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Prolactin igf

Matthias K Auer, Mareike R Stieg, Alexander Crispin, Caroline Sievers, Günter K Stalla, Anna Kopczak
BACKGROUND: Empty sella is the neuroradiological or pathological finding of an apparently empty sella turcica containing no pituitary tissue. The prevalence of primary empty sella, i.e., empty sella without any discernible cause, is not precisely known; estimates range from 2% to 20%. Technical advances in neuroradiology have made empty sella an increasingly common incidental finding. It remains unclear whether, and to what extent, asymptomatic adult patients with an incidentally discovered empty sella should undergo diagnostic testing for hormonal disturbances...
February 16, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Elena Roca, Pier Paolo Mattogno, Teresa Porcelli, Luigi Poliani, Francesco Belotti, Alberto Schreiber, Filippo Maffezzoni, Marco Maria Fontanella, Francesco Doglietto
INTRODUCTION: Plurihormonal adenomas (PHA) represent 10-15% of all functioning pituitary adenomas. The most frequent hormonal association is represented by prolactin and growth hormone (GH). AIM: To describe a rare case of functional ACTH and GH microadenoma, together with a systematic literature review on PHA. METHODS: PubMed was searched using the terms "plurihormonal pituitary adenoma", "ACTH, GH pituitary adenoma", and "Acromegaly AND Cushing's disease"...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Bibiana Moreno-Carranza, Marco Bravo-Manríquez, Arelí Baez, María G Ledesma-Colunga, Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Pamela Reyes-Ortega, Ericka A De Los Ríos, Yazmín Macotela, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp
The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
M Shi, T Liu, T Li, H Wang, T Yuan, D Li, J Wang
Dietary threonine imbalance is known to impair reproductive performances of gestating sows, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, effects of deficiency and surplus dietary threonine during gestation on reproductive performance, serum metabolites and hormones concentration, and colostral nutrient and immunoglobulin contents of primiparous sows were investigated. Ninety primiparous pregnant gilts were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments with different standardized ileal digestible threonine/lysine ratios at 0...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Fabienne Langlois, Randall Woltjer, Justin S Cetas, Maria Fleseriu
Silent growth hormone adenomas (SGHA) are a rare entity of non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnosis is invariably made post-operatively of a tumor immunopositive for GH (and Pit-1 in selected cases) but without clinical acromegaly. Mainly young females are affected, and tumors are often uncovered by investigation for headaches or oligoamenorrhea. Integration of clinical, pathological and biochemical data is required for proper diagnosis. Beside normal IGF-1 levels, a third of SGHAs displays elevated GH levels and some will eventually progress to acromegaly...
January 5, 2018: Pituitary
A I Ateya, M S Hussein, H M Ghanem, R M Saleh, W B El-Domany, Y Y Elseady
The transition period is a critical time for dairy cows as the animal is subjected to the physiological stress accompanying parturition. Immunosuppression and health status were examined during this period in 80 Holstein cows. Blood samples were taken from each cow 3, 2 and 1 week before and after calving, and at calving (0 day). RNA was extracted and subjected to real-time PCR to determine mRNA levels for the immune-related genes TLR 2, 4, 6, 7 and β-defensin 5 in addition to the reproduction-related genes prolactin and IGF-I...
November 21, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Árpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVE: Lactation involves significant neuroendocrine changes. The elevated prolactin (PRL) release from the pituitary, induced markedly by suckling, is the most relevant example. Suckling also causes a significant and rapid elevation in growth hormone (GH) levels. GH is necessary for milk synthesis as milk yield is stopped completely in the absence of PRL and GH, while the absence of PRL alone causes only a 50% reduction. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays an important role in the GH axis...
