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Saya Kishimoto, Masaharu Uno, Eisuke Nishida
Throughout life, organisms are subjected to a variety of environmental perturbations, including temperature, nutrient conditions, and chemical agents. Exposure to external signals induces diverse changes in the physiological conditions of organisms. Genetically identical individuals exhibit highly phenotypic variations, which suggest that environmental variations among individuals can affect their phenotypes in a cumulative and inhomogeneous manner. The organismal phenotypes mediated by environmental conditions involve development, metabolic pathways, fertility, pathological processes, and even lifespan...
2018: Inflammation and Regeneration
Hal Caswell, Charlotte de Vries, Nienke Hartemink, Gregory Roth, Silke F van Daalen
This paper presents a comprehensive theory for the demographic analysis of populations in which individuals are classified by both age and stage. The earliest demographic models were age classified. Ecologists adopted methods developed by human demographers and used life tables to quantify survivorship and fertility of cohorts and the growth rates and structures of populations. Later, motivated by studies of plants and insects, matrix population models structured by size or stage were developed. The theory of these models has been extended to cover all the aspects of age-classified demography and more...
November 2018: Ecological Monographs
Surabhi Singh, Bodhisatta Nandy, Madhu G Tapadia
Formulations from the traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, have long been considered to have potent life-style enhancing effects, possibly by their effect(s) on key life-history attributes. Although several studies have reported beneficial effects of these formulations on different components of life history, few have investigated their concurrent influence on various life-history traits. Here, we report the results of an investigation showing the effect of two well-known Ayurvedic formulations, Guduchi and Madhuyashti , on fecundity and longevity of Drosophila melanogaster ...
December 2018: Journal of Genetics
Elżbieta Olczak, Alina Kuryłowicz, Zofia Wicik, Paulina Kolodziej, Marta Cakala-Jakimowicz, Olga Buyanovskaya, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
INTRODUCTION: Polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) may modify protein abundance or function and therefore disturb human homeostasis. METHODS: Variant frequencies of the three NR3C1 polymorphisms, rs2963154, rs10515522 and rs2918418, selected in silico as associated with longevity, was analyzed in 552 DNA samples from 95 to 106-year-old individuals and in 284 samples of cord blood DNA from newborns. RESULTS: Frequencies of the TT genotypes of rs2963154 and rs10515522, and of the rs291841 CC genotype, were higher in the long-lived study subjects (p = 0...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Brandon H Toyama, Rafael Arrojo E Drigo, Varda Lev-Ram, Ranjan Ramachandra, Thomas J Deerinck, Claude Lechene, Mark H Ellisman, Martin W Hetzer
Many adult tissues contain postmitotic cells as old as the host organism. The only organelle that does not turn over in these cells is the nucleus, and its maintenance represents a formidable challenge, as it harbors regulatory proteins that persist throughout adulthood. Here we developed strategies to visualize two classes of such long-lived proteins, histones and nucleoporins, to understand the function of protein longevity in nuclear maintenance. Genome-wide mapping of histones revealed specific enrichment of long-lived variants at silent gene loci...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Francesco Landi, Riccardo Calvani, Anna Picca, Matteo Tosato, Anna Maria Martone, Elena Ortolani, Alex Sisto, Emanuela D'Angelo, Elisabetta Serafini, Giovambattista Desideri, Maria Tecla Fuga, Emanuele Marzetti
The present study was undertaken to provide a better insight into the relationship between different levels of body mass index (BMI) and changing risk for hypertension, using an unselected sample of participants assessed during the Longevity Check-up 7+ (Lookup7+) project. Lookup7+ is an ongoing cross-sectional survey started in June 2015 and conducted in unconventional settings (i.e., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns) across Italy. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent...
