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lithium dendrites

Moin Ahmed, Alireza Zehtab Yazdi, Aly Mitha, Pu Chen
Aqueous lithium energy storage systems (ALESS) offer several advantages over the commercially available non-aqueous systems, most noteworthy higher ionic conductivity, safety and environmentally friendly. The ALESS, however, exhibit faster capacity fading than their non-aqueous counterparts after repeated cycles of charge and discharge; this limits their wide-range applications. Excessive corrosion of metallic anodes in the aqueous electrolyte and accelerated growth of dendrites during the charge/discharge process are found to be the main reasons that severely impact ALESS's lifespan...
August 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qian Cheng, Lu Wei, Zhe Liu, Nan Ni, Zhe Sang, Bin Zhu, Weiheng Xu, Meijie Chen, Yupeng Miao, Long-Qing Chen, Wei Min, Yuan Yang
Visualization of ion transport in electrolytes provides fundamental understandings of electrolyte dynamics and electrolyte-electrode interactions. However, this is challenging because existing techniques are hard to capture low ionic concentrations and fast electrolyte dynamics. Here we show that stimulated Raman scattering microscopy offers required resolutions to address a long-lasting question: how does the lithium-ion concentration correlate to uneven lithium deposition? In this study, anions are used to represent lithium ions since their concentrations should not deviate for more than 0...
July 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Kaiming Liao, Shichao Wu, Xiaowei Mu, Qian Lu, Min Han, Ping He, Zongping Shao, Haoshen Zhou
Lithium metal is an ultimate anode in "next-generation" rechargeable batteries, such as Li-sulfur batteries and Li-air (Li-O2 ) batteries. However, uncontrollable dendritic Li growth and water attack have prevented its practical applications, especially for open-system Li-O2 batteries. Here, it is reported that the issues can be addressed via the facile process of immersing the Li metal in organic GeCl4 -THF steam for several minutes before battery assembly. This creates a 1.5 µm thick protection layer composed of Ge, GeOx , Li2 CO3 , LiOH, LiCl, and Li2 O on Li surface that allows stable cycling of Li electrodes both in Li-symmetrical cells and Li-O2 cells, especially in "moist" electrolytes (with 1000-10 000 ppm H2 O) and humid O2 atmosphere (relative humidity (RH) of 45%)...
July 30, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xuze Guan, Aoxuan Wang, Shan Liu, Guojie Li, Feng Liang, Ying-Wei Yang, Xingjiang Liu, Jiayan Luo
Rechargeable batteries are regarded as the most promising candidates for practical applications in portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. In recent decades, lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been extensively studied due to their ultrahigh energy densities. However, short lifespan and poor safety caused by uncontrollable dendrite growth hinder their commercial applications. Besides, a clear understanding of Li nucleation and growth has not yet been obtained. In this Review, the failure mechanisms of Li metal anodes are ascribed to high reactivity of lithium, virtually infinite volume changes, and notorious dendrite growth...
July 25, 2018: Small
Pengfei Qiu, Matthias T Agne, Yongying Liu, Yaqin Zhu, Hongyi Chen, Tao Mao, Jiong Yang, Wenqing Zhang, Sossina M Haile, Wolfgang G Zeier, Jürgen Janek, Ctirad Uher, Xun Shi, Lidong Chen, G Jeffrey Snyder
Many superionic mixed ionic-electronic conductors with a liquid-like sublattice have been identified as high efficiency thermoelectric materials, but their applications are limited due to the possibility of decomposition when subjected to high electronic currents and large temperature gradients. Here, through systematically investigating electromigration in copper sulfide/selenide thermoelectric materials, we reveal the mechanism for atom migration and deposition based on a critical chemical potential difference...
July 25, 2018: Nature Communications
Ran Tian, Huanan Duan, Yiping Guo, Hua Li, Hezhou Liu
Lithium metal has attracted much research interest as a possible anode material for high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries in recent years. However, its practical use is severely limited by uncontrollable deposition, volume expansion, and dendrite formation. Here, a metastable state of Li, Li cluster, that forms between LiC6 and Li dendrites when over-lithiating carbon cloth (CC) is discovered. The Li clusters with sizes in the micrometer and submicrometer scale own outstanding electrochemical reversibility between Li+ and Li, allowing the CC/Li clusters composite anode to demonstrate a high first-cycle coulombic efficiency (CE) of 94...