December 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Isao Tamura, Yuichiro Shirafuta, Kousuke Jozaki, Takuya Kajimura, Masahiro Shinagawa, Ryo Maekawa, Toshiaki Taketani, Hiromi Asada, Shun Sato, Hiroshi Tamura, Norihiro Sugino
The Wilms tumor suppressor gene (WT1) encodes an essential transcription factor regulating mammalian urogenital development. However, the function of WT1 in human endometrium is still unclear. The current study examined the involvement of WT1 in the regulation of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and prolactin (PRL), which are specific markers of decidualization, in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) undergoing decidualization. ESCs isolated from proliferative-phase endometrium were incubated with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to induce decidualization...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
Siriwan Tangyuenyong, Fumio Sato, Yasuo Nambo, Harutaka Murase, Yoshiro Endo, Tomomi Tanaka, Kentaro Nagaoka, Gen Watanabe
This study aimed to compare body growth, metabolic, and reproductive hormonal changes in trained Thoroughbred yearling horses under different climate conditions with and without light supplementation (LS). Thoroughbred yearlings raised at research centers of the Japan Racing Association in Hokkaido (north) or Miyazaki (south) were divided into control and LS groups. In the LS groups, 44 colts and 47 fillies from Hokkaido and 11 colts and 11 fillies from Miyazaki were exposed to LS with an extended photoperiod of 14...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
Yi Zhao, Wei Lian, Bing Xing, Ming Feng, Xiaohai Liu, Renzhi Wang, Huanwen Wu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and microsurgical therapy of pituitary adenomas in elderly patients. METHOD: This article describes a retrospective study of 130 pituitary adenomas in elderly patients over 65years of age who underwent a microsurgical operation using the transsphenoidal approach and were admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from January 2010 to December 2012. RESULTS: A total of 60 (46...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
C Farmer, M Lessard, C H Knight, H Quesnel
The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; = 10) or 75 IU of OXY ( = 10). Injections were given twice daily (0800 and 1630 h) starting on d 2 of lactation (i.e., between 12 and 20 h after birth of the last piglet), totaling 4 injections. Milk samples were obtained before the first injection (d 2 morning [AM]), before the second injection (d 2 afternoon [PM]), and on d 4 PM and d 5 PM...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
José I Schwerdt, Micaela Lopez-Leon, Gloria M Cónsole, Oscar A Brown, Gustavo R Morel, Eduardo Spinedi, Rodolfo G Goya
The aging female rat constitutes an interesting model of spontaneous and progressive age-related dopaminergic dysfunction as it allows assessing new therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is emerging as a powerful neuroprotective molecule, strongly induced in the central nervous system after different insults. We constructed a helper-dependent recombinant adenoviral vector (HDRAd-IGFI) harboring the gene for rat IGF-I. This was used to implement long-term IGF-I gene therapy in the hypothalamus of aged female rats, which display hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) dysfunction and, as a consequence, chronic hyperprolactinemia...
September 6, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
András H Lékó, Melinda Cservenák, Éva Rebeka Szabó, János Hanics, Alán Alpár, Árpád Dobolyi
Adaptation to motherhood includes maternal behaviour and lactation during the postpartum period. The major organizing centres of maternal behaviour and lactation are located in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA) and the arcuate nucleus, respectively. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an effector of the growth hormone axis; however, its function in the brain is largely unexplored. We identified increased maternal IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) expression in preoptic rat microarray data and confirmed it by RT-PCR...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anne M Cochrane, Clement Cheung, Kasey Rangan, David Freyer, Leena Nahata, Girish Dhall, Jonathan L Finlay
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of irradiation on endocrine function among patients with pediatric brain tumor are well documented. Intensive induction chemotherapy followed by marrow-ablative chemotherapy with autologous hematopoietic cell rescue (AuHCR) without central nervous system (CNS) irradiation has demonstrated efficacy in a proportion of very young children with some malignant CNS tumors. This study assessed the long-term endocrine function of young children following chemotherapy-only treatment regimens...
