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Valter D Longo
The identification of conserved genes and pathways that regulate lifespan but also healthspan has resulted in an improved understanding of the link between nutrients, signal transduction proteins, and aging but has also provided evidence for the existence of multiple "longevity programs," which are selected based on the availability of nutrients. Periodic fasting and other dietary restrictions can promote entry into a long-lasting longevity program characterized by cellular protection and optimal function but can also activate regenerative processes that lead to rejuvenation, which are independent of the aging rate preceding the restricted period...
October 17, 2018: Aging Cell
Emily C McGrath, Lisa Woods, Jamaluddin Jompa, Abdul Haris, James J Bell
Describing life history dynamics of functionally important species is critical for successful management. Barrel sponges (Xestospongia spp.) fill ecologically important roles on coral reefs due to their large size and water column interactions. Studies of Caribbean X. muta suggest they may be up to 1000 s of years old. However, nothing is known of barrel sponge growth rates outside the Caribbean. We assessed Indo-Pacific barrel sponge demography with a focus on specific growth rate (SGR), density, and mean volume across four sites of varying habitat quality...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jun-Ting Ren, Mei-Xia Wang, Yi Su, Lu-Ying Tang, Ze-Fang Ren
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) age was found to be an indicator for all-cause mortality, cancer incidence, and longevity, but no study has involved in the associations of DNAm age with the prognosis of breast cancer. METHODS: We retrieved information of 1076 breast cancer patients from Genomic Data Commons (GDC) data portal on March 30, 2017, including breast cancer DNAm profiling, demographic features, clinicopathological parameters, recurrence, and all-cause fatality...
October 17, 2018: BMC Cancer
Qucheng Deng, Lijuan Chen, Yongping Wei, Yonghua Li, Xuerong Han, Wei Liang, Yinjun Zhao, Xiaofei Wang, Juan Yin
The aging population is a big challenge all over the world. However, there are few studies to date investigating the effects of trace element and mineral levels in drinking water and soil (especially in karst areas) on longevity. This study aims to examine temporal and spatial variations in longevity in Hechi (which is recognized as a longevity city) and to investigate relationships between longevity and trace element and mineral levels in drinking water and soils in this city (the karst landscape). Population data were collected from relevant literature and four national population censuses in 1982, 1990, 2000 and 2010...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Edward Ivimey-Cook, Jacob Moorad
Maternal effect senescence has attracted much recent scientific interest. However, the age-related effects of pre- and postnatal maternal age are often conflated, as these naturally originate from the same individual. Additionally, many maternal effect senescence studies fail to account for potential biases associated with selective disappearance. Here we use a cross-fostered laboratory population of a burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, to examine both the effects of female pre- and postnatal maternal age on offspring life-history traits and the postcare outcomes of mothers while accounting for selective disappearance of postnatal caregivers...
November 2018: American Naturalist
Mauricio Yugo de Souza, Rebeca DI Nicoló, Eduardo Bresciani
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the bond longevity of a universal adhesive system to bovine dentin, under different modes of adhesive application and artificial aging. Bovine dentin was exposed, and the smear layer was standardized by sandpaper polishing. Specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups: ethanol (E) and non-ethanol (N). Groups were subdivided according to adhesive mode of application into etch-and-rinse (Er) and self-etching (S). Resin blocks were built onto the treated surface, and the specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 48 h...
October 11, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
Adrian C Williams, Lisa J Hill
To further explore the role of dietary nicotinamide in both brain development and diseases, particularly those of ageing. Articles cover neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Also discussed are the effects of nicotinamide, contained in meat and supplements and derived from symbionts, on the major transitions of disease and fertility from ancient times up to the present day. A key role for the tryptophan - NAD 'de novo' and immune tolerance pathway are discussed at length in the context of fertility and longevity and the transitions from immune paresis to Treg-mediated immune tolerance and then finally to intolerance and their associated diseases...
2018: International Journal of Tryptophan Research: IJTR
Fiona R Hay, Rocel Valdez, Jae-Sung Lee, Pompe C Sta Cruz
The length of time that seed lots maintain their viability and vigour in storage has become a trait of interest for rice and other crop and model species. However, different research groups have taken different approaches to measure this trait, including storing seeds under 'natural ageing', accelerated ageing and controlled deterioration test conditions. There has also been a tendency to only use a single germination test result to assess the relative longevity of different genotypes. Here we explain why we have taken a different approach in our GWAS study of seed longevity in Indica rice, and offer suggestions as to how, moving forward, this trait should be assessed to make it possible to improve the longevity / storability of seeds, depending on the target storage environment...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Iñaki Permanyer, Jeroen Spijker, Amand Blanes, Elisenda Renteria
For a long time, studies of socioeconomic gradients in health have limited their attention to between-group comparisons. Yet, ignoring the differences that might exist within groups and focusing on group-specific life expectancy levels and trends alone, one might arrive at overly simplistic conclusions. Using data from the Spanish Encuesta Sociodemográfica and recently released mortality files by the Spanish Statistical Office (INE), this is the first study to simultaneously document (1) the gradient in life expectancy by educational attainment groups, and (2) the inequality in age-at-death distributions within and across those groups for the period between 1960 and 2015 in Spain...
