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Darby G Brooke, Gunnar Cervin, Olivier Champeau, D Tim Harwood, Henrik Pavia, Andrew I Selwood, Johan Svenson, Louis A Tremblay, Patrick L Cahill
A range of natural products from marine invertebrates, bacteria and fungi have been assessed as leads for nature-inspired antifouling (AF) biocides, but little attention has been paid to microalgal-derived compounds. This study assessed the AF activity of the spirocyclic imine portimine (1), which is produced by the benthic mat-forming dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. Portimine displayed potent AF activity in a panel of four macrofouling bioassays (EC50 0.06-62.5 ng ml-1 ), and this activity was distinct from that of the related compounds gymnodimine-A (2), 13-desmethyl spirolide C (3), and pinnatoxin-F (4)...
December 12, 2018: Biofouling
Paola Nitti, Nunzia Gallo, Lara Natta, Francesca Scalera, Barbara Palazzo, Alessandro Sannino, Francesca Gervaso
This work explored the use of chitosan (Cs) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blends for the fabrication of electrospun fiber-orientated meshes potentially suitable for engineering fiber-reinforced soft tissues such as tendons, ligaments, or meniscus. To mimic the fiber alignment present in native tissue, the CS/PEO blend solution was electrospun using a traditional static plate, a rotating drum collector, and a rotating disk collector to get, respectively, random, parallel, circumferential-oriented fibers. The effects of the different orientations (parallel or circumferential) and high-speed rotating collector influenced fiber morphology, leading to a reduction in nanofiber diameters and an improvement in mechanical properties...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Aulia K Heikhmakhtiar, Ki M Lim
Two case reports showed that the combination of CRT and LVAD benefits the end-stage heart failure patients with prolonged QRS interval significantly. In one of the reports, the patient had the LVAD removed due to the recovery of the heart function. However, the quantification of the combined devices has yet to be conducted. This study aimed at computationally predicting the effects of CRT-only or combined with LVAD on electromechanical behaviour in the failing ventricle with left bundle branch blocked (LBBB) and right bundle branch blocked (RBBB) conditions...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Mats Åström, Stefan Bertilsson, Mark Dopson
The continental deep biosphere is suggested to contain a substantial fraction of the earth's total biomass and microorganisms inhabiting this environment likely have a substantial impact on biogeochemical cycles. However, the deep microbial community is still largely unknown and can be influenced by parameters such as temperature, pressure, water residence times, and chemistry of the waters. In this study, 21 boreholes representing a range of deep continental groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory were subjected to high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize how the different water types influence the microbial communities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
José Tuñón, Lina Badimón, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Bertrand Cariou, Mat J Daemen, Jesus Egido, Paul C Evans, Imo E Hoefer, Daniel Fj Ketelhuth, Esther Lutgens, Christian M Matter, Claudia Monaco, Sabine Steffens, Erik Stroes, Cécile Vindis, Christian Weber, Magnus Bäck
Dysregulated lipid metabolism induces an inflammatory and immune response leading to atherosclerosis. Conversely, inflammation may alter lipid metabolism. Recent treatment strategies in secondary prevention of atherosclerosis support beneficial effects of both anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering therapies beyond current targets. There is a controversy about the possibility that anti-inflammatory effects of lipid-lowering therapy may be either independent or not of a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
December 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Muhammad Abubakar Sadiq, Latiffah Hassan, Saleha Abdul Aziz, Zunita Zakaria, Hassan Ismail Musa, Maswati Mat Amin
Background: Melioidosis is a fatal emerging infectious disease of both man and animal caused by bacteria Burkholderia pseudomallei . Variations were suggested to have existed among the different B. pseudomallei clinical strains/genotypes which may implicate bacterial susceptibility and resistance toward antibiotics. Aim: This study was designed to determine whether the phenotypic antibiotic resistance pattern of B. pseudomallei is associated with the source of isolates and the genotype...