December 13, 2018: Nutrients
Gerold Stucki, Jerome Bickenbach, Walter Frontera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Mikołaj Michno, Antoni Sydor, Marta Wałaszek, Władysław Sułowicz
A retrospective study was conducted among 498 patients with urinary tract infections (UTI) referred to our department from January 2013 to December 2015. This study was performed to evaluate the etiology of UTI and the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) as the main etiological factor in different age groups. Urine samples were examined using standard microbiological methods. Three hundred sixty-three samples (72.9%) were identified as E. coli , of which 29 (8.0%) can produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)...
2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Sarah M Neuner, Shengyuan Ding, Catherine C Kaczorowski
Identifying genetic factors that modify an individual's susceptibility to cognitive decline in aging is critical to understanding biological processes involved and mitigating risk associated with a number of age-related disorders. Recently, heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (Hp1bp3) was identified as a mediator of cognitive aging. Here, we provide a mechanistic explanation for these findings and show that targeted knockdown of Hp1bp3 in the hippocampus by 50%-75% is sufficient to induce cognitive deficits and transcriptional changes reminiscent of those observed in aging and Alzheimer's disease brains...
December 13, 2018: Aging Cell
Tracy L Habermehl, Kate C Parkinson, Gene B Hubbard, Yuji Ikeno, Jennifer I Engelmeyer, Björn Schumacher, Jeffrey B Mason
Cardiovascular disease, rare in premenopausal women, increases sharply at menopause and is typically accompanied by chronic inflammation. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that replacing senescent ovaries in post-reproductive mice with young, actively cycling ovaries restored many health benefits, including decreased cardiomyopathy and restoration of immune function. Our objective here was to determine if depletion of germ cells from young transplanted ovaries would alter the ovarian-dependent extension of life and health span...
December 13, 2018: GeroScience
Robert J Pignolo
Exceptional longevity represents an extreme phenotype. Current centenarians are survivors of a cohort who display delayed onset of age-related diseases and/or resistance to otherwise lethal illnesses occurring earlier in life. Characteristics of aging are heterogeneous, even among long-lived individuals. Associations between specific clinical or genetic biomarkers exist, but there is unlikely to be a single biomarker predictive of long life. Careful observations in the oldest old offer some empirical strategies that favor increased health span and life span, with implications for compression of disability, identification and implementation of lifestyle behaviors that promote independence, identification and measurement of more reliable markers associated with longevity, better guidance for appropriate health screenings, and promotion of anticipatory health discussions in the setting of more accurate prognostication...
December 6, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
EunJin Bang, Bonggi Lee, Sang-Gyun Noh, Dae Hyun Kim, Hee Jin Jung, Sugyeong Ha, Byung Pal Yu, Hae Young Chung
Aging is a complex and progressive process characterized by physiological and functional decline with time that increases susceptibility to diseases. Aged-related functional change is accompanied by a low-grade, unresolved chronic inflammation as a major underlying mechanism. In order to explain aging in the context of chronic inflammation, a new integrative concept on age-related chronic inflammation is necessary that encompasses much broader and wider characteristics of cells, tissues, organs, systems, and interactions between immune and non-immune cells, metabolic and non-metabolic organs...
December 14, 2018: BMB Reports
Andrzej Bartke, Nana Quainoo
Mutations of a single gene can lead to a major increase in longevity in organisms ranging from yeast and worms to insects and mammals. Discovering these mutations (sometimes referred to as "longevity genes") led to identification of evolutionarily conserved molecular, cellular, and organismal mechanisms of aging. Studies in mice provided evidence for the important role of growth hormone (GH) signaling in mammalian aging. Mice with mutations or gene deletions leading to GH deficiency or GH resistance have reduced body size and delayed maturation, but are healthier and more resistant to stress, age slower, and live longer than their normal (wild type) siblings...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Chunhong Li, Dan Mo, Meiqin Li, Yanyan Zheng, Qiao Li, Shiyan Ou, Zhiyong Zhang
Human lifespan is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Potential longevity genes are neither specific nor reproducible, and longevity-related genes are constantly confused with age-related genes. To distinguish specific age- and longevity-related genes, we analyzed a Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) dataset established by the Leiden Longevity Study. The individuals were classified into longevity (mean age, 93.4 ± 3.0 years), longevity offspring (60.8 ± 6.1) and control (61.9 ± 6.9) groups. The series matrix files were downloaded, and average expression values were calculated...
