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lithium dendrites

Fencheng Liu, Xiaoguang Wang, Baosheng Zhou, Chunping Huang, Feiyue Lyu
Alloy sheets of type 2060 aluminum⁻lithium were welded by laser beam welding (LBW) filled with ER2319 Al-5.6Cu wire. Microstructural observations showed the uneven distribution of columnar grains, equiaxed grains and equiaxed dendrite grains in the weld. The θ'(Al₂Cu) phase and other phases precipitated in the weld. The θ'(Al₂Cu) phase centrally distributed at the grain boundaries. During the immersion corrosion, the pitting corrosion first occurred and then gradually expanded and transformed to intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion...
October 15, 2018: Materials
Yan Jin, Lin Zhou, Jianyu Yu, Jie Liang, Wenshan Cai, Huigang Zhang, Shining Zhu, Jia Zhu
The recent renaissance of lithium metal batteries as promising energy storage devices calls for in operando monitoring and control of electrochemical evolution of lithium metal morphologies. While the development of plasmonics has led to significant advancement in real-time and ultrasensitive chemical and biological sensing and surface-enhanced spectroscopies, alkali metals featured by ideal free electron gas models have long been regarded as promising plasmonic materials but seldom been explored due to their high chemical reactivity...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Feng-Quan Liu, Wen-Peng Wang, Ya-Xia Yin, Shuai-Feng Zhang, Ji-Lei Shi, Lu Wang, Xu-Dong Zhang, Yue Zheng, Jian-Jun Zhou, Lin Li, Yu-Guo Guo
High-energy lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are expected to play important roles in the next-generation energy storage systems. However, the uncontrolled Li dendrite growth in liquid electrolytes still impedes LMBs from authentic commercialization. Upgrading the traditional electrolyte system from liquid to solid and quasi-solid has therefore become a key issue for prospective LMBs. From this premise, it is particularly urgent to exploit facile strategies to accomplish this goal. We report that commercialized liquid electrolyte can be easily converted into a novel quasi-solid gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) via a simple and efficient in situ gelation strategy, which, in essence, is to use LiPF6 to induce the cationic polymerization of the ether-based 1,3-dioxolane and 1,2-dimethoxyethane liquid electrolyte under ambient temperature...
October 2018: Science Advances
Jianwen Liang, Xiaona Li, Yang Zhao, Lyudmila V Goncharova, Gongming Wang, Keegan R Adair, Changhong Wang, Ruying Li, Yongchun Zhu, Yitai Qian, Li Zhang, Rong Yang, Shigang Lu, Xueliang Sun
A thin and adjustable Li3 PS4 (LPS) solid-state electrolyte protection layer on the surface of Li is proposed to address the dynamic plating/stripping process of Li metal. The LPS interlayer is formed by an in situ and self-limiting reaction between P4 S16 and Li in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone. By increasing the concentration of P4 S16 , the thickness of the LPS layer can be adjusted up to 60 nm. Due to the high ionic conductivity and low electrochemical activity of Li3 PS4 , the intimate protection layer of LPS can not only prevent the formation of Li dendrites, but also reduces parasitic side reactions and improves the electrochemical performance...
October 1, 2018: Advanced Materials
Chong Yan, Xin-Bing Cheng, Yu-Xing Yao, Xin Shen, Bo-Quan Li, Wen-Jun Li, Rui Zhang, Jia-Qi Huang, Hong Li, Qiang Zhang
Lithium-metal electrodes have undergone a comprehensive renaissance to meet the requirements of high-energy-density batteries due to their lowest electrode potential and the very high theoretical capacity. Unfortunately, the unstable interface between lithium and nonaqueous electrolyte induces dendritic Li and low Coulombic efficiency during repeated Li plating/stripping, which is one of the huge obstacles toward practical lithium-metal batteries. Here, a composite mixed ionic/electronic conductor interphase (MCI) is formed on the surface of Li by in situ chemical reactions of a copper-fluoride-based solution and Li metal at room temperature...
September 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
Arvid Niemöller, Peter Jakes, Rüdiger-A Eichel, Josef Granwehr
Conduction Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (CEPRI) is presented as a sensitive technique for mapping metallic lithium species. The method is demonstrated using different samples that are either thick or thin compared to the microwave skin depth. As a thin sample, microstructured metallic lithium deposits in a lithium-ion battery (LIB) separator were analysed, illustrating the capabilities of CEPRI by obtaining a high-resolution image with an image resolution in the micrometre range. Limitations and intricacies of the method due to non-linear effects caused by the skin effect are discussed based on images of surface patterns on thick metallic lithium samples...
