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Neurology stroke

Aysel Tekesin, Yuksel Erdal, Abdullah Soydan Mahmutoglu, Ahmet Hakyemez, Ufuk Emre
Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is a metabolic disorder associated with acute or chronic renal failure. It is characterized by the acute or subacute onset of reversible neurological symptoms and specific imaging findings. It is uncommon for uremic encephalopathy to be associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients, and this can be seen most often in Asian patients. Here, we report a patient with diabetic uremic encephalopathy and bilateral basal ganglia lesions who developed acute onset dysarthria...
September 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
E V Kovaleva, B M Doronin, V V Morozov, Yu V Seryapina, S G Markova
AIM: To examine an effect of polymorphisms of lipid peroxidation system genes on the risk of ischemic stroke as well as the prognosis of disease outcome after rehabilitation measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-six patients with ischemic stroke and 500 patients of the control group were genotyped for 6 polymorphisms of lipid peroxidation system genes: HIF1a C1772T, ApoE Σ2/Σ3/Σ4, MnSOD C47T, GPX-1 C599T, BDNF G196T, p22phox C242T. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The HIF1a C1772T polymorphism was a significant risk factor for the development of ischemic stroke with the odds ratio 1...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Daniel Stuart, Robin Christian, Hartmut Uschmann, Michelle Palokas
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to determine the effectiveness of intrathecal nicardipine compared to usual care on cerebral vasospasm and its impact on the following outcome measures: mean flow velocities, angiographic and/or clinical vasospasm, and infection rates. INTRODUCTION: The results of non-traumatic (aneurysmal) subarachnoid hemorrhage can have devastating effects on patients in terms of functional outcomes. Although other medications have been and continue to be used, Nimodipine is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for treating and improving outcomes following non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may be caused by aneurysmal rupture or arteriovenous malformation...
October 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Tong Zhang, Lixu Liu, Rong Xie, Ying Peng, Huifang Wang, Zhuoming Chen, Shizheng Wu, Chaomin Ni, Jiejiao Zheng, Xueping Li, Heyu Liu, Guangxu Xu, Jianzhong Fan, Yuhong Zhu, Fang Zhang, Yanhui Du, Xin Wang, Yulong Wang, Weimin Xiao, Ming Liu, Xiang Mou, Jun Zhao, Luping Song, Bingjie Li
This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) in stroke rehabilitation assessment in China and to identify correlations between the ICF and several commonly used clinical assessment instruments for stroke.In total, 52 hospitals and 5 premier rehabilitation and neurology research centers participated in this cross-sectional multicenter clinical study. A total of 2822 stroke patients admitted to a neurology or rehabilitation department of a participating medical center between July 2012 and June 2014 were included...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gina Hadley, Daniel J Beard, Yvonne Couch, Ain A Neuhaus, Bryan A Adriaanse, Gabriele C DeLuca, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
The significant morbidity that accompanies stroke makes it one of the world's most devastating neurological disorders. Currently, proven effective therapies have been limited to thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The window for the administration of these therapies is narrow, hampered by the necessity of rapidly imaging patients. A therapy that could extend this window by protecting neurons may improve outcome. Endogenous neuroprotection has been shown to be, in part, due to changes in mTOR signalling pathways and the instigation of productive autophagy...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Jingyan Zhao, Hongfeng Mu, Liqiang Liu, Xiaoyan Jiang, Di Wu, Yejie Shi, Rehana K Leak, Xunming Ji
Ischemic injury can be alleviated by the judicious use of hypothermia. However, the optimal regimens and the temporal kinetics of post-stroke neurovascular responses to hypothermic intervention have not been systematically studied. These gaps slow the clinical translation of hypothermia as an anti-stroke therapy. Here, we characterized the effects of transient selective brain hypothermia (TSBH) from the hyperacute to chronic stages of focal ischemia/reperfusion brain injury induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Margot G A Van Cauwenberge, Sven Dekeyzer, Omid Nikoubashman, Manuel Dafotakis, Martin Wiesmann
OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnostic value of volume perfusion CT (VPCT) in patients with transient focal neurologic deficits following and during epileptic seizures, that mimic symptoms of stroke. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed on 159 patients who presented with a seizure and received an emergency VPCT within the first 3.5 hours of admission, after being misjudged to have an acute stroke. The reference test was a clinical-based, EEG-supported diagnostic algorithm for seizure...