November 2018: Veterinary World
Matthew P Herring, Derek C Monroe, Brett R Gordon, Mats Hallgren, Mark J Campbell
Recent findings support positive effects of acute aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with subclinical, or analogue, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). However, exercise effects among young adult men with analogue GAD are unstudied. PURPOSE: This study replicated initial findings of positive effects of acute vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise on worry, state anxiety, and feelings of energy and fatigue among young adult women with analogue GAD, examined responses among young adult men with analogue GAD, and explored sex-related differences and moderation by physical activity level, trait anxiety, depression, and poor sleep status...
December 5, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Angélica M Sánchez-Sarmiento, Vitor L Carvalho, Ana C O Meirelles, Waleska Gravena, Juliana Marigo, Carlos Sacristán, Samira Costa-Silva, Katia R Groch, Nairléia Dos Silva, José Soares Ferreira Neto, José L Catão-Dias
Aquatic mammals can act as sentinels of emerging and resurging pathogens in the environment. Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. are 2 zoonotic pathogens relevant to aquatic mammals, and their detection can be used to assess pathogen exposure. In this study, serum from 84 individuals-63 cetaceans (families Iniidae, n = 37; Delphinidae, n = 22; and Kogiidae, n = 4) and 21 West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus-was tested by the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) for detecting Brucella spp...
December 11, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Jenny Lindberg, Mats Johansson, Linus Broström
The principle of self-determination plays a crucial role in contemporary clinical ethics. Somewhat simplified, it states that it is ultimately the patient who should decide whether or not to accept suggested treatment or care. Although the principle is much discussed in the academic literature, one important aspect has been neglected, namely the fact that real-world decision making is temporally extended, in the sense that it generally takes some time from the point at which the physician (or other health care professional) determines that there is a decision to be made and that the patient is capable of making it, to the point at which the patient is actually asked for his or her view...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Dennis M Shaffer, Kirsten M Greer, Jackson T Schaffer, Meghan Burkhardt, Ky Mattingly, Brandon Short, Cage Cramer
It is well known that people verbally exaggerate the slant of visually perceived geographical, virtual, and man-made hills. More recently it has been shown that haptic and verbal estimates of slant result in similar exaggerations, supporting the proprioception calibration hypothesis-that similar biases exist in both verbal estimates of visually perceived slant and proprioceptively perceived hand orientation. This seems to point to a common underlying representation of slant. However, it is unclear if and how manual proprioceptive estimates might be relevant for perception of ground surface slant or how this might translate to pedal perception of surface orientation...
December 7, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Jennifer L Syvertsen, Kawango Agot, Spala Ohaga, Angela Robertson Bazzi
AIMS: Globally, women who use drugs often practice sex work and experience multiple health and social harms that complicate their drug treatment needs. In East Africa, understanding the emergence of heroin use among women is critical in efforts to build effective drug treatment programming, including the ongoing scale-up of medication-assisted treatment (MAT). We explored heroin use among women engaged in sex work in Kenya to inform services. METHODS: In a qualitative study of 45 female sex workers reporting substance use in Kisumu, Kenya, 32 reported lifetime heroin use and comprise the focus of this analysis...
November 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Birgitta Gatenholm, Carl Lindahl, Mats Brittberg, Vincent A Stadelmann
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a reproducible and semi-automatic method based on micro computed tomography (microCT) to analyze cartilage and bone morphology of human osteoarthritic knee joints in spatially matching regions of interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tibial plateaus from randomly selected patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA) who underwent total knee arthroplasty surgery were microCT scanned once fresh and once after staining with Hexabrix...
December 7, 2018: Bone
Aquillah M Kanzi, Emma T Steenkamp, Nicolaas A Van der Merwe, Brenda D Wingfield
Fungi in the genus Chrysoporthe are economically important canker pathogens of commercially grown Eucalyptus species and native Myrtales. Before the current study, homothallism was widely accepted as the mating system of these species, but this hypothesis could not be fully tested. Using whole genome sequences, we characterized the MAT locus of two C. austroafricana isolates and its sibling species, C. cubensis and C. deuterocubensis. A unique MAT1-2 idiomorph containing a truncated MAT1-1-1 gene, and a MAT1-1-2 gene, was identified in one isolate of C...
