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Minjuan Jiang, Tong Han, Jinhu Wang, Linjun Shao, Chenze Qi, Xian M Zhang, Chunli Liu, Xuejing Liu
Uniform chitosan composite nanofiber mats (CS/PAAS) containing 4.0 wt% polyacrylic acid sodium loading have been prepared by electrospinning, followed by annealing at elevated temperature to improve solvent resistance and mechanical strength. The CS/PAAS nanofiber mats have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and tensile strength analysis. The prepared nanofiber mats have been shown to be much better than the pristine chitosan powder to adsorb the chromium (VI) ion...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
José Q García-Maldonado, Alejandra Escobar-Zepeda, Luciana Raggi, Brad M Bebout, Alejandro Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro López-Cortés
Bacterial and archaeal community structure of five microbial communities, developing at different salinities in Baja California Sur, Mexico, were characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. The response of the microbial community to artificial changes in salinity-sulfate concentrations and to addition of trimethylamine was also evaluated in microcosm experiments. Ordination analyses of the microbial community structure showed that microbial composition was distinctive for each hypersaline site. Members of bacteria were dominated by Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla, while Halobacteria of the Euryarchaeota phylum was the most represented class of archaea for all the environmental samples...
August 17, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Merin Sara Thomas, Prasanth K S Pillai, Marisa Faria, Nereida Cordeiro, Hernane Barud, Sabu Thomas, Laly A Pothen
Fabricating novel materials for biomedical applications mostly require the use of biodegradable materials. In this work biodegradable materials like polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan (CHS) were used for designing electrospun mats. This work reports the physical and chemical characterization of the PLA-CHS composite, prepared by the electrospinning technique using a mixed solvent system. The addition of chitosan into PLA, offered decrease in fiber diameter in the composites with uniformity in the distribution of fibers with an optimum at 0...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Anne E Mattingly, Nachiket G Kamatkar, Nydia Morales-Soto, Bradley R Borlee, Joshua D Shrout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Ning Li, Yongqiang Zhao, Quan Pan, Seong G Kong
Long-wave infrared (LWIR) imaging has been successfully used in surveillance applications in low illumination conditions. However, infrared energy reflected from smooth surfaces such as floors and metallic objects may reduce object detection and tracking accuracies. In this paper, we present a novel reflection removal method using polarization properties of the reflection in LWIR imagery. Reflection can be distinguished from the scene by two unique characteristics of polarization: the difference of two orthogonal polarized components (OPC) and the uniformity of angle of polarization (AoP)...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Maarten Moens, Lisa Goudman, Raf Brouns, Alexis Valenzuela Espinoza, Mats De Jaeger, Eva Huysmans, Koen Putman, Jan Verlooy
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain has a substantial negative impact on work-related outcomes, which underscores the importance of interventions to reduce the burden. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) efficiently causes pain relief in specific chronic pain syndromes. The aim of this review was to identify and summarize evidence on returning to work in patients with chronic pain treated with SCS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed including studies from PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science (up till October 2017)...
August 17, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Oscar Jalnefjord, Mats Andersson, Mikael Montelius, Göran Starck, Anna-Karin Elf, Viktor Johanson, Johanna Svensson, Maria Ljungberg
OBJECTIVE: Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) shows great potential in many applications, e.g., tumor tissue characterization. To reduce image-quality demands, various IVIM analysis approaches restricted to the diffusion coefficient (D) and the perfusion fraction (f) are increasingly being employed. In this work, the impact of estimation approach for D and f is studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four approaches for estimating D and f were studied: segmented IVIM fitting, least-squares fitting of a simplified IVIM model (sIVIM), and Bayesian fitting of the sIVIM model using marginal posterior modes or posterior means...