October 17, 2018: Neurology
Olivier Godefroy, Hugo Yaïche, Hervé Taillia, Flavie Bompaire, Claudine Nédélec-Ciceri, Camille Bonnin, Jérôme Varvat, Françoise Vincent-Grangette, Momar Diouf, Jean-Louis Mas, Sandrine Canaple, Chantal Lamy, Audrey Arnoux, Claire Leclercq, Sophie Tasseel-Ponche, Martine Roussel, Mélanie Barbay
OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of a specifically developed cognitive risk score to identify patients at risk of poststroke neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) who are eligible for a comprehensive cognitive assessment. METHODS: After assessing 404 patients (infarct 91.3%) in the Groupe de Réflexion pour l'Evaluation Cognitive VASCulaire (GRECogVASC) cross-sectional study with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network battery 6 months after stroke, we used multivariable logistic regression and bootstrap analyses to determine factors associated with NCDs...
October 17, 2018: Neurology
Osman Shabir, Jason Berwick, Sheila E Francis
Efficient blood supply to the brain is of paramount importance to its normal functioning and improper blood flow can result in potentially devastating neurological consequences. Cerebral blood flow in response to neural activity is intrinsically regulated by a complex interplay between various cell types within the brain in a relationship termed neurovascular coupling. The breakdown of neurovascular coupling is evident across a wide variety of both neurological and psychiatric disorders including Alzheimer's disease...
October 17, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Zhiyou Cai, Wenbo He, Feng-Juan Zhuang, Yan Chen
OBJECTIVE: Plasma high hypersensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with risk and prognosis of vascular diseases. The clinical implications of markedly elevated hs-CRP levels are more discovered in the onset and development of stroke. The aim of this study is to determine the association of plasma hs-CRP levels on the prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a single-center database of consecutive cases for acute cerebral infarction (ACI) from January 1st 2012 to December 30th 2016 was performed...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Ioannis Karakis
This article highlights the major reflections of ancient Greek mythology in modern neuroscience. An analysis of ancient Greek texts and medical literature using the MeSH term mythology was performed to identify mythological references pertaining to neuroscience. The findings are discussed in relation to etymology, early conceptualization of the nervous system structure and function, incipient characterization of neuropsychiatric disease, and philosophical stance to the practice of medicine in ancient Greece...
October 17, 2018: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Davide Strambo, V Rey, A O Rossetti, Ph Maeder, V Dunet, P Browaeys, P Michel
INTRODUCTION: PCT is used in the diagnosis of acute neurological syndromes, particularly stroke. We aimed to evaluate PCT abnormalities in patients with acute epileptic seizures or status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: We collected patients undergoing acute PCT for the suspicion of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), who received a final diagnosis of focal seizures or generalised seizures with a post-ictal deficit, with or without concomitant AIS. PCTs were retrospectively analysed for the presence of hyper- and hypoperfusion, and results correlated with delay from seizure onset, aetiology, type of seizures and the presence of electrical SE...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Ciril Khorolsky, Andrew Castellano, David Comstock, Nooshin K Brinster, Sein Y See, Bruce F Garner
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) overlap syndrome is an inflammatory disorder with a mixed presentation that is characterized by clinical features of both SLE and AAV. Although renal disease predominates, any organ system in the body may be affected. Neurologic manifestation in patients with SLE-AAV overlap syndrome is rare and has only been previously documented as cerebral ischemia. We report a patient with SLE-AAV overlap syndrome diagnosed based on clinical, serologic and biopsy-proven histologic findings who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to ruptured right anterior cerebral artery aneurysm...
