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skin microbiome and skin microbiota

Fiona B Tamburini, Tessa M Andermann, Ekaterina Tkachenko, Fiona Senchyna, Niaz Banaei, Ami S Bhatt
A comprehensive evaluation of every patient with a bloodstream infection includes an attempt to identify the infectious source. Pathogens can originate from various places, such as the gut microbiota, skin and the external environment. Identifying the definitive origin of an infection would enable precise interventions focused on management of the source1,2 . Unfortunately, hospital infection control practices are often informed by assumptions about the source of various specific pathogens; if these assumptions are incorrect, they lead to interventions that do not decrease pathogen exposure3 ...
October 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
David L A Wood, Nancy Lachner, Jean-Marie Tan, Stephanie Tang, Nicola Angel, Antonia Laino, Richard Linedale, Kim-Anh Lê Cao, Mark Morrison, Ian H Frazer, H Peter Soyer, Philip Hugenholtz
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second-most-common cancer in Australia. The majority of SCCs progress from premalignant actinic keratosis (AK) lesions that form on chronically sun-exposed skin. The role of skin microbiota in this progression is not well understood; therefore, we performed a longitudinal microbiome analysis of AKs and SCCs using a cohort of 13 SCC-prone immunocompetent men. The majority of variability in microbial profiles was attributable to subject, followed by time and lesion type...
October 9, 2018: MBio
Alan M O'Neill, Richard L Gallo
Acne is one of the most common skin diseases worldwide and results in major health care costs and significant morbidity to severely affected individuals. However, the pathophysiology of this disorder is not well understood. Host-microbiome interactions that affect both innate and adaptive immune homeostasis appear to be a central factor in this disease, with recent observations suggesting that the composition and activities of the microbiota in acne is perturbed. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cutibacterium acnes (C...
October 2, 2018: Microbiome
Nathan K Archer, Jay-Hyun Jo, Steven K Lee, Dongwon Kim, Barbara Smith, Roger V Ortines, Yu Wang, Mark C Marchitto, Advaitaa Ravipati, Shuting S Cai, Carly A Dillen, Haiyun Liu, Robert J Miller, Alyssa G Ashbaugh, Angad S Uppal, Michiko Oyoshi, Nidhi Malhotra, Sabine Hoff, Luis A Garza, Heidi H Kong, Julia A Segre, Raif S Geha, Lloyd S Miller
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with epidermal barrier defects, dysbiosis and skin injury from scratching. In particular, the barrier defective epidermis of AD patients with loss-of-function filaggrin mutations has increased IL-1α and IL-1β levels but the mechanisms by which IL-1α and/or IL-1β are induced and whether they contribute to the aberrant skin inflammation in AD is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the mechanisms by which skin injury, dysbiosis and increased epidermal IL-1α and IL-1β contribute to the development of skin inflammation in a mouse model of injury-induced skin inflammation in filaggrin-deficient mice...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Sylvia Brugman, Wakako Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Saskia Braber, Gert Folkerts, Corné M J Pieterse, Peter A H M Bakker
During recent years the impact of microbial communities on the health of their host (being plants, fish, and terrestrial animals including humans) has received increasing attention. The microbiota provides the host with nutrients, induces host immune development and metabolism, and protects the host against invading pathogens (1-6). Through millions of years of co-evolution bacteria and hosts have developed intimate relationships. Microbial colonization shapes the host immune system that in turn can shape the microbial composition (7-9)...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Obed Hernández-Gómez, Jeffrey T Briggler, Rod N Williams
Variation in environmental conditions can result in disparate associations between hosts and microbial symbionts. As such, it is imperative to evaluate how environmental variables (e.g., habitat quality) can influence host-associated microbiome composition. Within wildlife conservation programs, captive conditions can negatively influence the establishment and maintenance of "wild-type" microbiotas within a host. Alternative microbial communities can result in the proliferation of disease among captive stock or upon reintroduction...
