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Nathan Ford, Martina Penazzato, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Mary-Ann Davies, Elizabeth Zaniewski, Olga Tymejczyk, Matthias Egger, Denis Nash
In 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that all people living with HIV (PLWH) should start antiretroviral therapy (ART) irrespective of clinical or immune status. This recommendation followed almost 20 years of research into the clinical and population-level benefits and risks of starting ART early compared with deferring treatment. This article summarises the ways in which observational data support the work of WHO, including the support provided by the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA), taking the example of 'treat all'...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Martina Minotto, Alexander S Harrison, Giovanni Grazzi, Jonathan Myers, Patrick Doherty
Introduction: Patients with heart failure (HF) are now a priority group for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). A fundamental component of CR is increasing physical fitness through exercise training. Even though studies show fitness benefits, there is little evidence in routine populations of individual factors that may influence fitness. This study aims to evaluate the extent to which demographics and clinical measures predict physical fitness in patients with HF and develop reference values to guide practice...
March 2019: IJC Heart & Vasculature
E Concannon, S Carr, A Doherty, S J McInerney, J Birrane, L Kearney, A J Hussey, S M Potter, J L Kelly, N M McInerney
Self-harm is a common source of referral to plastic and hand surgery services. Appropriate management of these patients is complex and includes the need for close liaison with mental health services. Self-harm is the single biggest risk factor for completed suicide, thereby increasing the risk by a factor of 66.1 This study aimed to analyse the clinical pathway and demographics of patients referred to plastic surgeons following self-harm. This 6-year retrospective series included patients referred to plastic surgeons following self-harm within the Galway University Hospital group...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Brenessa Lindeman, Atul A Gawande, Francis D Moore, Nancy L Cho, Gerard M Doherty, Matthew A Nehs
BACKGROUND: Objective criteria are lacking to determine whether a laparoscopic transabdominal (LA) or retroperitoneoscopic (RP) approach to adrenalectomy is optimal. We hypothesized that imaging characteristics could predict patients for whom RP adrenalectomy is the optimal approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing minimally invasive adrenalectomy between 2014 and 2016 (n = 113) at one institution. Imaging measurements included distances between the skin and Gerota's fascia (S-GF), upper borders of adrenal and kidney (A-K), adrenal and 12th rib (A-R), 12th rib and iliac crest (R-IC), and perinephric fat (PNF)...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
Richard Ig Holt, Daniel Hind, Rebecca Gossage-Worrall, Michael J Bradburn, David Saxon, Paul McCrone, Tiyi A Morris, Angela Etherington, David Shiers, Katharine Barnard, Lizzie Swaby, Charlotte Edwardson, Marian E Carey, Melanie J Davies, Christopher M Dickens, Yvonne Doherty, Paul French, Kathryn E Greenwood, Sridevi Kalidindi, Kamlesh Khunti, Richard Laugharne, John Pendlebury, Shanaya Rathod, Najma Siddiqi, Stephen Wright, Glenn Waller, Fiona Gaughran, Janette Barnett, Alison Northern
BACKGROUND: Obesity is twice as common in people with schizophrenia as in the general population. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance recommends that people with psychosis or schizophrenia, especially those taking antipsychotics, be offered a healthy eating and physical activity programme by their mental health care provider. There is insufficient evidence to inform how these lifestyle services should be commissioned. OBJECTIVES: To develop a lifestyle intervention for people with first episode psychosis or schizophrenia and to evaluate its clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, delivery and acceptability...
November 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Sehee Kim, Miao Wang, Jonathan P Tyrer, Allan Jensen, Ashley Wiensch, Gang Liu, Alice W Lee, Roberta B Ness, Maxwell Salvatore, Shelley S Tworoger, Alice S Whittemore, Hoda Anton-Culver, Weiva Sieh, Sara H Olson, Andrew Berchuck, Ellen L Goode, Marc T Goodman, Jennifer Anne Doherty, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Mary Anne Rossing, Penelope M Webb, Graham G Giles, Kathryn L Terry, Argyrios Ziogas, Renée T Fortner, Usha Menon, Simon A Gayther, Anna H Wu, Honglin Song, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Elisa V Bandera, Linda S Cook, Daniel W Cramer, Roger L Milne, Stacey J Winham, Susanne K Kjaer, Francesmary Modugno, Pamela J Thompson, Jenny Chang-Claude, Holly R Harris, Joellen M Schildkraut, Nhu D Le, Nico Wentzensen, Britton Trabert, Estrid Høgdall, David Huntsman, Malcolm C Pike, Paul D P Pharoah, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Bhramar Mukherjee
