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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046833/functional-connectivities-in-the-brain-that-mediate-the-association-between-depressive-problems-and-sleep-quality
#1
Wei Cheng, Edmund T Rolls, Hongtao Ruan, Jianfeng Feng
Importance: Depression is associated with poor sleep quality. Understanding the neural connectivity that underlies both conditions and mediates the association between them is likely to lead to better-directed treatments for depression and associated sleep problems. Objective: To identify the brain areas that mediate the association of depressive symptoms with poor sleep quality and advance understanding of the differences in brain connectivity in depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study collected data from participants in the Human Connectome Project using the Adult Self-report of Depressive Problems portion of the Achenbach Adult Self-Report for Ages 18-59, a survey of self-reported sleep quality, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging...
July 25, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043099/functional-connectivity-based-modelling-simulates-subject-specific-network-spreading-effects-of-focal-brain-stimulation
#2
Xiaoyu Chen, Chencheng Zhang, Yuxin Li, Pei Huang, Qian Lv, Wenwen Yu, Shengdi Chen, Bomin Sun, Zheng Wang
Neurostimulation remarkably alleviates the symptoms in a variety of brain disorders by modulating the brain-wide network. However, how brain-wide effects on the direct and indirect pathways evoked by focal neurostimulation elicit therapeutic effects in an individual patient is unknown. Understanding this remains crucial for advancing neural circuit-based guidance to optimize candidate patient screening, pre-surgical target selection, and post-surgical parameter tuning. To address this issue, we propose a functional brain connectome-based modeling approach that simulates the spreading effects of stimulating different brain regions and quantifies the rectification of abnormal network topology in silico...
July 24, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012686/abnormal-low-frequency-oscillations-reflect-trait-like-pain-ratings-in-chronic-pain-patients-revealed-through-a-machine-learning-approach
#3
Anton Rogachov, Joshua C Cheng, Kasey S Hemington, Rachael L Bosma, Junseok Kim, Natalie R Osborne, Robert D Inman, Karen D Davis
Measures of moment-to-moment fluctuations in brain activity of an individual at rest has been shown to be a sensitive and reliable metric for studying pathological brain mechanisms across various chronic pain patient populations. However, the relationship between pathological brain activity and clinical symptoms are not well defined. Therefore, we used regional BOLD signal variability/amplitude of low-frequency oscillations (LFO) to identify functional brain abnormalities in the dynamic pain connectome in chronic pain patients that are related to chronic pain characteristics (i...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29994989/dynamic-pain-connectome-functional-connectivity-and-oscillations-reflect-multiple-sclerosis-pain
#4
R L Bosma, J A Kim, J C Cheng, A Rogachov, K S Hemington, N R Osborne, J Oh, K D Davis
Pain is a prevalent and debilitating symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet the mechanisms underlying this pain are unknown. Previous studies have found that the functional relationships between the salience network, specifically the right temporoparietal junction a salience node (SN), and other components of the dynamic pain connectome (default mode (DMN), ascending and descending pathways) are abnormal in many chronic pain conditions. Here we use resting state fMRI and measures of static and dynamic functional connectivity (sFC, dFC), and regional BOLD variability to test the hypothesis that MS patients have abnormal DMN-SN cross-network sFC, SN-ascending and SN-descending pathways dFC, and disrupted BOLD variability in the dynamic pain connectome that relate to pain inference and neuropathic pain...
July 2, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982424/localizing-parkinsonism-based-on-focal-brain-lesions
#5
Juho Joutsa, Andreas Horn, Joey Hsu, Michael D Fox
Bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor frequently co-occur, a clinical syndrome known as parkinsonism. Because this syndrome is commonly seen in Parkinson's disease, symptoms are often attributed to cell loss in the substantia nigra. However, parkinsonism occurs in several other neurological disorders and often fails to correlate with nigrostriatal pathology, raising the question of which brain region(s) cause this syndrome. Here, we studied cases of new-onset parkinsonism following focal brain lesions. We identified 29 cases, only 31% of which hit the substantia nigra...
