported to suppress age-related endothelial cell disorders, but their role in vascular function is yet to be determined. We investigated the influence of boysenberry polyphenol on vascular health under metabolic stress in a murine model of dietary obesity...
2018: PloS One
Ajmer Singh, Yatin Mehta
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome that results from any structural or functional impairment of ventricular filling or ejection of blood. American College of Cardiology Foundation / American Heart Association 2013 guidelines have classified HF into two categories: (i) HF with reduced (≤40%) ejection fraction (HFrEF) or systolic HF, and (ii) HF with preserved (≥50%) ejection fraction (HFpEF) or diastolic HF. Risk factors for HFpEF include age more than 70 years, female gender, hypertension, wide pulse pressure, diabetes mellitus, chronic renal insufficiency, left ventricular hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, smoking, recent weight gain, and exercise intolerance...
April 2018: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
Amanda Marie Somer Christesen, Nicklas Vinter, Leif Spange Mortensen, Morten Fenger-Grøn, Søren Paaske Johnsen, Lars Frost
Aim: To explore the potential of small-area variation analysis as a tool for identifying unwarranted variation in oral anticoagulation (OAC) use and clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and thereby identify locations with opportunity for improvement in AF care. Methods and results: Based on Danish health care registries, we conducted a nationwide historical cohort study including first-time AF patients with a CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75, diabetes, thromboembolism, vascular disease, age 65-74, and sex category) score ≥ 2 between 2007 and 2014 (n = 94 482)...
July 1, 2018: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
Zach Rozenbaum, Yan Topilsky, Shafik Khoury, David Pereg, Michal Laufer-Perl
BACKGROUND: Small scale cohorts demonstrated an association between body mass index (BMI) and diastolic function in a metabolically healthy population. We aimed to characterize the relation between BMI and diastolic function in a relatively large cohort of metabolically healthy obese with preserved ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Echocardiograms of metabolically healthy patients between 2011 and 2016, who had no significant valvulopathies or atrial fibrillation, and had preserved ejection fraction, were retrospectively identified and analyzed...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Julia Ruhe, Christoph Waldeyer, Francisco Ojeda, Alev Altay, Renate B Schnabel, Sarina Schäfer, Karl J Lackner, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller, Mahir Karakas
Intrinsic iron release is discussed to have favorable effects in coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of intrinsic iron release in patients with CAD. Intrinsic iron release was based on a definition including hepcidin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR). In a cohort of 811 patients with angiographically documented CAD levels of hepcidin and sTfR were measured at baseline. Systemic body iron release was defined as low levels of hepcidin (<24 ng/mL) and high levels of sTfR (≥2 mg/L)...
August 9, 2018: Biomolecules
Richard Ofori-Asenso, Ken Lee Chin, Andrea J Curtis, Ella Zomer, Sophia Zoungas, Danny Liew
Population aging along with the rising burden of chronic medical conditions (CMCs) is challenging the sustainability of health care systems globally. The authors sought to characterize contemporary patterns of multimorbidity among older adults (aged ≥65 years) in high-income countries (HICs). Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched in January 2018 for English-language articles that reported the prevalence of multimorbidity (defined as co-occurrence of ≥2 CMCs in an individual without defining an index disease) among older adults in HICs, or the proportions with ≥3 or ≥5 CMCs...
August 10, 2018: Population Health Management
Alexandra L Martin, J Ryan Stewart, Harshitha Girithara-Gopalan, Jeremy T Gaskins, Nicole J McConnell, Erin E Medlin
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine complications associated with primary closure compared with reconstruction after vulvar excision and predisposing factors to these complications. METHODS: Patients undergoing vulvar excision with or without reconstruction from 2011 to 2015 were abstracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Common Procedural Terminology codes were used to characterize surgical procedures as vulvar excision alone or vulvar excision with reconstruction...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
Heng Zhou, Ning Li, Yuan Yuan, Ya-Ge Jin, Haipeng Guo, Wei Deng, Qi-Zhu Tang
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the primary causes of death worldwide. Among the numerous signaling molecules involved in CVDs, transcriptional factors directly influence gene expression and play a critical role in regulating cell function and the development of diseases. Activating transcription factor (ATF) 3 is an adaptive-response gene in the ATF/cAMP responsive element-binding (CREB) protein family of transcription factors that acts as either a repressor or an activator of transcription via the formation of homodimers or heterodimers with other ATF/CREB members...
August 9, 2018: Basic Research in Cardiology
Ningning Wan, Asadur Rahman, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study revealed that a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, empagliflozin, can remarkably reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality and heart failure in patients with high-risk type 2 diabetes. Recently, the CANVAS program also showed that canagliflozin, another SGLT2 inhibitor, induces a lower risk of CV events. However, the precise mechanism by which an SGLT2 inhibitor elicits CV protective effects is still unclear. Possible sympathoinhibitory effects of SGLT2 inhibitor have been suggested, as significant blood pressure (BP) reduction, following treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor, did not induce compensatory changes in heart rate (HR)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Dany-Michel Marcadet, Bruno Pavy, Gilles Bosser, Frédérique Claudot, Sonia Corone, Hervé Douard, Marie-Christine Iliou, Bénédicte Vergès-Patois, Pascal Amedro, Thierry Le Tourneau, Caroline Cueff, Taniela Avedian, Alain Cohen Solal, François Carré
The exercise test is performed routinely in cardiology; its main indication is the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia, evaluated along with the subject's pretest probability and cardiovascular risk level. Other criteria, such as analysis of repolarization, must be taken into consideration during the interpretation of an exercise test, to improve its predictive value. An exercise test is also indicated for many other cardiac diseases (e.g. rhythm and conduction disorders, severe asymptomatic aortic stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, peripheral artery disease, hypertension)...