July 20, 2018: Small
Feng Hao, Ankit Verma, Partha P Mukherjee
Mechanistic understanding of lithium electrodeposition and morphology evolution is critical for lithium metal anodes. In this study, we deduce that Li deposition morphology evolution is determined by the mesoscale complexations that underlie due to local electrochemical reaction, Li surface self-diffusion, and Li-ion transport in the electrolyte. Li-ion depletion at the reaction front for higher reaction rates primarily accounts for dendritic growth with needlelike or fractal morphology. Large Li self-diffusion barrier, on the other hand, may lead to the formation of porous Li film for lower reaction rates...
August 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ran Tian, Xiaoqian Feng, Huanan Duan, Peng Zhang, Hua Li, Hezhou Liu, Lian Gao
Lithium metal has been regarded as an ideal anode for high-energy-density batteries. However, safety and efficiency concerns still linger due to dendrite formation, reactions between the liquid electrolyte and lithium, high resistance with Li metal and the weight of interface layer. Here, we prepare a new-type nanometer-thick hollow Al2O3 fiber network with elastic and porous 3D structure by atomic layer deposition process using cotton sacrificial templates. Via comparison study of the Li deposition behaviour employing the artificial layers with different structures, the low-weight 3D layer with lithiophilic property overcomes the issues brought by the 2D rigid Al2O3 layer and provides a low overpotential and dendrite-free growth of Li metal...
July 17, 2018: ChemSusChem
Rachel Carter, Corey T Love
Li-ion battery safety is often threatened by undesirable lithium metal electrodeposition or dendrite growth, during charging. The unpredictable and complex onset of widely ranging lithium morphologies limits reproducibility, making prevention and detection strategies difficult to assess. This work blends the fundamentals of classical metallurgical dendrite growth with traditional Li-ion battery charging, to prove the ability to modulate lithium metal deposition through an applied interelectrode thermal gradient...
July 24, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guk-Tae Kim, Stefano Passerini, Maria Carewska, Giovanni Battista Appetecchi
Li⁺-conducting polyethylene oxide-based membranes incorporating N -butyl- N -methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide are used as electrolyte separators for all-solid-state lithium polymer batteries operating at medium-high temperatures. The incorporation of the ionic liquid remarkably improves the thermal, ion-transport and interfacial properties of the polymer electrolyte, which, in combination with the wide electrochemical stability even at medium-high temperatures, allows high current rates without any appreciable lithium anode degradation...
July 10, 2018: Membranes
Cheng Guo, Huijun Yang, Ahmad Naveed, Yanna Nuli, Jun Yang, Yuliang Cao, Hanxi Yang, Jiulin Wang
A versatile interlayer in which AlF3 particles are embedded within carbon nanofibers (AlF3@CNFs) is reported to induce controllable Li+ deposition and achieve a dendrite free Li metal anode. Due to the AlF3 reducing Li nucleation overpotential and CNFs providing high Young's moduli up to 47 GPa, a high Coulombic efficiency (97.2%) and a long lifespan (900 h) are achieved in the carbonate-based electrolyte. A long cycling life is also realized by using interlayer-protected lithium anodes in Li-S batteries.
July 24, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Lin Chen, Kan-Sheng Chen, Xinjie Chen, Giovanni Ramirez, Zhennan Huang, Natalie R Geise, Hans-Georg Steinrück, Brandon L Fisher, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar, Michael F Toney, Mark C Hersam, Jeffrey W Elam
Lithium metal anodes can largely enhance the energy density of rechargeable batteries because of the high theoretical capacity and the high negative potential. However, the problem of lithium dendrite formation and low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during electrochemical cycling must be solved before lithium anodes can be widely deployed. Herein, a new atomic layer deposition (ALD) chemistry to realize the low-temperature synthesis of homogeneous and stoichiometric lithium fluoride (LiF) is reported, which then for the first time, as far as we know, is deposited directly onto lithium metal...
August 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei Tang, Xuesong Yin, Sujin Kang, Zhongxin Chen, Bingbing Tian, Siew Lang Teo, Xiaowei Wang, Xiao Chi, Kian Ping Loh, Hyun-Wook Lee, Guangyuan Wesley Zheng
The propensity of lithium dendrite formation during the charging process of lithium metal batteries is linked to inhomogeneity on the lithium surface layer. The high reactivity of lithium and the complex surface structure of the native layer create "hot spots" for fast dendritic growth. Here, it is demonstrated that a fundamental restructuring of the lithium surface in the form of lithium silicide (Lix Si) can effectively eliminate the surface inhomogeneity on the lithium surface. In situ optical microscopic study is carried out to monitor the electrochemical deposition of lithium on the Lix Si-modified lithium electrodes and the bare lithium electrode...