As a follow-up to genome-wide association analysis of common variants associated with ovarian carcinoma (cancer), this study considers seven well-known ovarian cancer risk factors and their interactions with 28 genome-wide significant common genetic variants. The interaction analyses were based on data from 9,971 ovarian cancer cases and 15,566 controls from 17 case-control studies. Likelihood ratio and Wald tests for multiplicative interaction and for relative excess risk due to additive interaction were used...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yibeltal Mekonnen, Charlotte Hanlon, Solomon Emyu, Ruth Vania Cornick, Lara Fairall, Daniel Gebremichael, Telahun Teka, Solomon Shiferaw, Wubaye Walelgne, Yoseph Mamo, Temesgen Ayehu, Meseret Wale, Tracy Eastman, Ajibola Awotiwon, Camilla Wattrus, Sandy Claire Picken, Christy-Joy Ras, Lauren Anderson, Tanya Doherty, Martin James Prince, Desalegn Tegabu
The Federal Ministry of Health, Ethiopia, recognised the potential of the Practical Approach to Care Kit (PACK) programme to promote integrated, comprehensive and evidence-informed primary care as a means to achieving universal health coverage. Localisation of the PACK guide to become the 'Ethiopian Primary Health Care Clinical Guidelines' (PHCG) was spearheaded by a core team of Ethiopian policy and technical experts, mentored by the Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town. A research collaboration, ASSET (he A lth S ystems S tr E ng T hening in sub-Saharan Africa), has brought together policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and health systems researchers from Ethiopia (Addis Ababa University) and overseas partners for the PACK localisation process, and will develop, implement and evaluate health systems strengthening interventions needed for a successful scale-up of the Ethiopian PHCG...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Gary Joseph Doherty, Deirdre Lynskey, Athena Matakidou, Kate Fife, Tim Eisen
Introduction: The AXIS trial established axitinib as a standard of care treatment for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after failure of a prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Axitinib dosing begins at 5  mg twice daily, with escalation of doses to 7  and 10  mg after consecutive 2-week intervals if tolerated (as per the drug label). Given clinical concerns about drug-related toxicity, we have used a pragmatic strategy where dose escalations were made only after disease progression or where rapid responses were clinically required...
2018: ESMO Open
Catherine P O'Sullivan, Theresa Lamagni, Darshana Patel, Androulla Efstratiou, Robert Cunney, Mary Meehan, Shamez Ladhani, Arlene J Reynolds, Ruth Campbell, Lorraine Doherty, Margaret Boyle, Georgia Kapatai, Victoria Chalker, Diane Lindsay, Andrew Smith, Eleri Davies, Christine E Jones, Paul T Heath
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus is a leading cause of serious infection in young infants in many countries worldwide. We aimed to define the burden and clinical features of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days in the UK and Ireland, together with the characteristics of disease-causing isolates. METHODS: Prospective, active national surveillance of invasive group B streptococcal disease in infants younger than 90 days was done from April 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, through the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit, microbiology reference laboratories, and national public health agencies in the UK and Ireland...
November 26, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Hyewon Lee, Natalia I Chalmers, Avery Brow, Sean Boynes, Michael Monopoli, Mark Doherty, Olivia Croom, Lilly Engineer
BACKGROUND: To achieve optimal health and oral health, the system of care must place a person and their social well-being at the center of decision making and understand factors spent outside the clinical settings, including individual behavior, context and lifestyle. MAIN TEXT: Person-centered care offers a unique and compelling opportunity for dentistry, and its practitioners, to improve quality of care and overall health outcomes. For decades, the dominant treatment modalities within dentistry primarily focused on a surgical, treatment-oriented approach as opposed to health promotion and improvement...
November 29, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Tharmegan Tharmaratnam, Mina A Iskandar, Sally Doherty, Katrina A D'Urzo, Swana Kopalakrishnan, Tyler Cameron Tabobondung, Prasaanthan Gopee-Ramanan, Seyon Sivagurunathan, Nirunthan Sivananthan
Unequivocal evidence suggests an increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) amongst South Asian Canadians (SACs) compared to other ethnic cohorts, due to a combination of their unique cardiometabolic profile and environmental factors. This unfavorable CVD profile is characterized by an elevated risk of dyslipidemia, high apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A1 ratio, hypertension, glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as increased BMI, body fat percentage, abdominal and visceral adiposity...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Chao Zhou, Louis Longley, Andraž Krajnc, Glen J Smales, Ang Qiao, Ilknur Erucar, Cara M Doherty, Aaron W Thornton, Anita J Hill, Christopher W Ashling, Omid T Qazvini, Seok J Lee, Philip A Chater, Nicholas J Terrill, Andrew J Smith, Yuanzheng Yue, Gregor Mali, David A Keen, Shane G Telfer, Thomas D Bennett
To date, only several microporous, and even fewer nanoporous, glasses have been produced, always via post synthesis acid treatment of phase separated dense materials, e.g. Vycor glass. In contrast, high internal surface areas are readily achieved in crystalline materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). It has recently been discovered that a new family of melt quenched glasses can be produced from MOFs, though they have thus far lacked the accessible and intrinsic porosity of their crystalline precursors...