December 11, 2018: Genes & Genetic Systems
Pariya L Fazeli, Jessica L Montoya, Chastity N McDavid, David J Moore
Background and Objective: As HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals age, there is a need to understand successful aging (SA) from the patient perspective. This study compared SA definitions between HIV+ and HIV-uninfected (HIV-) older adults and then examined correlates of SA categories. Research Design and Methods: Ninety-three HIV+ and 46 HIV- older (aged 50+) adults provided brief definitions of SA, which was examined using content analysis. We then compared the frequency of SA categories by serostatus and examined the correlates of SA categories within both groups...
December 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Christopher M Todd, David A Westcott, Karrie Rose, John M Martin, Justin A Welbergen
Flying foxes (family Pteropodidae) have distinct life histories given their size, characterized by longevity, low reproductive output, and long gestation. However, they tend to decouple the age at which sexual maturity is reached from the age at which they reach adult dimensions. We examined growth, maturation, and reproduction in the Critically Endangered Christmas Island flying fox ( Pteropus natalis ) to determine the timing of sex-specific life cycle events and patterns of growth. We estimated that juvenile growth in forearm length and body mass increased at a mean rate of 0...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
Andrew D Pucker, Lisa A Jones-Jordan, Sebastian Marx, Daniel R Powell, Justin T Kwan, Sruthi Srinivasan, Wolfgang Sickenberger, Lyndon Jones
PURPOSE: Contact lens (CL) dropout is estimated to be approximately equal to the number of new wearers per year, resulting in virtually no growth in the global CL market. The purpose of this study was to determine ocular and CL factors associated with CL dropout. METHODS: This five-site study recruited subjects 18-45 years of age who had ceased CL wear within the past 6-12 months due to discomfort. Dropout subjects were compared to age- and sex-matched currently successful CL wearers...
December 8, 2018: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
Eleni N Tsakiri, Sentiljana Gumeni, Kalliopi K Iliaki, Dimitra Benaki, Konstantinos Vougas, Gerasimos P Sykiotis, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, Emmanuel Mikros, Luca Scorrano, Ioannis P Trougakos
Metazoans viability depends on their ability to regulate metabolic processes and also to respond to harmful challenges by mounting anti-stress responses; these adaptations were fundamental forces during evolution. Central to anti-stress responses are a number of short-lived transcription factors that by functioning as stress sensors mobilize genomic responses aiming to eliminate stressors. We show here that increased expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in Drosophila activated cytoprotective modules and enhanced stress tolerance...
December 10, 2018: Aging Cell
Mukesh K Dhillon, Aditya K Tanwar, Fazil Hasan
We investigated the effects of mating among different-aged males and females on reproductive physiology, progeny production, and longevity of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) adults under laboratory conditions. Present studies involved virgin males (M) and females (F) of three different ages namely, on the day of emergence (1D), next day (2D), and further next day (3D), thus comprising of a total of nine mating treatments (1DM × 1DF, 1DM × 2DF, 1DM × 3DF, 2DM × 1DF, 2DM × 2DF, 2DM × 3DF, 3DM × 1DF, 3DM × 2DF, and 3DM × 3DF)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Katsuyoshi Matsunami
Caenorhabditis elegans has been used in research for years to clarify the genetic cascades and molecular mechanisms of aging, longevity, and health span. Health span is closely related to frailty; however, frailty has a different concept and is evaluated using various parameters in humans, such as Fried's Frailty Criteria. The C. elegans model has several advantages when performing a chemical screen to identify drug candidates. Several mouse models of frailty were recently developed, including a homozygous IL-10 knockout...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
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