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lithium dendrites

Cheng Li, Qing Lan, Yifu Yang, Huixia Shao, Hui Zhan
Lithium-Tin (Li-Sn) alloy is a perfect substrate material for anode in high-energy density lithium metal secondary batteries. A new approach is proposed to further prevent the Li deposit on Li-Sn alloy substrate from reaction with electrolyte using an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (ASEI) based on electrochemical oxidation and polymerization of DOL precursor with LiTFSI additive. This ASEI layer is flexible, stable, ion conductive, and electrically insulating, which can provide very stable cycling of Li-Sn alloy substrate anode for Li deposition/stripping with average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 98...
December 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mingchao Wang, Jodie A Yuwono, Vallabh Vasudevan, Nick Birbilis, Nikhil V Medhekar
Magnesium (Mg) metal has been widely explored as an anode material for Mg-ion batteries (MIBs) owing to its large specific capacity and dendrite-free operation. However critical challenges, such as the formation of passivation layers during battery operation and anode-electrolyte-cathode incompatibilities, limit the practical application of Mg-metal anodes for MIBs. Motivated by the promise of group XIV elements (namely Si, Ge and Sn) as anodes for lithium- and sodium-ion batteries, here we conduct systematic first principles calculations to explore the thermodynamics and kinetics of group XIV anodes for Mg batteries, and to identify the atomistic mechanisms of the electrochemical insertion reactions of Mg ions...
December 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nian-Wu Li, Yingying Yin, Xinyu Du, Xiuling Zhang, Zuqing Yuan, Huidan Niu, Ran Cao, Wei Fan, Yang Zhang, Weihua Xu, Congju Li
Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are prominent among next-generation energy-storage systems because of their high energy density. Unfortunately, the commercial application of LMBs is hindered by dendrites growth issue during charging process. Herein, we report that the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) based pulse output with novel waveform and frequency has restrained the formation of dendrites in LMBs. The waveform and operation frequency of TENG can be regulated by TENG designed and smart power management circuits...
December 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gaojing Yang, Yejing Li, Yuxin Tong, Jiliang Qiu, Shuai Liu, Simeng Zhang, Zhaoruxin Guan, Bin Xu, Zhaoxiang Wang, Liquan Chen
Lithium metal is an ideal anode material due to its high specific capacity and low electrochemical potential. However, issues such as dendritic growth and low coulombic efficiency prevent its application in secondary lithium batteries. The use of three-dimensional (3D) porous current collector is an effective strategy to solve these problems. Herein, commercial carbon nanotube (CNT) sponge is used as a 3D current collector for dendrite-free lithium metal deposition to improve the coulombic efficiency and the cycle stability of the lithium metal batteries...
December 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Yipeng Sun, Yang Zhao, Jiwei Wang, Jianneng Liang, Changhong Wang, Qian Sun, Xiaoting Lin, Keegan R Adair, Jing Luo, Dawei Wang, Ruying Li, Mei Cai, Tsun-Kong Sham, Xueliang Sun
Metallic Li is considered as one of the most promising anode materials for next-generation batteries due to its high theoretical capacity and low electrochemical potential. However, its commercialization has been impeded by the severe safety issues associated with Li-dendrite growth. Non-uniform Li-ion flux on the Li-metal surface and the formation of unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) during the Li plating/stripping process lead to the growth of dendritic and mossy Li structures that deteriorate the cycling performance and can cause short-circuits...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Weidong Zhou, Zhaoxu Wang, Yuan Pu, Yutao Li, Sen Xin, Xiaofang Li, Jianfeng Chen, John B Goodenough
No single polymer or liquid electrolyte has a large enough energy gap between the empty and occupied electronic states for both dendrite-free plating of a lithium-metal anode and a Li+ extraction from an oxide host cathode without electrolyte oxidation in a high-voltage cell during the charge process. Therefore, a double-layer polymer electrolyte is investigated, in which one polymer provides dendrite-free plating of a Li-metal anode and the other allows a Li+ extraction from an oxide host cathode without oxidation of the electrolyte in a 4 V cell over a stable charge/discharge cycling at 65 °C; a poly(ethylene oxide) polymer contacts the lithium-metal anode and a poly(N-methyl-malonic amide) contacts the cathode...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hongliu Dai, Kai Xi, Xin Liu, Chao Lai, Shanqing Zhang
Lithium metal is among the most promising anode materials for high-energy batteries due to its high theoretical capacity and the lowest electrochemical potential. However, dendrite formation is a major challenge which can result in fire and explosion of batteries. Herein, we report on hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) as an electrolyte additive that can suppress the growth of lithium dendrites by lithiophobic repulsion mechanisms. During the lithium plating process, cationic surfactant molecules can aggregate around protuberances via electrostatic attraction, forming a non-polar lithiophobic protective outer layer which drives the deposition of lithium ions to adjacent regions to produce the dendrite-free uniform Li deposits...