November 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Albert Beckers, Liliya Rostomyan, Iulia Potorac, Pablo Beckers, Adrian F Daly
X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) is a new, pediatric-onset genetic syndrome, due to Xq26.3 microduplications encompassing the GPR101 gene. XLAG has a remarkably distinct phenotype with disease onset occurring before the age of 5 in all cases described to date, which is significantly younger than in other forms of pituitary gigantism. These patients have mixed GH and prolactin positive adenomas and/or mixed-cell hyperplasia and highly elevated levels of GH/IGF-1 and prolactin. Given their particularly young age of onset, the significant GH hypersecretion can lead to a phenotype of severe gigantism with very advanced age-specific height Z-scores...
June 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
C Farmer, M Amezcua, R Bruckmaier, O Wellnitz, R Friendship
It was recently shown that a teat that is not used in the first lactation will have a reduced development and milk yield in the second lactation. In the current study, the impact of imposing a suckling period of 2, 7, or 21 d during the first lactation on piglet performance, milk composition, endocrine status, and mammary gene expression of sows in their second lactation was studied. Pregnant Yorkshire gilts were divided into 3 groups according to lactation length: 1) 2-d lactation (2D; = 20), 2) 7-d lactation (7D; = 20), and 3) 21-d lactation (21D; = 21)...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Yahui Gao, Jianping Jiang, Shaohua Yang, Yali Hou, George E Liu, Shengli Zhang, Qin Zhang, Dongxiao Sun
BACKGROUND: Copy number variations (CNVs) are important and widely distributed in the genome. CNV detection opens a new avenue for exploring genes associated with complex traits in humans, animals and plants. Herein, we present a genome-wide assessment of CNVs that are potentially associated with milk composition traits in dairy cattle. RESULTS: In this study, CNVs were detected based on whole genome re-sequencing data of eight Holstein bulls from four half- and/or full-sib families, with extremely high and low estimated breeding values (EBVs) of milk protein percentage and fat percentage...
March 29, 2017: BMC Genomics
L Dishon, N Avital-Cohen, D Malamud, R Heiblum, S Druyan, T E Porter, M Gumulka, I Rozenboim
Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0...
June 1, 2017: Poultry Science
Zhi Chen, Jun Luo, ChangHui Zhang, Yue Ma, Shuang Sun, Tianyin Zhang, Juan J Loor
Prolactin is an important endocrine activator of lactogenesis. This study investigated the function and mechanism of miR-135b in the enhancement of lactation by prolactin in goat mammary epithelial tissue. We utilized S-Poly (T) sequencing to evaluate changes in gene regulation in the goat mammary gland after incubation with 2.5 μg/ml prolactin and 2.5 μg/ml IGF-1 by examining highly expressed miRNAs during early lactation and late-lactation. The results illustrated that miR-135b is highly expressed in the goat mammary gland during early lactation and late-lactation, and also after treatment with 2...
January 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anika Hüsing, Renée T Fortner, Tilman Kühn, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Gianluca Severi, Agnes Fournier, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Vassiliki Benetou, Philippos Orfanos, Giovanna Masala, Valeria Pala, Rosario Tumino, Francesca Fasanelli, Salvatore Panico, H Bas Bueno de Mesquita, Petra H Peeters, Carla H van Gills, J Ramón Quirós, Antonio Agudo, Maria-Jose Sánchez, Maria-Dolores Chirlaque, Aurelio Barricarte, Pilar Amiano, Kay-Tee Khaw, Ruth C Travis, Laure Dossus, Kuanrong Li, Pietro Ferrari, Melissa A Merritt, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Elio Riboli, Rudolf Kaaks
Purpose: Circulating hormone concentrations are associated with breast cancer risk, with well-established associations for postmenopausal women. Biomarkers may represent minimally invasive measures to improve risk prediction models.Experimental Design: We evaluated improvements in discrimination gained by adding serum biomarker concentrations to risk estimates derived from risk prediction models developed by Gail and colleagues and Pfeiffer and colleagues using a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort, including 1,217 breast cancer cases and 1,976 matched controls...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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