October 16, 2018: Rheumatology International
Cydni N Williams, Juan Piantino, Cynthia McEvoy, Nora Fino, Carl O Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Disorders requiring pediatric neurocritical care (PNCC) affect thousands of children annually. We aimed to quantify the burden of PNCC through generation of national estimates of disease incidence, utilization of critical care interventions (CCI), and hospital outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of the Kids Inpatient Database over three years to evaluate pediatric traumatic brain injury, neuro-infection or inflammatory diseases, status epilepticus, stroke, hypoxic ischemic injury after cardiac arrest, and spinal cord injury...
August 4, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Feng Mei, Yanfeng Wu, Guibing Ding, Fenghua Pan, Liang Chen, Jin Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene 677C>T polymorphism with post-stroke depression risk and antidepressant treatment response in Han Chinese. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University and Nanjing Brain Hospital, China, between February 2010 and December 2014. It comprised patients who had experienced first-episode acute stroke...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Pei-Hsun Sung, Hung-Sheng Lin, Wei-Che Lin, Chiung-Chih Chang, Sung-Nan Pei, Ming-Chun Ma, Kuan-Hung Chen, John Y Chiang, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Fan-Yen Lee, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
This phase I clinical trial tested the hypothesis that circulatory CD34+ cell therapy might be safe for old ischemic stroke (IS) (defined as IS>6 months) patients and also to evaluate the neurological function after the therapy. Nine old IS patients (with mean IS interval: 8.6 ± 6.4 years) were consecutively enrolled and received intra-carotid artery transfusion of circulatory-derived autologous CD34+ cells (3.0×107 cells/patient) into the ipsilateral brain infarct area at catheterization room by Catheter Looping Technique, after subcutaneous G-CSF injection (5 μg/kg twice a day for 4 days)...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Maxim Oliver, Lisa Dyke, Alex Rico, Mario Madruga, Jorge Parellada, Steve J Carlan
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is a rare, fatal human prion disease that is characterized by progressive dementia and neurologic degeneration. It can mimic multiple other neurological disorders, and a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary to make a diagnosis. A 74-year-old woman with a 3-month history of a stroke and progressive neurologic deterioration was found to have sCJD. She expired within a week of her diagnosis. Autopsy revealed spongiform encephalopathy consistent with prion disease, and genetic analysis revealed 129 polymorphism and no pathologic mutation, confirming the diagnosis of nonfamilial human prion disease...
September 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Hai-Ying Cui, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Yi Yang, Cong Zhang, Chun-Hua Zhu, Jiang-Yong Miao, Rong Chen
Rosmarinic acid (RA) can elicit a neuroprotective effect against ischemic stroke, but the precise molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. In this study, an experimental ischemic stroke model was established in CD-1 mice (Beijing Vital River Laboratory Animal Technology, Beijing, China) by occluding the right middle cerebral artery for 1 hour and allowing reperfusion for 24 hours. After intraperitoneally injecting model mice with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg RA, functional neurological deficits were evaluated using modified Longa scores...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Zheng Zhang, Jin-Long Yang, Lin-Lei Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Chen, Jia-Ou Chen, Yun-Gang Cao, Man Qu, Xin-Da Lin, Xun-Ming Ji, Zhao Han
We previously demonstrated that administering 2-(2-benzofuranyl)-2-imidazolin (2-BFI), an imidazoline I2 receptor agonist, immediately after ischemia onset can protect the brain from ischemic insult. However, immediate administration after stroke is difficult to realize in the clinic. Thus, the therapeutic time window of 2-BFI should be determined. Sprague-Dawley rats provided by Wenzhou Medical University in China received right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 120 minutes, and were treated with 2-BFI (3 mg/kg) through the caudal vein at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours after reperfusion...
December 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Victoria A Chang, Dawn M Meyer, Brett C Meyer
BACKGROUND: Acute stroke codes may be activated for anisocoria, but how often these codes lead to a final stroke diagnosis or alteplase treatment is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of anisocoria in stroke codes that ultimately resulted in alteplase administration. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed consecutive alteplase-treated patients from a prospectively-collected stroke registry between February 2015 and July 2018. Based on the stroke code exam, patients were categorized as having isolated anisocoria [A+(only)], anisocoria with other findings [A+(other)], or no anisocoria [A-]...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
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