August 16, 2018: Magma
Dijiong Wu, Keding Shao, Qihao Zhou, Jie Sun, Ziqi Wang, Fei Yan, Tingting Liu, Xiangping Wu, Baodong Ye, He Huang, Yuhong Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although the cure rate of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has exceeded 90%, the relapse/refractory APL that resistant to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or ATO was still serious concern. Matrine (MAT) could improve the differentiation ability of ATRA-resistant APL cells. This study aimed to explore how the APL-specific fusion protein was degraded in ATRA-resistant APL with the application of MAT and ATRA. METHODS: ATRA-sensitive (NB4) and ATRA-resistant (NB4-LR1) cell lines were used...
August 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jiri Chmelik, Roman Jakubicek, Petr Walek, Jiri Jan, Petr Ourednicek, Lukas Lambert, Elena Amadori, Giampaolo Gavelli
This paper aims to address the segmentation and classification of lytic and sclerotic metastatic lesions that are difficult to define by using spinal 3D Computed Tomography (CT) images obtained from highly pathologically affected cases. As the lesions are ill-defined and consequently it is difficult to find relevant image features that would enable detection and classification of lesions by classical methods of texture and shape analysis, the problem is solved by automatic feature extraction provided by a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)...
August 3, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Anupama Kotha, Beatrice A Chen, Lauren Lewis, Shannon Dunn, Katherine P Himes, Elizabeth Krans
BACKGROUND: Many women with opioid use disorder (OUD) do not use highly effective postpartum contraception such as long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). We evaluated factors associated with prenatal intent and postpartum receipt of LARC among women receiving medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for OUD. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of 791 pregnant women with OUD on MAT who delivered at an academic institution without immediate postpartum LARC services between 2009 and 2012...
August 13, 2018: Contraception
Hao-Yang Mi, Xin Jing, Mary Ann Babin Meador, Haiquan Guo, Lih-Sheng Turng, Shaoqin Gong
Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have been attracting a tremendous amount of attention since their discovery in 2012. Finding new means to enhance energy output is an ongoing pursuit. Herein, we introduce a new type of high performance TENG composed of highly porous polyamide (PA) nanofiber mats and polyimide (PI) aerogel films. We have demonstrated that the thickness of the porous triboelectric materials, which is attained by stacking multiple layers of triboelectric materials, has a profound effect on the triboelectric output performance of TENGs...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kanthaiah Koka, William Jason Riggs, Robert Dwyer, Jourdan Taylor Holder, Jack H Noble, Benoit M Dawant, Amanda Ortmann, Carla V Valenzuela, Jameson K Mattingly, Michael M Harris, Brendan P O'Connell, Leonid M Litvak, Oliver F Adunka, Craig Alan Buchman, Robert F Labadie
HYPOTHESIS: Electrocochleography (ECochG) patterns observed during cochlear implant (CI) electrode insertion may provide information about scalar location of the electrode array. BACKGROUND: Conventional CI surgery is performed without actively monitoring auditory function and potential damage to intracochlear structures. The central hypothesis of this study was that ECochG obtained directly through the CI may be used to estimate intracochlear electrode position and, ultimately, residual hearing preservation...
September 2018: Otology & Neurotology
R F Gubaev, V Y Gorshkov, L M Gapa, N E Gogoleva, E P Vetchinkina, Y V Gogolev
Modern techniques of next-generation sequencing (NGS) allow obtaining expression profile of all genes and provide an essential basis for characterizing metabolism in the organism of interest on a broad scale. An important condition for obtaining a demonstrative physiological picture using high throughput sequencing data is the availability of the genome sequence and its sufficient annotation for the target organism. However, a list of species with properly annotated genomes is limited. Transcriptome profiling is often performed in the so-called non-model organisms, which are those with unknown or poorly assembled and/or annotated genome sequences...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Ari Brekkan, Luis Lopez-Lazaro, Gunnar Yngman, Elodie L Plan, Chayan Acharya, Andrew C Hooker, Suresh Kankanwadi, Mats O Karlsson
Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia (FN) are serious side effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy which may be alleviated with the administration of recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) derivatives, such as pegfilgrastim (PG) which increases absolute neutrophil count (ANC). In this work, a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) model was developed based on data obtained from healthy volunteers receiving multiple administrations of PG. The developed model was a bidirectional PKPD model, where PG stimulated the proliferation, maturation, and margination of neutrophils and where circulating neutrophils in turn increased the elimination of PG...