July 2, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29930726/rich-club-disturbances-of-the-human-connectome-from-subjective-cognitive-decline-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Tianyi Yan, Wenhui Wang, Liu Yang, Kewei Chen, Rong Chen, Ying Han
Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a preclinical phase that can last for decades prior to clinical dementia onset. Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is regarded as the last preclinical AD stage prior to the development of amnestic mild cognitive decline (aMCI) and AD dementia (d-AD). The analysis of brain structural networks based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has identified the so-called 'rich club', a set of cortical regions highly connected to each other, with other regions referred to as peripheral. It has been reported that rich club architecture is affected by regional atrophy and connectivity, which are reduced in patients with aMCI and d-AD...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877178/white-matter-network-alterations-in-patients-with-depersonalization-derealization-disorder
#7
Anika Sierk, Judith K Daniels, Antje Manthey, Jelmer G Kok, Alexander Leemans, Michael Gaebler, Jan-Peter Lamke, Johann Kruschwitz, Henrik Walter
BACKGROUND: Depersonalization/derealization disorder (DPD) is a chronic and distressing condition characterized by detachment from oneself and/or the external world. Neuroimaging studies have associated DPD with structural and functional alterations in a variety of distinct brain regions. Such local neuronal changes might be mediated by altered interregional white matter connections. However, to our knowledge, no research on network characteristics in this patient population exists to date...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875643/animal-models-for-coffin-lowry-syndrome-rsk2-and-nervous-system-dysfunction
#8
REVIEW
Matthias Fischer, Thomas Raabe
Loss of function mutations in the rsk2 gene cause Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS), which is associated with multiple symptoms including severe mental disabilities. Despite the characterization of ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) as a protein kinase acting as a downstream effector of the well characterized ERK MAP-kinase signaling pathway, it turns out to be a challenging task to link RSK2 to specific neuronal processes dysregulated in case of mutation. Animal models such as mouse and Drosophila combine advanced genetic manipulation tools with in vivo imaging techniques, high-resolution connectome analysis and a variety of behavioral assays, thereby allowing for an in-depth analysis for gene functions in the nervous system...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779670/a-connectome-wide-functional-signature-of-transdiagnostic-risk-for-mental-illness
#9
Maxwell L Elliott, Adrienne Romer, Annchen R Knodt, Ahmad R Hariri
BACKGROUND: High rates of comorbidity, shared risk, and overlapping therapeutic mechanisms have led psychopathology research toward transdiagnostic dimensional investigations of clustered symptoms. One influential framework accounts for these transdiagnostic phenomena through a single general factor, sometimes referred to as the "p" factor, associated with risk for all common forms of mental illness. METHODS: We build on previous research identifying unique structural neural correlates of the p factor by conducting a data-driven analysis of connectome-wide intrinsic functional connectivity (n = 605)...
April 10, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733955/structural-and-functional-connectivity-of-the-nondecussating-dentato-rubro-thalamic-tract
#10
Kalen J Petersen, Jacqueline A Reid, Srijata Chakravorti, Meher R Juttukonda, Giulia Franco, Paula Trujillo, Adam J Stark, Benoit M Dawant, Manus J Donahue, Daniel O Claassen
The dentato-rubro-thalamic tract (DRTT) regulates motor control, connecting the cerebellum to the thalamus. This tract is modulated by deep-brain stimulation in the surgical treatment of medically refractory tremor, especially in essential tremor, where high-frequency stimulation of the thalamus can improve symptoms. The DRTT is classically described as a decussating pathway, ascending to the contralateral thalamus. However, the existence of a nondecussating (i.e. ipsilateral) DRTT in humans was recently demonstrated, and these tracts are arranged in distinct regions of the superior cerebellar peduncle...
August 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616302/alterations-in-white-matter-network-topology-contribute-to-freezing-of-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease
#11
Julie M Hall, James M Shine, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Moran Gilat, Kathryn M Broadhouse, Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Courtney C Walton, Ahmed A Moustafa, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common symptom in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite current advances, the neural mechanisms underpinning this disturbance remain poorly understood. To this end, we investigated the structural organisation of the white matter connectome in PD freezers and PD non-freezers. We hypothesized that freezers would show an altered network architecture, which could hinder the effective information processing that characterizes the disorder. Twenty-six freezers and twenty-four well-matched non-freezers were included in this study...