October 15, 2018: Demography
Dora L Costa, Noelle Yetter, Heather DeSomer
We study whether paternal trauma is transmitted to the children of survivors of Confederate prisoner of war (POW) camps during the US Civil War (1861-1865) to affect their longevity at older ages, the mechanisms behind this transmission, and the reversibility of this transmission. We examine children born after the war who survived to age 45, comparing children whose fathers were non-POW veterans and ex-POWs imprisoned in very different camp conditions. We also compare children born before and after the war within the same family by paternal ex-POW status...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bruce N Ames
It is proposed that proteins/enzymes be classified into two classes according to their essentiality for immediate survival/reproduction and their function in long-term health: that is, survival proteins versus longevity proteins. As proposed by the triage theory, a modest deficiency of one of the nutrients/cofactors triggers a built-in rationing mechanism that favors the proteins needed for immediate survival and reproduction (survival proteins) while sacrificing those needed to protect against future damage (longevity proteins)...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yukino Morikiri, Eri Matsuta, Hideki Inoue
The skin consists mostly of extracellular matrix (ECM) composed mainly of collagen, which provides a protective barrier from the environment. The skin continuously experiences harmful stress and damage. As aging progresses, the expression of various genes declines, and physiological functional deterioration occurs. The reduction of collagen accompanying aging impairs the barrier function of the skin and weakens protection from stressors. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, ECM proteins turn over during aging...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Maxime M Bos, Raymond Noordam, Gerard J Blauw, P Eline Slagboom, Patrick C N Rensen, Diana van Heemst
Candidate gene studies and genome-wide association studies found that genetic variation in APOE is robustly associated with multiple age-related diseases and longevity. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is an apolipoprotein that plays an important role in triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism. In literature, especially the ApoE ɛ4 isoform has been associated with an increased risk of mortality and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as compared to the "neutral" ApoE ɛ3 isoform...
October 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Yan Ping Lim, Maybelle K Go, Manfred Raida, Takao Inoue, Markus R Wenk, Jay D Keasling, Matthew W Chang, Wen Shan Yew
Caloric restriction (CR) is an intervention that can increase maximal lifespan in organisms, but its application to humans remains challenging. A more feasible approach to achieve lifespan extension is to develop CR mimetics that target biochemical pathways affected by CR. Recent studies in the engineering and structural characterization of polyketide synthases (PKSs) have facilitated their use as biocatalysts to produce novel polyketides. Here, we show that by establishing a combinatorial biosynthetic route in Escherichia coli and exploring the substrate promiscuity of a mutant PKS from alfalfa, 413 potential anti-ageing polyketides were biosynthesized...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Anne Vinkel Hansen, Laust Hvas Mortensen, Rudi Westendorp
While existing research on regions with high prevalence of centenarians has focused on selected candidate geographical regions, we explore the existence of hotspots in the whole of Denmark.We performed a Kulldorff spatial scan, searching for regions of birth, and of residence at age 71, where an increased percentage of the cohort born 1906-1915 became centenarians. We then compared mortality hazards for these regions to the rest of the country.We found a birth hotspot of 222 centenarians, 1.37 times more than expected, centered on a group of rural islands...
October 13, 2018: Aging
Jack Sullivan, Leda Mirbahai, Janet M Lord
It is well established that numerous factors can affect the rate at which we age biologically. Diet, physical activity, lifestyle and our genes all play a major role in influencing the ageing trajectory and longevity. Major trauma affects millions globally, is the major cause of death in young adults and could influence ageing processes but has largely been ignored by biogenterologists. The long-term health consequences of physical trauma are well known in the medical community, how trauma effects the ageing process at a molecular level is not...
October 11, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Katharina Papsdorf, Anne Brunet
The lifespan of an organism is strongly influenced by environmental factors (including diet) and by internal factors (notably reproductive status). Lipid metabolism is critical for adaptation to external conditions or reproduction. Interestingly, specific lipid profiles are associated with longevity, and increased uptake of certain lipids extends longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans and ameliorates disease phenotypes in humans. How lipids impact longevity, and how lipid metabolism is regulated during aging, is just beginning to be unraveled...
October 10, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
Hong Zhu, Zeng Wang, Zhen Dong, Cong Wang, Quan Cao, Fan Fan, Jingjing Zhao, Xiangwei Liu, Meng Yuan, Xiaolei Sun, Xiuhua Peng, Yunzeng Zou, Jingmin Zhou, Junbo Ge, Xiaohui Zhou, Yingmei Zhang
Previous evidence has indicated a beneficial role for aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in suppressing atherosclerotic plaque progression and instability. However, the underlying mechanism remains somewhat elusive. This study was designed to examine the effect of ALDH2 deficiency on cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerotic plaque progression and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis-prone ApoE knockout (ApoE-/- ) mice with a focus on foam cell formation in macrophages and senescence of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs)...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Henrico Badaoui Strazzi Sahyon, Afonso Chimanski, Humberto Naoyuki Yoshimura, Paulo Henrique Dos Santos
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The color stability and mechanical properties of luting agents influence the esthetics and longevity of ceramic restorations. However, studies evaluating the color changes and mechanical properties of luting agents under ceramic laminates activated by using different methods are lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of different modes of photoactivation on the nanohardness and elastic modulus of resin cements and dental adhesives and on the color stability of ceramic laminate veneers...
October 2018: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Tiantian Li, Yi Zhang, Jiaonan Wang, Dandan Xu, Zhaoxue Yin, Huashuai Chen, Yuebin Lv, Jiesi Luo, Yi Zeng, Yang Liu, Patrick L Kinney, Xiaoming Shi
BACKGROUND: Evidence from cohort studies in North America and Europe indicates that long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2·5 ) is associated with an increased mortality risk. However, this association has rarely been quantified at higher ambient concentrations. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality from long-term exposure to PM2·5 in a well established Chinese cohort of older adults. METHODS: The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) is a prospective cohort study of men and women aged 65 years and older enrolled in 2008 and followed up through 2014 for mortality events...
October 2018: Lancet. Public Health
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