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Oksana Coban, MiKalley Williams, Brad M Bebout
Microbial mats, due to their high microbial diversity, have the potential to express most biogeochemical cycling processes, highlighting their prospective use in bioremediation of various environmental contaminants. In this study the mechanisms of nitrogen attenuation were investigated in naturally occurring microbial mats from Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, CA, USA, and Baja California Sur, Mexico. Key processes responsible for this removal were evaluated using quantification of functional genes related to nitrification, denitrification, and nitrogen fixation...
September 27, 2018: Water Research
Henrik Smeds, Jeremy Wales, Tiit Mathiesen, Mats Talbäck, Maria Feychting
Purpose: Cochlear implants are widely used for hearing rehabilitation of deaf children with congenital deafness or adults with acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. The sound processor antenna creates a radio frequency-electromagnetic field transmitting the sound signal to the implant, similar to that in a mobile phone. A recent case report suggested a relationship between cochlear implants and malignant glioma, and some epidemiological studies have suggested an increased glioma and acoustic neuroma risk associated with long hours of mobile phone use...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Orjan Skogar, Mats Nilsson
Background: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) are frequent in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Clinical expressions, postulated pathophysiological mechanisms, and responsiveness to antiparkinson medication represent differences between IPD and secondary Parkinsonism (SP). Objective: To evaluate NMS expressions in IPD, SP, and a matched control group. Methods: The accepted criteria for IPD and SP were controlled for the participants who were consecutively recruited at two outdoor patient clinics...
2018: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Alberto Sensini, Luca Cristofolini
Tendon and ligament tissue regeneration and replacement are complex since scaffolds need to guarantee an adequate hierarchical structured morphology, and non-linear mechanical properties. Moreover, to guide the cells' proliferation and tissue re-growth, scaffolds must provide a fibrous texture mimicking the typical of the arrangement of the collagen in the extracellular matrix of these tissues. Among the different techniques to produce scaffolds, electrospinning is one of the most promising, thanks to its ability to produce fibers of nanometric size...
October 12, 2018: Materials
Amy R Gordon, Bruce A Kimball, Kimmo Sorjonen, Bianka Karshikoff, John Axelsson, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Contagious disease is a major threat to survival, and the cost of relying on the immune system to defeat pathogens is high; therefore, behavioral avoidance of contagious individuals is arguably an adaptive strategy. Animal findings demonstrate the ability to detect and avoid sick individuals by the aid of olfactory cues, and a recent study indicated that human axillary odor also becomes more aversive as a function of immune activation. By injecting healthy human participants with lipopolysaccharide (0.6 ng/kg body weight) to experimentally induce inflammation, this study demonstrates that natural daily rhythms of urine odor-its perceived dimensions and volatile profile-are altered within hours of inflammation onset...
September 24, 2018: Chemical Senses
Matthias Beggiato, Franziska Hartwich, Josef Krems
As technological advances lead to rapid progress in driving automation, human-machine interaction (HMI) issues such as comfort in automated driving gain increasing attention. The research project KomfoPilot at Chemnitz University of Technology aims to assess discomfort in automated driving using physiological parameters from commercially available smartbands, pupillometry and body motion. Detected discomfort should subsequently be used to adapt driving parameters as well as information presentation and prevent potentially safety-critical take-over situations...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shenandoah Robinson, Fatu S Conteh, Akosua Y Oppong, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Jessie C Newville, Nagat El Demerdash, Christine L Shrock, Jessie R Maxwell, Stephen Jett, Frances J Northington, Lauren L Jantzie
Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity (PHHP) remains a global challenge. Early preterm infants (<32 weeks gestation), particularly those exposed to chorioamnionitis (CAM), are prone to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and PHHP. We established an age-appropriate, preclinical model of PHHP with progressive macrocephaly and ventriculomegaly to test whether non-surgical neonatal treatment could modulate PHHP. We combined prenatal CAM and postnatal day 1 (P1, equivalent to 30 weeks human gestation) IVH in rats, and administered systemic erythropoietin (EPO) plus melatonin (MLT), or vehicle, from P2 to P10...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Lina De Geer, Anna Oscarsson Tibblin, Mats Fredrikson, Sten M Walther
BACKGROUND: Cardiac dysfunction is a well-known complication of sepsis, but its long-term consequences and implications for patients remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiac outcome in sepsis by assessing causes of death up to 2 years after treatment in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in a nationwide register-based cohort collected from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry. METHODS: A cohort of 13 669 sepsis and septic shock ICU patients from 2008 to 2014 was collected together with a non-septic control group, matched regarding age, sex and severity of illness (n = 6582), and all without preceding severe cardiac disease...
October 14, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Nam-Ki Kim, Seong-Il Bin, Jong-Min Kim, Bum-Sik Lee, Chang-Rack Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose was to analyse the correlation between meniscal extrusion and position changes of the anterior horn and posterior horn after medial meniscal allograft transplantation. METHODS: Patients (n = 68) who underwent medial MAT were included. Anatomical positions of the anterior horn and posterior horn were measured, before and after surgery, using magnetic resonance images in the coronal and sagittal planes. The absolute and relative delta values of the anatomical positions were obtained, and the absolute and relative meniscal extrusion measurements were taken...
October 13, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Fatima Naumeri, Muhammad Safdar Khan, Asad Rauf, Sajida Imran, Muhammad Tahir
The aim was to determine the role of needle aspiration and surgical excision in the management of suppurative Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) lymphadenitis. This prospective study was done in Rafha Central Hospital, over 1.5 years. Thirty two patients were enrolled after informed consent. Needle aspiration was done if size of lymphadenitis was up to 3cm. Surgical excision was done primarily for size more than 3cm or in cases of failed aspiration. Eighteen were males and 14 were females. Median age was 3.75 months (IQR 2-7)...