September 12, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Rebecca Hooper, Jaelle C Brealey, Tom van der Valk, Antton Alberdi, John W Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Kelly M Robertson, Robin W Baird, M Bradley Hanson, Paul Wade, M Thomas P Gilbert, Phillip A Morin, Jochen B W Wolf, Andrew D Foote, Katerina Guschanski
Recent exploration into the interactions and relationship between hosts and their microbiota has revealed a connection between many aspects of the host's biology, health and associated microorganisms. Whereas amplicon sequencing has traditionally been used to characterise the microbiome, the increasing number of published population genomics datasets offer an underexploited opportunity to study microbial profiles from the host shotgun sequencing data. Here, we use sequence data originally generated from killer whale Orcinus orca skin biopsies for population genomics, to characterise the skin microbiome and investigate how host social and geographic factors influence the microbial community composition...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Hsin-Wen Chang, Di Yan, Rasnik Singh, Jared Liu, Xueyan Lu, Derya Ucmak, Kristina Lee, Ladan Afifi, Douglas Fadrosh, John Leech, Kimberly S Vasquez, Margaret M Lowe, Michael D Rosenblum, Tiffany C Scharschmidt, Susan V Lynch, Wilson Liao
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis impacts 1-3% of the world's population and is characterized by hyper-proliferation of keratinocytes and increased inflammation. At the molecular level, psoriasis is commonly driven by a Th17 response, which serves as a major therapeutic target. Microbiome perturbations have been associated with several immune-mediated diseases such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, and multiple sclerosis. Although a few studies have investigated the association between the skin microbiome and psoriasis, conflicting results have been reported plausibly due to the lack of standardized sampling and profiling protocols, or to inherent microbial variability across human subjects and underpowered studies...
September 5, 2018: Microbiome
Mikael Lenz Strube, Julie Elvekjær Hansen, Sophia Rasmussen, Karl Pedersen
MRSA is an increasing problem in humans as well as livestock. The bacterial co-colonization of the skin in MRSA carriers has been poorly investigated and moreover, there have been no methods for high resolution investigations of the Staphylococcus genus apart from tediously culturing or doing multiple PCRs. On 120 samples from pig ear, skin and nose, we generated amplicons from the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene to gather an overview of the genus-level microbiome, along with using MRSA specific plates to count MRSA...
August 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Molly C Bletz, Moira Kelly, Joana Sabino-Pinto, Emma Bales, Sarah Van Praet, Wim Bert, Filip Boyen, Miguel Vences, Sebastian Steinfartz, Frank Pasmans, An Martel
Escalating occurrences of emerging infectious diseases underscore the importance of understanding microbiome-pathogen interactions. The amphibian cutaneous microbiome is widely studied for its potential to mitigate disease-mediated amphibian declines. Other microbial interactions in this system, however, have been largely neglected in the context of disease outbreaks. European fire salamanders have suffered dramatic population crashes as a result of the newly emerged Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans ( Bsal )...
August 22, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Kang Kang, Yueqiong Ni, Jun Li, Lejla Imamovic, Chinmoy Sarkar, Marie Danielle Kobler, Yoshitaro Heshiki, Tingting Zheng, Sarika Kumari, Jane Ching Yan Wong, Anand Archna, Cheong Wai Martin Wong, Caroline Dingle, Seth Denizen, David Michael Baker, Morten Otto Alexander Sommer, Christopher John Webster, Gianni Panagiotou
The skin functions as the primary interface between the human body and the external environment. To understand how the microbiome varies within urban mass transit and influences the skin microbiota, we profiled the human palm microbiome after contact with handrails within the Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway (MTR) system. Intraday sampling time was identified as the primary determinant of the variation and recurrence of the community composition, whereas human-associated species and clinically important antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were captured as p...
July 31, 2018: Cell Reports
Ava M Vargason, Aaron C Anselmo
Next generation microbe-based therapeutics, inspired by the success of fecal microbiota transplants, are being actively investigated in clinical trials to displace or eliminate pathogenic microbes to treat various diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and vagina. Genetically engineered microbes are also being investigated in the clinic as drug producing factories for biologic delivery, which can provide a constant local source of drugs. In either case, microbe-therapeutics have the opportunity to address unmet clinical needs and open new areas of research by reducing clinical side effects associated with current treatment modalities or by facilitating the delivery of biologics...