November 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Ruth Cornick, Camilla Wattrus, Tracy Eastman, Christy Joy Ras, Ajibola Awotiwon, Lauren Anderson, Eric Bateman, Jorge Zepeda, Merrick Zwarenstein, Tanya Doherty, Lara Fairall
Developing a health system intervention that helps to improve primary care in a low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) is a considerable challenge; finding ways to spread that intervention to other LMICs is another. The Practical Approach to Care Kit (PACK) programme is a complex health system intervention that has been developed and adopted as policy in South Africa to improve and standardise primary care delivery. We have successfully spread PACK to several other LMICs, including Botswana, Brazil, Nigeria and Ethiopia...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Camilla Wattrus, Jorge Zepeda, Ruth Vania Cornick, Ronaldo Zonta, Matheus Pacheco de Andrade, Lara Fairall, Daniella Georgeu-Pepper, Lauren Anderson, Tracy Eastman, Eric D Bateman, Alvaro A Cruz, Max O Bachmann, Sonia Natal, Tanya Doherty, Rafael Stelmach
Brazil's Sistema Único de Saúde, or Unified Health System policy, has delivered major improvements in health coverage and outcomes, but challenges remain, including the rise of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and variations in quality of care across the country. Some of these challenges may be met through the adaptation and implementation of a South African primary care strategy, the Practical Approach to Care Kit (PACK). Developed by the University of Cape Town's Knowledge Translation Unit (KTU), PACK is intended for in-country adaptation by employing a mentorship model...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Kevin Doherty, Marguerite Barry, José Marcano-Belisario, Bérenger Arnaud, Cecily Morrison, Josip Car, Gavin Doherty
BACKGROUND: Maternal mental health impacts both parental well-being and childhood development. In the United Kingdom, 15% of women are affected by depression during pregnancy or within 1 year of giving birth. Suicide is a leading cause of perinatal maternal mortality, and it is estimated that >50% of perinatal depression cases go undiagnosed. Mobile technologies are potentially valuable tools for the early recognition of depressive symptoms, but complex design challenges must be addressed to enable their use in public health screening...
November 27, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Dara A O'Keeffe, Emmeline Nugent, Karen Neylon, Ronán M Conroy, Paul Neary, Eva M Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether scores on a psychological measure of concentration and interpersonal characteristics, The Attentional and Interpersonal Style Inventory (TAIS), are associated with performance of surgical skills. DESIGN: Postgraduate surgical trainees completed an operative surgical skills assessment in the simulation laboratory and the psychological measure (TAIS). The surgical skills assessment consisted of 6 tasks (3 per trainee): laceration suturing; lipoma excision; incision and closure of a laparotomy wound; bowel anastomosis; saphenofemoral junction ligation and basic laparoscopic skills...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Saša Šviković, Alastair Crisp, Sue Mei Tan-Wong, Thomas A Guilliam, Aidan J Doherty, Nicholas J Proudfoot, Guillaume Guilbaud, Julian E Sale
During DNA replication, conflicts with ongoing transcription are frequent and require careful management to avoid genetic instability. R-loops, three-stranded nucleic acid structures comprising a DNA:RNA hybrid and displaced single-stranded DNA, are important drivers of damage arising from such conflicts. How R-loops stall replication and the mechanisms that restrain their formation during S phase are incompletely understood. Here, we show in vivo how R-loop formation drives a short purine-rich repeat, (GAA)10 , to become a replication impediment that engages the repriming activity of the primase-polymerase PrimPol...
November 26, 2018: EMBO Journal
Taylor A Doherty, David H Broide
The recent discovery of innate lymphoid cells has revolutionized our understanding of the pathogenesis of immune diseases including allergy and asthma. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous collection of lymphocytes that lack antigen-specificity (non-T, non-B cells) and potently produce characteristic cytokines of T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17). ILCs are divided into group 1 (ILC1s), group 2 (ILC2s), or group 3 (ILC3s). Similar to Th2 cells, ILC2s produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, among others, and are present in increased numbers in samples from patients with many allergic disorders including asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)...
November 22, 2018: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
William B Dobyns, Kimberly A Aldinger, Gisele E Ishak, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Andrew E Timms, Megan E Grout, Marjolein H G Dremmen, Rachel Schot, Laura Vandervore, Marjon A van Slegtenhorst, Martina Wilke, Esmee Kasteleijn, Arthur S Lee, Brenda J Barry, Katherine R Chao, Krzysztof Szczałuba, Joyce Kobori, Andrea Hanson-Kahn, Jonathan A Bernstein, Lucinda Carr, Felice D'Arco, Kaori Miyana, Tetsuya Okazaki, Yoshiaki Saito, Masayuki Sasaki, Soma Das, Marsha M Wheeler, Michael J Bamshad, Deborah A Nickerson, Elizabeth C Engle, Frans W Verheijen, Dan Doherty, Grazia M S Mancini
To date, mutations in 15 actin- or microtubule-associated genes have been associated with the cortical malformation lissencephaly and variable brainstem hypoplasia. During a multicenter review, we recognized a rare lissencephaly variant with a complex brainstem malformation in three unrelated children. We searched our large brain-malformation databases and found another five children with this malformation (as well as one with a less severe variant), analyzed available whole-exome or -genome sequencing data, and tested ciliogenesis in two affected individuals...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Ruth Doherty
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2018: British Dental Journal
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