August 6, 2018: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
Edward Koźluk, Dorota Zyśko, Agnieszka Piątkowska, Marek Kiliszek, Piotr Lodziński, Sylwia Małkowska, Paweł Balsam, Dariusz Rodkiewicz, Małgorzata Żukowska, Grzegorz Opolski
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common clinical problem. The left atrium anatomy makes up a factor that may significantly affect the effectiveness of the AF ablation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate a long-term effectiveness ablation in patients with common pulmonary vein trunk (CPVT) and AF. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The outcomes of 129 procedures in 95 patients with CPVT out of 1,475 procedures carried out in 1,150 patients with AF treated with ablation, were analyzed...
August 8, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Mohammad A Hossain, Ami Amin, Anju Paul, Huzaif Qaisar, Monika Akula, Alireza Amirpour, Shreya Gor, Sofi Giglio, Jennifer Cheng, Roy Mathew, Tushar Vachharajani, Mohamed Bakr, Arif Asif
BACKGROUND: While obesity is a chronic condition that predisposes patients to other more serious disorders, the prevalence and the documentation of obesity as diagnosis has not been extensively studied in hospitalized patients. We conducted a retrospective chart review to investigate the prevalence and documentation of obesity as a diagnosis among patients admitted to our medical center. METHOD: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Body mass index (BMI) as per CDC, admission and discharge diagnosis of obesity and common comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, congestive heart disease, chronic kidney disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) were recorded...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Kana Fujikura, Bradley Peltzer, Nidhish Tiwari, Hye Gi Shim, Ally B Dinhofer, Sanyog G Shitole, Jorge R Kizer, Mario J Garcia
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Even after kidney transplant, the rate of CVD events and death remain elevated. Early detection of patients at risk would be helpful for guiding aggressive preventive therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate global longitudinal strain (GLS) as a predictor of CVD events and death after kidney transplant. METHOD: Among patients with successful kidney transplant between 3/2009 and 12/2012 at our institution, 111 individuals had an echocardiogram within 6 months of the transplant...
July 22, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Zachary A Stacy, Sara K Richter
BACKGROUND: To review data from the pivotal phase III trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) versus warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), and to summarize the major findings with regards to patient subgroups that are at an increased risk for stroke or bleeding. METHODS: A PubMed literature search (January 2009 to January 2017) was performed using the terms 'dabigatran', 'rivaroxaban', 'apixaban', 'edoxaban', 'atrial fibrillation', 'RE-LY', 'ROCKET AF', 'ARISTOTLE', and 'ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48'...
September 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
Jean Dallongeville, Frédéric Sacher, Stéphane Bouée, Corinne Emery, Isabelle Bureau, Julie Gourmelen, Laurent Fauchier
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the utilization of rivaroxaban in real life treatment settings in France. AIMS: Objectives of this study were to describe the conditions of use and treatment persistence in patients with atrial fibrillation and treated with rivaroxaban for stroke prevention (SP-AF). METHODS: A cohort study was performed using a representative sample of the French nationwide database. All adults who initiated rivaroxaban for SP-AF between 01/08/2012 and 31/12/2014 were included and followed for one year...
July 10, 2018: Thérapie
Gilberto Velho, Stéphanie Ragot, Ray El Boustany, Pierre-Jean Saulnier, Mathilde Fraty, Kamel Mohammedi, Frédéric Fumeron, Louis Potier, Michel Marre, Samy Hadjadj, Ronan Roussel
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease and kidney damage are tightly associated in people with type 2 diabetes. Experimental evidence supports a causal role for vasopressin (or antidiuretic hormone) in the development of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Plasma copeptin, the COOH-terminal portion of pre-provasopressin and a surrogate marker of vasopressin, was shown to be positively associated with the development and progression of DKD. Here we assessed the association of plasma copeptin with the risk of cardiovascular events during follow-up in two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetic patients, and we examined if this association could be mediated by deleterious effects of vasopressin on the kidney...
August 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
David León Jiménez, David Z I Cherney, Petter Bjornstad, Luis Castilla Guerra, José Pablo Miramontes González
While SGLT2 inhibitors have been use for the routine management of type 2 diabetes for several years, it is perhaps their natriuretic effects that are most important clinically. This natriuresis activates tubuloglomerular feedback, resulting in reduced glomerular hypertension and proteinuria, leading to renal protective effects in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME and CANVAS Program trials. In the cardiovascular system, it is likely that plasma volume contraction due to natriuresis in response to SGLT2 inhibition is at least in part responsible for the reduction in the risk of heart failure observed in these trials...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Marie-Eve Piché, Paul Poirier
Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, expending independent adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This relationship is complex due to several associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance/dysglycemia, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity induces a variety of cardiovascular system structural adaptations, from subclinical myocardial dysfunction to severe left ventricular systolic heart failure. Abnormalities in cardiac metabolism and subsequent cardiac energy, have been proposed as major contributors to obesity-related cardiovascular disease...
July 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Katja Schumacher, Jelena Kornej, Eduard Shantsila, Gregory Y H Lip
PURPOSE: Ischemic stroke significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). The risk of stroke increases significantly, with coexisting atrial fibrillation (AF). An aggravating factor could be asymptomatic paroxysms of AF (so-called silent AF), and therefore, the risk stratification in these patients remains difficult. This review provides an overview of stroke risk in HF, its risk stratification, and stroke prevention in these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Stroke risk stratification in HF patients remains an important issue...
July 30, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
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