May 2018: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
Kavita Beri
Recent advances in our understanding of the function of the skin and its microbiome have shown that there is a strong symbiotic relationship between the microbiota of the skin and its host immune functions. The dysbiosis or imbalance of the microbiome and other factors that have an influence on the surface microbiota can influence keratinocyte regulation and homeostasis as well as the skin barrier function. In this perspective paper, we review the evidence that connects the skin's microbiome and the barrier function of the epidermis and explore the future potential for applying this unique dialogue in developing innovative cosmetics and transdermal drugs for wellbeing and beauty...
July 2018: Future Science OA
Iman Salem, Amy Ramser, Nancy Isham, Mahmoud A Ghannoum
The adult intestine hosts a myriad of diverse bacterial species that reside mostly in the lower gut maintaining a symbiosis with the human habitat. In the current review, we describe the neoteric advancement in our comprehension of how the gut microbiota communicates with the skin as one of the main regulators in the gut-skin axis. We attempted to explore how this potential link affects skin differentiation and keratinization, its influence on modulating the cutaneous immune response in various diseases, and finally how to take advantage of this communication in the control of different skin conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Haitao Chai, Hongmei Jiang, Lu Lin, Lei Liu
In microbiome studies, an important goal is to detect differential abundance of microbes across clinical conditions and treatment options. However, the microbiome compositional data (quantified by relative abundance) are highly skewed, bounded in [0, 1), and often have many zeros. A two-part model is commonly used to separate zeros and positive values explicitly by two submodels: a logistic model for the probability of a specie being present in Part I, and a Beta regression model for the relative abundance conditional on the presence of the specie in Part II...
July 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Tamsyn M Uren Webster, Sofia Consuegra, Matthew Hitchings, Carlos Garcia de Leaniz
The microbiome has a crucial influence on host phenotype and is of broad interest to ecological and evolutionary research. Yet, the extent of variation that occurs in the microbiome within and between populations is unclear. We characterized the skin and gut microbiomes of seven populations of juvenile Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) inhabiting a diverse range of environments, including hatchery-reared and wild populations. We found shared skin operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across all populations and core gut microbiota for all wild fish, but the diversity and structure of both skin and gut microbial communities were distinct between populations...
August 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Lauren Brinkac, Thomas H Clarke, Harinder Singh, Chris Greco, Andres Gomez, Manolito G Torralba, Bryan Frank, Karen E Nelson
The skin is a complex living ecosystem harboring diverse microbial communities. Its highly variable properties and influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors creates unique microenvironments where niche-specific microbes thrive. As part of the skin, hair supports its own microbial habitat that is also intra and inter-personal variable. This little explored substrate has significant potential in forensics microbiome research due to the unique signatures that are available on an individual. To further investigate this, we explored the hair microbiota from scalp and pubic regions in healthy adults to investigate how the hair shaft microenvironment varies microbially...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ashley A Ross, Kirsten M Müller, J Scott Weese, Josh D Neufeld
Skin is the largest organ of the body and represents the primary physical barrier between mammals and their external environment, yet the factors that govern skin microbial community composition among mammals are poorly understood. The objective of this research was to generate a skin microbiota baseline for members of the class Mammalia, testing the effects of host species, geographic location, body region, and biological sex. Skin from the back, torso, and inner thighs of 177 nonhuman mammals was sampled, representing individuals from 38 species and 10 mammalian orders...
June 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hok Bing Thio
Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory immune-mediated skin disease that affects about 2% of the world's population. In 20% of patients with psoriasis, the characteristic skin lesions are accompanied by psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Psoriasis arises in genetically predisposed individuals who have a dysregulated immune response to various environmental factors. The human body is home to many microbial species, and both the skin and the gut microbiome influence the development and function of immune tissue development and function...
June 2018: Journal of Rheumatology. Supplement
Mira Grönroos, Anirudra Parajuli, Olli H Laitinen, Marja I Roslund, Heli K Vari, Heikki Hyöty, Riikka Puhakka, Aki Sinkkonen
Immune-mediated diseases have increased during the last decades in urban environments. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that increased hygiene level and reduced contacts with natural biodiversity are related to the increase in immune-mediated diseases. We tested whether short-time contact with microbiologically diverse nature-based materials immediately change bacterial diversity on human skin. We tested direct skin contact, as two volunteers rubbed their hands with sixteen soil and plant based materials, and an exposure via fabric packets filled with moss material...
May 29, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
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