September 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Fan, Nian-Wu Li, Xiuling Zhang, Shuyu Zhao, Ran Cao, Yingying Yin, Yi Xing, Jiaona Wang, Yu-Guo Guo, Congju Li
Lithium metal batteries show great potential in energy storage because of their high energy density. Nevertheless, building a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and restraining the dendrite growth are difficult to realize with traditional liquid electrolytes. Solid and gel electrolytes are considered promising candidates to restrain the dendrites growth, while they are still limited by low ionic conductivity and incompatible interphases. Herein, a dual-salt (LiTFSI-LiPF6 ) gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) with 3D cross-linked polymer network is designed to address these issues...
September 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Ling Fan, Suhua Chen, Jingyi Zhu, Ruifang Ma, Shuping Li, Ramakrishna Podila, Apparao M Rao, Gongzheng Yang, Chengxin Wang, Qian Liu, Zhi Xu, Lixia Yuan, Yunhui Huang, Bingan Lu
Although the reversible and inexpensive energy storage characteristics of the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery have made it a promising candidate for electrical energy storage, the dendrite growth (anode) and shuttle effect (cathode) hinder its practical application. Here, it is shown that new electrolytes for Li-S batteries promote the simultaneous formation of bilateral solid electrolyte interfaces on the sulfur-host cathode and lithium anode, thus effectively suppressing the shuttle effect and dendrite growth...
September 2018: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Pan Xue, Shuiren Liu, Xinlei Shi, Chuang Sun, Chao Lai, Ying Zhou, Dong Sui, Yongsheng Chen, Jiajie Liang
Metallic lithium (Li) is a promising anode for next-generation high-energy-density batteries, but its applications are still hampered due to the limited charging/discharging rate and poor cycling performance. Here, a hierarchical 3D porous architecture is designed with a binary network of continuous silver nanowires assembled on an interconnected 3D graphene skeleton as the host for Li-metal composite anodes, which offers a significant boost in both charging/discharging rates and long-term cycling performance for Li-metal batteries...
September 24, 2018: Advanced Materials
XiaoHui Zhou, WuJun Huang, ChenGuang Shi, Kang Wang, Rui Zhang, JinCheng Guo, YanFen Wen, ShaoJian Zhang, Qiong Wang, Ling Huang, JunTao Li, XiaoDong Zhou, ShiGang Sun
Suppressing the formation of lithium (Li) dendrites is central to implementing Li-metal anode, which has gained growing attention due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and low redox potential. Here, a novel approach is adopted to deposit Li-metal within a rigid three-dimensional (3D) carbon paper (3DCP) network, which consists of a cross-link framework of carbon fibers and graphene nanosheets (GNs). This unique structure yields a uniform distribution of Li-nuclei during the preliminary stage of Li-plating and the formation of a stable solid-electrolyte interface...
October 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Changtai Zhao, Chang Yu, Shaofeng Li, Wei Guo, Yang Zhao, Qiang Dong, Xiaoting Lin, Zhongxin Song, Xinyi Tan, Changhong Wang, Matthew Zheng, Xueliang Sun, Jieshan Qiu
A safe, high-capacity, and long-life Li metal anode is highly desired due to recent developments in high-energy-density Li-metal batteries. However, there are still rigorous challenges associated with the undesirable formation of Li dendrites, lack of suitable host materials, and unstable chemical interfaces. Herein, a carbon nanofiber-stabilized graphene aerogel film (G-CNF film), inspired by constructional engineering, is constructed. As the host material for Li deposition, the G-CNF film features a large surface area, porous structure, and a robust skeleton that can render low local current density...
October 2018: Small
Huimin Zhang, Xiaobin Liao, Yuepeng Guan, Yu Xiang, Meng Li, Wenfeng Zhang, Xiayu Zhu, Hai Ming, Lin Lu, Jingyi Qiu, Yaqin Huang, Gaoping Cao, Yusheng Yang, Liqiang Mai, Yan Zhao, Hao Zhang
The long-standing issue of lithium dendrite growth during repeated deposition or dissolution processes hinders the practical use of lithium-metal anodes for high-energy density batteries. Here, we demonstrate a promising lithiophilic-lithiophobic gradient interfacial layer strategy in which the bottom lithiophilic zinc oxide/carbon nanotube sublayer tightly anchors the whole layer onto the lithium foil, facilitating the formation of a stable solid electrolyte interphase, and prevents the formation of an intermediate mossy lithium corrosion layer...
