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skin microbiome and skin microbiota

Kang Kang, Yueqiong Ni, Jun Li, Lejla Imamovic, Chinmoy Sarkar, Marie Danielle Kobler, Yoshitaro Heshiki, Tingting Zheng, Sarika Kumari, Jane Ching Yan Wong, Anand Archna, Cheong Wai Martin Wong, Caroline Dingle, Seth Denizen, David Michael Baker, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer, Christopher John Webster, Gianni Panagiotou
The skin functions as the primary interface between the human body and the external environment. To understand how the microbiome varies within urban mass transit and influences the skin microbiota, we profiled the human palm microbiome after contact with handrails within the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system. Intraday sampling time was identified as the primary determinant of the variation and recurrence of the community composition, whereas human-associated species and clinically important antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were captured as p...
July 31, 2018: Cell Reports
Ava M Vargason, Aaron C Anselmo
Next generation microbe-based therapeutics, inspired by the success of fecal microbiota transplants, are being actively investigated in clinical trials to displace or eliminate pathogenic microbes to treat various diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and vagina. Genetically engineered microbes are also being investigated in the clinic as drug producing factories for biologic delivery, which can provide a constant local source of drugs. In either case, microbe-therapeutics have the opportunity to address unmet clinical needs and open new areas of research by reducing clinical side effects associated with current treatment modalities or by facilitating the delivery of biologics...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
Kavita Beri
Recent advances in our understanding of the function of the skin and its microbiome have shown that there is a strong symbiotic relationship between the microbiota of the skin and its host immune functions. The dysbiosis or imbalance of the microbiome and other factors that have an influence on the surface microbiota can influence keratinocyte regulation and homeostasis as well as the skin barrier function. In this perspective paper, we review the evidence that connects the skin's microbiome and the barrier function of the epidermis and explore the future potential for applying this unique dialogue in developing innovative cosmetics and transdermal drugs for wellbeing and beauty...
July 2018: Future Science OA
Iman Salem, Amy Ramser, Nancy Isham, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
The adult intestine hosts a myriad of diverse bacterial species that reside mostly in the lower gut maintaining a symbiosis with the human habitat. In the current review, we describe the neoteric advancement in our comprehension of how the gut microbiota communicates with the skin as one of the main regulators in the gut-skin axis. We attempted to explore how this potential link affects skin differentiation and keratinization, its influence on modulating the cutaneous immune response in various diseases, and finally how to take advantage of this communication in the control of different skin conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Haitao Chai, Hongmei Jiang, Lu Lin, Lei Liu
In microbiome studies, an important goal is to detect differential abundance of microbes across clinical conditions and treatment options. However, the microbiome compositional data (quantified by relative abundance) are highly skewed, bounded in [0, 1), and often have many zeros. A two-part model is commonly used to separate zeros and positive values explicitly by two submodels: a logistic model for the probability of a specie being present in Part I, and a Beta regression model for the relative abundance conditional on the presence of the specie in Part II...
July 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Sofia Consuegra, Matthew Hitchings, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz
The microbiome has a crucial influence on host phenotype, and is of broad interest to ecological and evolutionary research. Yet, the extent of variation that occurs in the microbiome within and between populations is unclear. We characterised the skin and gut microbiome of seven populations of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) inhabiting a diverse range of environments, including hatchery-reared and wild populations. We found shared skin OTUs across all populations and core gut microbiota for all wild fish, but the diversity and structure of both skin and gut microbial communities were distinct between populations...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lauren Brinkac, Thomas H Clarke, Harinder Singh, Chris Greco, Andres Gomez, Manolito G Torralba, Bryan Frank, Karen E Nelson
The skin is a complex living ecosystem harboring diverse microbial communities. Its highly variable properties and influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors creates unique microenvironments where niche-specific microbes thrive. As part of the skin, hair supports its own microbial habitat that is also intra and inter-personal variable. This little explored substrate has significant potential in forensics microbiome research due to the unique signatures that are available on an individual. To further investigate this, we explored the hair microbiota from scalp and pubic regions in healthy adults to investigate how the hair shaft microenvironment varies microbially...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashley A Ross, Kirsten M Müller, J Scott Weese, Josh D Neufeld
Skin is the largest organ of the body and represents the primary physical barrier between mammals and their external environment, yet the factors that govern skin microbial community composition among mammals are poorly understood. The objective of this research was to generate a skin microbiota baseline for members of the class Mammalia, testing the effects of host species, geographic location, body region, and biological sex. Skin from the back, torso, and inner thighs of 177 nonhuman mammals was sampled, representing individuals from 38 species and 10 mammalian orders...
June 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hok Bing Thio
Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory immune-mediated skin disease that affects about 2% of the world's population. In 20% of patients with psoriasis, the characteristic skin lesions are accompanied by psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis arises in genetically predisposed individuals who have a dysregulated immune response to various environmental factors. The human body is home to many microbial species, and both the skin and the gut microbiome influence the development and function of immune tissue development and function...
June 2018: Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement
Mira Grönroos, Anirudra Parajuli, Olli H Laitinen, Marja I Roslund, Heli K Vari, Heikki Hyöty, Riikka Puhakka, Aki Sinkkonen
Immune-mediated diseases have increased during the last decades in urban environments. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that increased hygiene level and reduced contacts with natural biodiversity are related to the increase in immune-mediated diseases. We tested whether short-time contact with microbiologically diverse nature-based materials immediately change bacterial diversity on human skin. We tested direct skin contact, as two volunteers rubbed their hands with sixteen soil and plant based materials, and an exposure via fabric packets filled with moss material...