November 29, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Dan Thien Nguyen, Alexander Hoefling, Minha Yee, Giang Thi Huong Nguyen, Patrick Theato, Young Joo Lee, Seung-Wan Song
Fabrication and high-rate performance of safe lithium ion-sulfur battery (LISB) with sulfur-copolymer (poly(S-co-divinylbenzene (DVB)) cathode at a sulfur content higher than 90wt% along with carbon-fiber interlayer combined with pre-lithiated hard-carbon (Li-HC) anode are reported, which mitigates the problems of lithium-sulfur cells such as performance fade and safety issue due to polysulfides-dissolution and lithium-dendrite growth. Poly(S-co-DVB) cathode offers scalability due to DVB's abundance and low cost...
November 26, 2018: ChemSusChem
Sufu Liu, Xinhui Xia, Shengjue Deng, Dong Xie, Zhujun Yao, Liyuan Zhang, Shengzhao Zhang, Xiuli Wang, Jiangping Tu
Uncontrollable growth of Li dendrites and low utilization of active Li severely hinder its practical application. Construction of an artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on Li is demonstrated as one of the most effective ways to circumvent the above problems. Herein, a novel spray quenching method is developed in situ to fabricate an organic-inorganic composite SEI on Li metal. By spray quenching molten Li in a modified ether-based solution, a homogeneous and dense SEI consisting of organic matrix embedded with inorganic LiF and Li3 N nanocrystallines (denoted as OIFN) is constructed on Li metal...
November 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Maryam Golozar, Pierre Hovington, Andrea Paolella, Stéphanie Bessette, Marin Lagacé, Patrick Bouchard, Hendrix Demers, Raynald Gauvin, Karim Zaghib
Li metal batteries suffer from dendrite formation which causes short circuit of the battery. Therefore, it is important to understand the chemical composition and growth mechanism of dendrites that limit battery efficiency and cycle life. In this study, in situ scanning electron microscopy was employed to monitor the cycling behavior of all-solid Li metal batteries with LiFePO4 cathodes. Chemical analyses of the dendrites were conducted using a windowless energy dispersive spectroscopy detector, which showed that the dendrites are not metallic lithium as universally recognized...
November 30, 2018: Nano Letters
Yuki Kanzaki, Satoshi Mitani, Daisuke Shiomi, Yasushi Morita, Takeji Takui, Kazunobu Sato
Real-time spectroscopic measurements in rechargeable batteries are important to understand the electrochemistry of the batteries at the molecular level and improve relevant functionalities. We have applied in-situ two-dimensional (2D) ESR spectroscopy to a well-known organic lithium ion battery, which is composed of 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) as the cathode-active material and a lithium metal anode electrode. The TCNQ rechargeable battery is suitable for investigating electrochemistry in the battery in terms of behavior of electron spin at microscopic levels on both the cathode and anode electrodes...
November 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chao Shen, Huibo Yan, Jinlei Gu, Yuliang Gao, Jingjing Yang, Keyu Xie
Lithium (Li) metal, with ultra-high theoretical capacity and low electrochemical potential, is the ultimate anode for next-generation Li metal batteries. However, the undesirable Li dendrite growth usually results in severe safety hazards and low Coulombic efficiency. In this work, we design a three-dimensional CuO@Cu submicron wire sponge current collector with high mechanical strength SEI layer dominated by Li2 O during electrochemical reaction process. The 3D CuO@Cu current collector realizes an enhanced CE of above 91% for an ultrahigh current of 10 mA cm-2 after 100 cycles, and yields decent cycle stability at 5 C for the full cell...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Quan Pang, Laidong Zhou, Linda F Nazar
Lithium metal batteries are capable of revolutionizing the battery marketplace for electrical vehicles, owing to the high capacity and low voltage offered by Li metal. Current exploitation of Li metal electrodes, however, is plagued by their exhaustive parasitic reactions with liquid electrolytes and dendritic growth, which pose concerns to both cell performance and safety. We demonstrate that a hybrid membrane, both elastic and Li+ -ion percolating, can stabilize Li plating/stripping with high Coulombic efficiency...