August 15, 2018: AAPS Journal
Deval Prasad Bhattarai, Ludwig Erik Aguilar, Chan Hee Park, Cheol Sang Kim
Bone tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field where the principles of engineering are applied on bone-related biochemical reactions. Scaffolds, cells, growth factors, and their interrelation in microenvironment are the major concerns in bone tissue engineering. Among many alternatives, electrospinning is a promising and versatile technique that is used to fabricate polymer fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Copolymerization and polymer blending is a promising strategic way in purpose of getting synergistic and additive effect achieved from either polymer...
August 14, 2018: Membranes
Rashid Ahmed, Muhammad Tariq, Imran Ali, Rehana Asghar, P Noorunnisa Khanam, Robin Augustine, Anwarul Hasan
Non-healing wound is a serious complication of diabetes, associated with extremely slow wound closure, and a high rate of infection, resulting in amputation or losses of limbs, high health care cost and poor quality of patient's life. In the present study, we hypothesized that nanofiber mats composed of a combination of chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) could be an effective option for faster healing of diabetic wounds due to the wound healing activities of chitosan-PVA nanofibers and antibacterial properties of ZnO...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Muhammad Faizan Nazar, Muhammad Yasir Siddique, Muhammad Atif Saleem, Muddassar Zafar, Faisal Nawaz, Muhammad Ashfaq, Asad Muhammad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Abd Ur Rahman, Muhammad Tahir, Azwan Mat Lazim
To overcome the increased disease rate, utilizing of the versatile broad spectrum antibiotic drugs in controlled drug delivery systems has been a challenging and complex consignment. However, with the development of microemulsion (μE) based formulations, drugs can be effectively encapsulated and transferred to the target source. Herein, two biocompatible oil-in-water (o/w) μE formulations comprising clove oil/ tween 20/ ethylene glycol/ water (Formulation-A) and clove oil/ tween 20/ 1-butanol/ water (Formulation-B) were developed for encapsulating the gatifloxacin (GTF), a fourth-generation antibiotic...
August 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Peter Blomstrand, Peter Sjöblom, Mats Nilsson, Magnus Wijkman, Martin Engvall, Toste Länne, Fredrik H Nyström, Carl Johan Östgren, Jan Engvall
AIMS: Obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure but it is unclear to which extent it is related to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of overweight and obesity on left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of non-diabetic persons. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 384 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 184 controls who participated in the CARDIPP and CAREFUL studies...
August 14, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Mohamed F A Farghly, Khalid M Mahrose, Ross G Cooper, Z Ullah, Z Rehman, C Ding
Floor type management is an important factor in turkey production in hot climates exceeding 30°C. In this study, a total of 360 turkeys aged 4 wk were randomly distributed to investigate growth performance, carcass characteristics, certain health aspects (breast blisters score, footpad burns, hock discoloration, and plumage condition), and airborne conditions. Birds in the first group were raised on a littered floor (control; C), whereas birds in the other groups (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5) were raised on cement, wire net, rubber mat, plastic and wooden slatted floors, respectively...
August 13, 2018: Poultry Science
Vibha Singhal, Landy P Torre Flores, Fatima C Stanford, Alexander T Toth, Brian Carmine, Madhusmita Misra, Miriam A Bredella
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in humans is distributed differentially across age and skeletal site. We have shown impaired microarchitecture and reduced bone strength at appendicular sites in conditions associated with high MAT of the axial skeleton in adults (including conditions of over- and undernutrition). Data are lacking regarding differences in MAT content of the appendicular versus the axial skeleton, and its relationship with bone microarchitecture and strength. Furthermore, data are conspicuously lacking in adolescents, a time when hematopoietic marrow is progressively converted to fatty marrow...
August 11, 2018: Bone
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