June 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588051/data-driven-subtyping-of-executive-function-related-behavioral-problems-in-children
#12
Joe Bathelt, Joni Holmes, Duncan E Astle
OBJECTIVE: Executive functions (EF) are cognitive skills that are important for regulating behavior and for achieving goals. Executive function deficits are common in children who struggle in school and are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. However, there is also considerable heterogeneity across children, even within diagnostic categories. This study took a data-driven approach to identify distinct clusters of children with common profiles of EF-related difficulties, and then identified patterns of brain organization that distinguish these data-driven groups...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560308/connectomic-markers-of-symptom-severity-in-sport-related-concussion-whole-brain-analysis-of-resting-state-fmri
#13
Nathan W Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, Simon J Graham, Tom A Schweizer
Concussion is associated with significant adverse effects within the first week post-injury, including physical complaints and altered cognition, sleep and mood. It is currently unknown whether these subjective disturbances have reliable functional brain correlates. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been used to measure functional connectivity of individuals after traumatic brain injury, but less is known about the relationship between functional connectivity and symptom assessments after a sport concussion...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541539/the-crossed-frontal-aslant-tract-a-possible-pathway-involved-in-the-recovery-of-supplementary-motor-area-syndrome
#14
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527476/connectome-wide-investigation-of-altered-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-war-veterans-with-and-without-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#15
Masaya Misaki, Raquel Phillips, Vadim Zotev, Chung-Ki Wong, Brent E Wurfel, Frank Krueger, Matthew Feldner, Jerzy Bodurka
Altered resting-state functional connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests neuropathology of the disorder. While seed-based fMRI connectivity analysis is often used for the studies, such analysis requires defining a seed location a priori , which restricts search scope and could bias findings toward presupposed areas. Recently, a comprehensive exploratory voxel-wise connectivity analysis, the connectome-wide association approach, has been introduced using multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) for resting-state functional connectivity analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405353/congenital-myasthenic-syndromes-with-acetylcholinesterase-deficiency-the-pathophysiological-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Claire Legay
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a cholinergic synapse in vertebrates. This synapse connects motoneurons to muscles and is responsible for muscle contraction, a physiological process that is essential for survival. A key factor for the normal functioning of this synapse is the regulation of acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the synaptic cleft. This is ensured by acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which degrades ACh. A number of mutations in synaptic genes expressed in motoneurons or muscle cells have been identified and are causative for a class of neuromuscular diseases called congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMSs)...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383446/the-neurobiology-of-impulse-control-disorders-in-parkinson-s-disease-from-neurotransmitters-to-neural-networks
#17
REVIEW
Chris Vriend
Impulse control disorders (ICD) are common neuropsychiatric disorders that can arise in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients after commencing dopamine replacement therapy. Approximately 15% of all patients develop these disorders and many more exhibit subclinical symptoms of impulsivity. ICD is thought to develop due to an interaction between the use of dopaminergic medication and an as yet unknown neurobiological vulnerability that either pre-existed before PD onset (possibly genetic) or is associated with neural alterations due to the PD pathology...
July 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249951/diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-reveals-disrupted-white-matter-structural-connectivity-network-in-healthy-adults-with-insomnia-symptoms
#18
Feng-Mei Lu, Jing Dai, Tania A Couto, Chun-Hong Liu, Heng Chen, Shun-Li Lu, Li-Rong Tang, Chang-Le Tie, Hua-Fu Chen, Man-Xi He, Yu-Tao Xiang, Zhen Yuan
Neuroimaging studies have revealed that insomnia is characterized by aberrant neuronal connectivity in specific brain regions, but the topological disruptions in the white matter (WM) structural connectivity networks remain largely unknown in insomnia. The current study uses diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to construct the WM structural networks and graph theory analysis to detect alterations of the brain structural networks. The study participants comprised 30 healthy subjects with insomnia symptoms (IS) and 62 healthy subjects without IS...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122723/the-neuronal-network-involved-in-self-attribution-of-an-artificial-hand-a-lesion-network-symptom-mapping-study
#19
Max Wawrzyniak, Julian Klingbeil, Daniel Zeller, Dorothee Saur, Joseph Classen
The feeling of body-ownership can be experimentally manipulated using the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. Participants experience a sense of ownership over an artificial hand when their hidden real hand and the visible artificial hand are synchronously stroked. Using lesion masks and behavioral data from a previous study on RHI failure in acute stroke patients, we here employed lesion network-symptom-mapping (LNSM) based on normative functional connectome data to identify lesion-dependent network connectivity related to the experience of self-attribution of an artificial hand in the RHI paradigm...
February 1, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109969/mapping-language-networks-using-the-structural-and-dynamic-brain-connectomes
#20
John Del Gaizo, Julius Fridriksson, Grigori Yourganov, Argye E Hillis, Gregory Hickok, Bratislav Misic, Chris Rorden, Leonardo Bonilha
Lesion-symptom mapping is often employed to define brain structures that are crucial for human behavior. Even though poststroke deficits result from gray matter damage as well as secondary white matter loss, the impact of structural disconnection is overlooked by conventional lesion-symptom mapping because it does not measure loss of connectivity beyond the stroke lesion. This study describes how traditional lesion mapping can be combined with structural connectome lesion symptom mapping (CLSM) and connectome dynamics lesion symptom mapping (CDLSM) to relate residual white matter networks to behavior...
September 2017: ENeuro
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