November 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Huan Ye, Zi-Jian Zheng, Hu-Rong Yao, Shun-Chang Liu, Tong-Tong Zuo, Xiong-Wei Wu, Ya-Xia Yin, Nian-Wu Li, Jiang-Jiang Gu, Fei-Fei Cao, Yu-Guo Guo
The uncontrolled growth of Li dendrites upon cycling might engender low Coulombic efficiency and severe safety hazards. Here, a lithiophilic binary alloy phase-lithium aluminum layer, which generated via a in situ electrochemical process, was utilized to guide the uniform metallic Li nucleation and growth, free from the dendrites. Moreover, the formed LiAl alloy layer can function as a Li reservoir to compensate the irreversible Li loss, enabling a long-term stability. The protected Li electrode renders superior cycling over 1700 h in a Li|Li symmetric cell...
November 17, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Bin Lei, Jun Yang, Zhixin Xu, Shasha Su, Dong Wang, Jinhua Jiang, Jing Feng
The practical application of high energy lithium-sulfur batteries is still limited by unstable lithium anodes and the shuttle effect of polysulfides. Herein, a gel-like electrolyte induced by fumed alumina is proposed for dendrite-free Li deposition, lower over-potential and better cycle stability. Li-S@pPAN cells with the proposed electrolyte exhibit outstanding cycle stability and rate performance with capacity retentions of 95.1% after 300 cycles and 76.5% at 10C against 1C, respectively.
November 16, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Chen-Zi Zhao, Peng-Yu Chen, Rui Zhang, Xiang Chen, Bo-Quan Li, Xue-Qiang Zhang, Xin-Bing Cheng, Qiang Zhang
Lithium (Li) metal anodes have attracted considerable interest due to their ultrahigh theoretical gravimetric capacity and very low redox potential. However, the issues of nonuniform lithium deposits (dendritic Li) during cycling are hindering the practical applications of Li metal batteries. Herein, we propose a concept of ion redistributors to eliminate dendrites by redistributing Li ions with Al-doped Li6.75 La3 Zr1.75 Ta0.25 O12 (LLZTO) coated polypropylene (PP) separators. The LLZTO with three-dimensional ion channels can act as a redistributor to regulate the movement of Li ions, delivering a uniform Li ion distribution for dendrite-free Li deposition...
November 2018: Science Advances
Huijun Yang, Cheng Guo, Jiahang Chen, Ahmad Naveed, Jun Yang, Yanna Nuli, Jiulin Wang
Safety concern poses a significant challenge for the large-scale employment of lithium-sulfur batteries. Extreme flammable conventional electrolyte and dendritic lithium deposition cause severe safety issues. Herein, we report an intrinsic flame-retardant (IFR) electrolyte consisting of 1.1 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in a solvent mixture of flame-retardant triethyl phosphate and high flash point solvent 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl (1:3, v/v) for safe lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries...
November 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Gang Huang, Jiuhui Han, Fan Zhang, Ziqian Wang, Hamzeh Kashani, Kentaro Watanabe, Mingwei Chen
The key bottlenecks hindering the practical implementations of lithium-metal anodes in high-energy-density rechargeable batteries are the uncontrolled dendrite growth and infinite volume changes during charging and discharging, which lead to short lifespan and catastrophic safety hazards. In principle, these problems can be mitigated or even solved by loading lithium into a high-surface-area, conductive, and lithiophilic porous scaffold. However, a suitable material that can synchronously host a large loading amount of lithium and endure a large current density has not been achieved...
November 6, 2018: Advanced Materials
Han Deng, Yu Qiao, Shichao Wu, Feilong Qiu, Na Zhang, Ping He, Haoshen Zhou
The rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries suffer from not only the low practical capacity, high overpentential at the oxygen cathode, but also the low lithium utilization and dendrite growth of the Li metal. In this work, by coupling the dual mediator catholyte and the carbonate-based anolyte for the high specific capacity Si anode, we propose a hybrid electrolyte design for the fabrication of Li-ion O2 batteries. A single ion conducting lithiated Nafion membrane is introduced to bridge the two electrolyte systems...
November 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dong Xu, Jun Jin, Chunhua Chen, Zhaoyin Wen
Developing gel polymer electrolyte with crosslinking structure is one of the best choices to improve the mechanical strength of gel polymer electrolyte without sacrificing its lithium ion transportation properties. However, the cost is always too high. Herein, a novel gel polymer electrolyte based on 3D cross-linked chitosan-PEGGE macromolecule network was designed and synthesized through a simple and environmental harmless method, with sustainable and cheap chitosan as major material. The obtained gel polymer electrolyte shows improved mechanical strength of 5...
October 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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