July 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Mats Hallgren, Thi-Thuy-Dung Nguyen, Andreas Lundin, Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, Felipe Schuch, Rino Bellocco, Ylva Trolle Lagerros
Regular physical activity (PA) appears to protect against the emergence of depression, but prospective studies linked to clinician diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD) remain scarce. It is also unclear whether PA levels recommended for general health are prospectively related to depression onset. We explored these relationships in a cohort of adults followed over 13 years. In total, 43,863 Swedish adults were surveyed in 1997 and responses linked to clinician-diagnosed MDD obtained from specialist medical registers until 2010...
October 11, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jonatan Fridolfsson, Mats Börjesson, Daniel Arvidsson
ActiGraph is the most common accelerometer in physical activity research, but it has measurement errors due to restrictive frequency filtering. This study investigated biomechanically how different frequency filtering of accelerometer data affects assessment of activity intensity and age-group differences when measuring physical activity. Data from accelerometer at the hip and motion capture system was recorded during treadmill walking and running from 30 subjects in three different age groups: 10, 15, and >20 years old...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Ling-Li Min, Li-Ming Yang, Ren-Xiang Wu, Lu-Bin Zhong, Zhi-Hua Yuan, Yu-Ming Zheng
A novel iron-doped chitosan electrospun nanofiber mat (Fe@CTS ENM) was synthesized, which was proven to be effective for the removal of arsenite (As(III)) from water at neutral pH condition. The physiochemical properties and adsorption mechanism were explored by SEM-EDS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to evaluate the As(III) adsorption performance of the Fe@CTS ENM with various process parameters, such as adsorbent dose, solution pH, initial As(III) concentration, contact time, ionic strength, coexisting anions, and natural organic matter...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
A Searle, M J Spink, V H Chuter
BACKGROUND: An association between equinus and plantar pressure may be important for people with diabetes, as elevated plantar pressure has been linked with foot ulcer development. To determine the prevalence of equinus in community dwelling people with diabetes and to examine any association between presence of equinus and forefoot plantar pressures. METHODS: Barefoot (Tekscan HR Mat™) and in-shoe (Novel Pedar-X®) plantar pressure variables, non-weight bearing ankle range of motion and neuropathy status were assessed in 136 adults with diabetes (52...
October 5, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Marilena Vlachou, Stefanos Kikionis, Angeliki Siamidi, Konstantina Tragou, Efstathia Ioannou, Vassilios Roussis, Andrew Tsotinis
Modified release tablet formulations with melatonin (MLT) are clinically more useful in initiating and maintaining sleep in elderly insomniacs, compared with those designed for immediate release. Aiming at the modified release of MLT, mono-layered and three-layered tablets, incorporating nanofibrous mats composed of cellulose acetate (CA) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) loaded with MLT, were prepared and studied. In vitro dissolution profiles of MLT in gastrointestinal-like fluids, revealed tableting pressure/pH-dependence...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Peter Barglow
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Outcome intervention data from Medicare, veteran, prison, and United States' public populations can identify best practices to decrease opioid misuse. Prescription policies for treating pain in the United States and other countries are relevant to preventing overdose. METHODS: Three strategies are considered: (1) Demand Reduction counsels and educates patients and current or potential opioid users about risks and treatment options to reduce motivation to consume opioids...
October 12, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
Mahmoud Orazizadeh, Fereshte Nejaddehbashi, Mahmoud Hashemitabar, Vahid Bayati, Mohammadreza Abbaspour, Eskandar Moghimipour
Fabrication of nanofibrous biomaterials composed of natural and synthetic materials that incorporated with antibiotic and growth factors with controlled release manner is an attractive topic in wound healing. The purpose of this study was to prepare optimal composite of materials as biomimetic nanofibrous mats for application in wound healing. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
October 11, 2018: Artificial Organs
Mats Töpel, Matthew I M Pinder, Oskar N Johansson, Olga Kourtchenko, Anna Godhe, Adrian K Clarke
As part of an ongoing investigation into the microbiome of the marine diatom Skeletonema marinoi , the bacterial strain SMS3 was isolated from a culture of S. marinoi strain ST54, which had been propagated from a sample of top layer marine sediments taken from the Swedish west coast. We present here the sequenced genome of this bacterium, which we place in the taxon Antarctobacter heliothermus , based on a phylotaxonomic analysis and its high 16S rRNA sequence similarity to the A. heliothermus type strain DSM 11445T ...
2018: Journal of Genomics
Naoko A Ronquest, Tina M Willson, Leslie B Montejano, Vijay R Nadipelli, Bernd A Wollschlaeger
Background: Treatment for opioid use disorder is important because of the negative health, societal and economic consequences of illicit opioid use, but treatment adherence can be a challenge. This study assessed the association between buprenorphine medication-assisted treatment (MAT) adherence and relapse, health care utilization and costs. Patients and methods: Patients with opioid use disorder who were newly initiating a buprenorphine MAT regimen were identified in the 2008-2014 MarketScan® Commercial and Medicaid Databases and followed for 12 months after their earliest outpatient pharmacy claim for buprenorphine...
2018: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
Tomasz Krzywkowski, Malte Kühnemund, Mats Nilsson
Many approaches exist to detect RNA using complementary oligonucleotides. DNA ligation-based techniques can improve discrimination of subtle sequence variations, but they have been difficult to implement for direct RNA analysis due to the infidelity and inefficiency of most DNA ligases on RNA. In this report, we have systematically studied if ribonucleotide substitutions in padlock probes can provide higher catalytic efficiencies for Chlorella virus DNA ligase (PBCV-1 DNA ligase) and T4RNA ligase 2 (T4Rnl2) on RNA...
October 11, 2018: RNA
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