May 29, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Christine M McIntosh, Luqiu Chen, Alon Shaiber, A Murat Eren, Maria-Luisa Alegre
BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients show heterogeneity in the occurrence and timing of acute rejection episodes. Understanding the factors responsible for such variability in patient outcomes may lead to improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Rejection kinetics of transplanted organs mainly depends on the extent of genetic disparities between donor and recipient, but a role for environmental factors is emerging. We have recently shown that major alterations of the microbiota following broad-spectrum antibiotics, or use of germ-free animals, promoted longer skin graft survival in mice...
May 25, 2018: Microbiome
Diana Montoya-Williams, Dominick J Lemas, Lisa Spiryda, Keval Patel, O'neshia Olivia Carney, Josef Neu, Tiffany L Carson
BACKGROUND: Cesarean sections (CS) are among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in the world. Epidemiologic data has associated delivery by CS with an increased risk of certain adverse health outcomes in children, such as asthma and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To explore what is known about the effect of mode of delivery on the development of the infant microbiome and discuss the potentially mediating role of CS-related microbial dysbiosis in the development of adverse pediatric health outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Neonatology
Adam J SanMiguel, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Joseph Horwinski, Qi Zheng, Charles W Bradley, Elizabeth A Grice
Despite critical functions in cutaneous health and disease, it is unclear how resident skin microbial communities are altered by topical antimicrobial interventions commonly used in personal and clinical settings. Here we show that acute exposure to antiseptic treatments elicits rapid but short-term depletion of microbial community diversity and membership. Thirteen subjects were enrolled in a longitudinal treatment study to analyze the effects of topical treatments (i.e., ethanol, povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, and water) on the skin microbiome at two skin sites of disparate microenvironment: forearm and back...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Helen Williams, Laura Campbell, Rachel A Crompton, Gurdeep Singh, Brian J McHugh, Donald J Davidson, Andrew J McBain, Sheena M Cruickshank, Matthew J Hardman
Chronic wounds cause significant patient morbidity and mortality. A key factor in their etiology is microbial infection, yet skin host-microbiota interactions during wound repair remain poorly understood. Microbiome profiles of noninfected human chronic wounds are associated with subsequent healing outcome. Furthermore, poor clinical healing outcome was associated with increased local expression of the pattern recognition receptor NOD2. To investigate NOD2 function in the context of cutaneous healing, we treated mice with the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide and analyzed wound repair parameters and expression of antimicrobial peptides...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Su-Hsun Liu, Yhu-Chering Huang, Leslie Y Chen, Shu-Chuan Yu, Hsiao-Yun Yu, Shiow-Shuh Chuang
Although studies on skin microbiome of acute and chronic wounds abound, evidence on newly built microbial communities of subacute wounds remains scant. To characterize the skin microbiome of recently healed (scarred) burn wounds in relation to unaffected skin surfaces, we collected weekly swabs from patients with moderate to severe burns in the 3rd postburn month for 4 weeks in 2015. We performed skin type (moist, dry, and oily)-matched comparisons within six burn patients (43 pairs of swabs) and with 13 skin-healthy, control patients (22 pairs of samples) using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing results...
April 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Shoshannah Eggers, Kristen Mc Malecki, Paul Peppard, Julie Mares, Daniel Shirley, Sanjay K Shukla, Keith Poulsen, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Ashley Kates, Garret Suen, Ajay K Sethi, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant enterococci, fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is crucial. Evidence suggests that dietary fibre increases gut microbial diversity, which may help prevent colonisation and subsequent infection by MDROs. The aim of the Winning the War on Antibiotic Resistance (WARRIOR) project is to examine associations of dietary fibre consumption with the composition of the gut microbiota and gut colonisation by MDROs...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
Michael A Loesche, Kamyar Farahi, Kimberly Capone, Steven Fakharzadeh, Andrew Blauvelt, Kristina Callis Duffin, Samuel E DePrimo, Ernesto J Muñoz-Elías, Carrie Brodmerkel, Bidisha Dasgupta, Marc Chevrier, Kevin Smith, Joseph Horwinski, Amanda Tyldsley, Elizabeth A Grice
Plaque psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory disease primarily affecting the skin, is thought to have a multifactorial etiology, including innate immune system dysregulation, environmental triggers, and genetic susceptibility. We sought to further understand the role of skin microbiota in psoriasis pathogenesis, as well as their response to therapy. We systematically analyzed dynamic microbiota colonizing psoriasis lesions and adjacent nonlesional skin in 114 patients prior to and during ustekinumab treatment in a phase 3b clinical trial...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
A M Okba, S M Saber, A S Abdel-Rehim, M M Amin, D A Mohamed
Background. Studies proposed a link between gut microbiota and airway tract. Objective. Study the diversity and density of gut microbiota in healthy and asthmatic patients. Method. Semi-quantitative stool cultures were performed from fecal samples collected from 80 adult asthmatic patients and 40 healthy individuals. Data on gender, age, dietetic history, clinical examination and investigations as skin prick test and pulmonary function testing were also collected. Results. Lactobacilli were found to be higher among patient group than control group...
May 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Carl J Yeoman, Suzanne L Ishaq, Elena Bichi, Sarah K Olivo, James Lowe, Brian M Aldridge
The impact of maternal microbial influences on the early choreography of the neonatal calf microbiome were investigated. Luminal content and mucosal scraping samples were collected from ten locations in the calf gastrointestinal tract (GIT) over the first 21 days of life, along with postpartum maternal colostrum, udder skin, and vaginal scrapings. Microbiota were found to vary by anatomical location, between the lumen and mucosa at each GIT location, and differentially enriched for maternal vaginal, skin, and colostral microbiota...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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