September 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Cameron D Pernia, Neal H Nathan, Brian T D Tobe, Alicia M Winquist, Richard L Sidman, Yoshio Goshima, Evan Y Snyder
The pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BPD) is unknown. Using human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to unravel pathological mechanisms in polygenic diseases is challenging, with few successful studies to date. However, hiPSCs from BPD patients responsive to lithium have offered unique opportunities to discern lithium's mechanism of action and hence gain insight into BPD pathology. By profiling the proteomics of BPD-hiPSC-derived neurons, we found that lithium alters the phosphorylation state of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2)...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Xinyue Zhang, Ruijing Lv, Aoxuan Wang, Wenqing Guo, Xingjiang Liu, Jiayan Luo
Li metal is considered to be an ultimate anode for metal batteries owing to its extremely high theoretical capacity and lowest potential. However, numerous issues such as short lifespan and infinite volume expansion caused by the dendrite growth during Li plating/stripping hinder its practical usage. These challenges become more grievous under high current densities. Herein, 3D porous MXene aerogels are proposed as scaffolds for high rate Li metal anodes using Ti3C2 as an example. With high metallic electron conductivity, fast Li ion transport capability and abundant Li nucleation sites, such scaffolds could deliver high cycling stability and low overpotential at current density up to 10 mA cm-2...
September 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Yayuan Liu, Dingchang Lin, Yuzhang Li, Guangxu Chen, Allen Pei, Oliver Nix, Yanbin Li, Yi Cui
The physiochemical properties of the solid-electrolyte interphase, primarily governed by electrolyte composition, have a profound impact on the electrochemical cycling of metallic lithium. Herein, we discover that the effect of nitrate anions on regulating lithium deposition previously known in ether-based electrolytes can be extended to carbonate-based systems, which dramatically alters the nuclei from dendritic to spherical, albeit extremely limited solubility. This is attributed to the preferential reduction of nitrate during solid-electrolyte interphase formation, and the mechanisms behind which are investigated based on the structure, ion-transport properties, and charge transfer kinetics of the modified interfacial environment...
September 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Andrew van der Vaart, Xianfang Meng, M Scott Bowers, Angela M Batman, Fazil Aliev, Sean P Farris, Jennifer S Hill, Thomas A Green, Danielle Dick, Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Michael F Miles
Understanding how ethanol actions on brain signal transduction and gene expression lead to excessive consumption and addiction could identify new treatments for alcohol dependence. We previously identified glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (Gsk3b) as a member of a highly ethanol-responsive gene network in mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Gsk3b has been implicated in dendritic function, synaptic plasticity and behavioral responses to other drugs of abuse. Here, we investigate Gsk3b in rodent models of ethanol consumption and as a risk factor for human alcohol dependence...
September 6, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Hongkyung Lee, Shuru Chen, Xiaodi Ren, Abraham Martinez, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Murugesan Vijayakumar, Kee Sung Han, Qiuyan Li, Jun Liu, Wu Xu, Ji-Guang Zhang
Lithium (Li) metal with very high specific capacity makes it one of the ideal anode for high energy batteries. However, Li dendrite growth and the formation of isolated (or "dead") Li during repeated Li plating/stripping processes lead to its low Coulombic efficiency (CE). In this work, we discovered for the first time that electrode edge effects play an important role on the failure of Li metal batteries. The "dead" Li formed on the edge of Cu substrate was systematically investigated through scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and two-dimensional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy...
September 4, 2018: ChemSusChem
Zeeshan Ahmad, Tian Xie, Chinmay Maheshwari, Jeffrey C Grossman, Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan
Next generation batteries based on lithium (Li) metal anodes have been plagued by the dendritic electrodeposition of Li metal on the anode during cycling, resulting in short circuit and capacity loss. Suppression of dendritic growth through the use of solid electrolytes has emerged as one of the most promising strategies for enabling the use of Li metal anodes. We perform a computational screening of over 12 000 inorganic solids based on their ability to suppress dendrite initiation in contact with Li metal anode...
August 22, 2018: ACS Central Science
Jeffrey Lopez, Allen Pei, Jin Young Oh, Ging-Ji Nathan Wang, Yi Cui, Zhenan Bao
The electrodeposition of lithium metal is a key process in next-generation, high energy density storage devices. However, the high reactivity of the lithium metal causes short cycling lifetimes and dendrite growth that can pose a serious safety issue. Recently, a number of approaches have been pursued to stabilize the lithium metal-electrolyte interface, including soft polymeric coatings that have shown the ability to enable high-rate and high-capacity lithium metal cycling, but a clear understanding of how to design and modify these coatings has not yet been established...
September 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tong-Tong Zuo, Yang Shi, Xiong-Wei Wu, Peng-Fei Wang, Shu-Hua Wang, Ya-Xia Yin, Wen-Peng Wang, Qiang Ma, Xian-Xiang Zeng, Huan Ye, Rui Wen, Yu-Guo Guo
Interfacial problems, including interfacial stability and contact issues, severely plague the practical application of Li metal anodes. Here we report an interfacial regulation strategy that stabilizes the Li metal-gel electrolyte interface through in situ constructing a stable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. By stabilizing the interface of Li metal anodes, the gel electrolyte enables dendrite-free morphology and high plating/stripping efficiency. A systematic analysis further confirms that the formed SEI layer is responsible for homogeneous deposition and stable cycling performance...
September 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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