December 4, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Daoyuan Si, Guohui Liu, Yaliang Tong, Cheng Zhang, Yuquan He
BACKGROUND: The failure of aspiration thrombectomy may negatively impact outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but the available options are limited. CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old man with chest pain for 2 h presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a large filling defect extending from the distal left main (LM) coronary artery into the proximal left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery. The whole thrombus moved and occluded the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) artery, while the guidewire crossed the lesion...
December 10, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Mohammad Mehdi Kalani, Jhamak Nourmohammadi, Babak Negahdari
To begin developing a silk fibroin (SF) nanofibrous scaffolds that could promote osteogenesis, whilst enabling to deliver an active amount of Rosuvastatin (RSV) to the cells in long-time period, the present study aims to immobilize RSV onto the SF nanofibers through the argon radio frequency. Thus, the effect of plasma exposure times (0, 1, 3, and 5 min) was investigated on the morphology, loading efficiency, release profile, and osteogenesis activity. The successful loading of RSV on the SF nanofibers was proved by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry, and energy dispersive spectroscopy...
December 7, 2018: Biomedical Materials
Silvia Benavides-Varela, Riccardina Lorusso, Valentina Baro, Luca Denaro, Nancy Estévez-Pérez, Daniela Lucangeli, Domenico D'Avella, Carlo Semenza
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients with circumscribed cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) tumors generally perform within the normal range on neuropsychological tests after a complete tumor resection. The outcome in academically relevant abilities such as mathematics, which in adults involve some cerebellar functions, is however much less understood. The aim of this study is to retrospectively investigate the neuroplasticity of mathematical skills and associated cognitive functions following cerebellar resection of PA in pediatric patients...
December 6, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Joanne Michalitsis, Anna T Murphy, Barry Rawicki, Terry P Haines, Cylie Williams
BACKGROUND: There remains a substantial lack of evidence to support the use of foot orthoses as a conservative treatment option for idiopathic toe walking (ITW). Encouraging heel contact during gait is one of the primary goals of most interventions in paediatric ITW. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does the combined treatment of high-top boots and orthoses increase the number of heel contacts during gait and change spatio-temporal gait parameters? METHODS: This within subject designed randomised controlled trial recruited fifteen children diagnosed with ITW (n = 10 males)...
November 20, 2018: Gait & Posture
Anna Grimby-Ekman, Maria Åberg, Kjell Torén, Jonas Brisman, Mats Hagberg, Jeong-Lim Kim
Recurrent headache, abdominal and musculoskeletal pain are common in adolescents and it is therefore important to understand their impact on the transitional period from childhood to adulthood. However, studies of the prevalence over time and implications on educational outcomes are still limited, especially regarding multiple pain symptoms. The present study material consists of questionnaire surveys, completed in 2000 and 2008, including two study populations of 9th grade adolescents aged 15 living in West Sweden (n = 20 877)...
2018: PloS One
Jan Löhler, Martin Lehmann, Veronika Segler, Stefan Volkenstein, Rolf-Dieter Battmer, Arneborg Ernst, Frederike Gräbner, Peter Schlattmann, Rainer Schönweiler, Barbara Wollenberg, Stefan Dazert
BACKGROUND: In Germany, about 15 million people are suffering from hearing loss (HL), whereas only 16 % are using hearing aids. Untreated hearing loss may lead to severe complications (e. g. social isolation, depression, progress of dementia). An early and widespread screening, beginning at the age of 50, is meant to improve this shortage in medical care. By this study, the Mini-Audio-Test (MAT), a six-question and three-step answers containing questionnaire on subjective HL, should be verified on a normal collective of subjects (sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (Ppv))...
December 5, 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Martin Spångfors, Gitte Bunkenborg, Mats Molt, Karin Samuelson
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if the scale used for assessment of hospital ward patients could predict in-hospital and 30-day mortality amongst those with deviating vital signs i.e. that patients classified as medium or high-risk would have increased risk of in-hospital and 30-day mortality compared to patients with low-risk. BACKGROUND: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is a widely-adopted scale for assessing deviating vital signs. A clinical risk-scale that comes with the NEWS divides the risk for critical illness into three risk-categories, low, medium and high...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
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