July 5, 2018: Advanced Materials
Xinzhi Wang, Yibo Zhang, Xue Zhang, Ting Liu, Yuan-Hua Lin, Liangliang Li, Yang Shen, Ce-Wen Nan
Solid electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and good mechanical properties are required for solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this work, we synthesized composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) with a three-dimensional (3D) Li0.33 La0.557 TiO3 (LLTO) network as a nano-backbone in poly(ethylene oxide) matrix by hot-pressing and quenching. Self-standing 3D-CPE membranes were obtained with the support of the LLTO nano-backbone. These membranes had much better thermal stability and enhanced mechanical strength in comparison with solid polymer electrolytes...
July 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kuirong Deng, Jiaxiang Qin, Shuanjin Wang, Shan Ren, Dongmei Han, Min Xiao, Yuezhong Meng
A novel single-ion conducting polymer electrolyte (SIPE) membrane with high lithium-ion transference number, good mechanical strength, and excellent ionic conductivity is designed and synthesized by facile coupling of lithium bis(allylmalonato) borate (LiBAMB), pentaerythritol tetrakis (2-mercaptoacetate) (PETMP) and 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (DODT) in an electrospun poly(vinylidienefluoride) (PVDF) supporting membrane via a one-step photoinitiated in situ thiol-ene click reaction. The structure-optimized LiBAMB-PETMP-DODT (LPD)@PVDF SIPE shows an outstanding ionic conductivity of 1...
July 3, 2018: Small
Kunimitsu Kataoka, Hiroshi Nagata, Junji Akimoto
Today, all-solid-state secondary lithium-ion batteries have attracted attention in research and development all over the world as a next-generation energy storage device. A key material for the all-solid-state lithium batteries is inorganic solid electrolyte, including oxide and sulfide materials. Among the oxide electrolytes, garnet-type oxide exhibits the highest lithium-ion conductivity and a wide electrochemical potential window. However, they have major problems for practical realization. One of the major problems is an internal short-circuit in charging and discharging...
July 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chanyuan Zhang, Shan Liu, Guojie Li, Cuijuan Zhang, Xingjiang Liu, Jiayan Luo
Lithium-metal batteries can fulfill the ever-growing demand of the high-energy-density requirement of electronics and electric vehicles. However, lithium-metal anodes have many challenges, especially their inhomogeneous dendritic formation and infinite dimensional change during cycling. 3D scaffold design can mitigate electrode thickness fluctuation and regulate the deposition morphology. However, in an insulating or ion-conducting matrix, Li as the exclusive electron conductor can become disconnected, whereas in an electron-conducting matrix, the rate performance is restrained by the sluggish Li+ diffusion...
July 1, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shao-Jian Zhang, Zhen-Guang Gao, Wei-Wei Wang, Yan-Qiu Lu, Ya-Ping Deng, Jin-Hai You, Jun-Tao Li, Yao Zhou, Ling Huang, Xiao-Dong Zhou, Shi-Gang Sun
Li metal is considered as an ideal anode for Li-based batteries. Unfortunately, the growth of Li dendrites during cycling leads to an unstable interface, a low coulombic efficiency, and a limited cycling life. Here, a novel approach is proposed to protect the Li-metal anode by using a uniform agarose film. This natural biopolymer film exhibits a high ionic conductivity, high elasticity, and chemical stability. These properties enable a fast Li-ion transfer and feasiblity to accomodate the volume change of Li metal, resulting in a dendrite-free anode and a stable interface...
July 1, 2018: Small
Yang Wang, Chuan-Fu Lin, Jiancun Rao, Karen Gaskell, Gary Rubloff, Sang Bok Lee
Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries suffer from shuttle reactions during electrochemical cycling, which cause the loss of active material sulfur from sulfur-carbon cathodes, and simultaneously incur the corrosion and degradation of the lithium metal anode by forming passivation layers on its surface. These unwanted reactions therefore lead to the fast failure of batteries. The preservation of the highly reactive lithium metal anode in sulfur-containing electrolytes has been one of the main challenges for Li-S batteries...
July 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Quan Pang, Xiao Liang, Ivan R Kochetkov, Pascal Hartmann, Linda F Nazar
The dendritic growth of Li metal leads to electrode degradation and safety concerns, impeding its application in building high energy density batteries. Forming a protective layer on the Li surface that is electron-insulating, ion-conducting, and maintains an intimate interface is critical. We herein demonstrate that Li plating is stabilized by a biphasic surface layer composed of a lithium-indium alloy and a lithium halide, formed in situ by the reaction of an electrolyte additive with Li metal. This stabilization is attributed to the fast lithium migration though the alloy bulk and lithium halide surface, which is enabled by the electric field across the layer that is established owing to the electron-insulating halide phase...
June 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
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