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Persistent Inflammation

Rupesh Agrawal, Dinesh Visva Gunasekeran, Dhananjay Raje, Aniruddha Agarwal, Quan Dong Nguyen, Onn Min Kon, Carlos Pavesio, Vishali Gupta
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine regional variation management practices and outcomes for tubercular uveitis (TBU). Methods: In this retrospective multinational cohort study, patients from 25 international eye care centers diagnosed with TBU with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were included. The geographic variation in treatment outcomes on survival analysis in patients with TBU were analyzed. Treatment failure is defined as a persistence or recurrence of inflammation within 6 months of completing antitubercular therapy, the inability to taper oral corticosteroids to less than 10 mg/d or topical corticosteroid drops to less than 2 drops daily, and/or recalcitrant inflammation necessitating corticosteroid-sparing immunosuppressive therapy...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Dongyu Jia, Yoshiko Nagaoka, Makoto Katsumata, Sandra Orsulic
The incidence of ovarian cancer dramatically increases in early menopause but the factors contributing to cancer onset are unclear. Most ovarian cancers originate in the fallopian tube with subsequent implantation of malignant cells into the ovary. However, the events and conditions that lead to cancer cell implantation are unknown. To quantify which conditions are conducive to the seeding of cancer cells in an immunocompetent mouse model, we surgically implanted mouse ovarian cancer cells into the oviducts of syngeneic mice and simulated conditions associated with ovulatory wound repair, incessant ovulation, ovarian surface scarring, and aging...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xu Jiang, Palanivel Ganesan, Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan, Dong-Kug Choi, Palanisamy Arulselvan
Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is undoubtedly a multifactorial phenomenon, with diverse etiological agents. Pro-inflammatory mediators act as a skew that directs disease progression during neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the dynamics of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in preventing or reducing disease progression has recently gained much attention. Inflammatory neuro-degeneration is regulated via cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and immune cell subsets; however, individual cellular phenotypes in the Central Nervous System (CNS) acts in diverse ways whose persistent activation leads to unresolving inflammation often causing unfavorable outcomes in neurodegenerative disease like PD...
July 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
A Moeser, M Lerche, H Wirtz, A Stallmach
The incidence of pulmonary manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) appears to be much higher than previously assumed. In prospective studies, subclinical pulmonary interstitial infiltrates or pathological lung function were found in 40%-60% of IBD patients, both in children and adults. Pulmonary disorders can affect any part of the respiratory system, the most frequent pattern being inflammation of the large airways often associated with bronchiectasis. The differential diagnosis should include drug-related pulmonary disease and infectious causes when receiving immunosuppressive therapy...
August 16, 2018: Der Internist
Marina Dias-Neto, Jorn P Meekel, Theodorus G van Schaik, Jacqueline Hoozemans, Fábio Sousa-Nunes, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, Rutger J Lely, Willem Wisselink, Jan D Blankensteijn, Kak K Yeung
OBJECTIVES: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is currently seen as a paracrine organ that produces vasoactive substances, including inflammatory agents, which may have an impact on the vasculature. In this study PVAT density was quantified in patients with an aortic aneurysm and compared with those with a non-dilated aorta. Since chronic inflammation, as the pathway to medial thinning, is a hallmark of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), it was hypothesised that PVAT density is higher in AAA patients...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Takashi Hoshino, Kunikazu Tsuji, Hiroaki Onuma, Mio Udo, Hiroko Ueki, Masako Akiyama, Kahaer Abula, Hiroki Katagiri, Kazumasa Miyatake, Toshihumi Watanabe, Ichiro Sekiya, Hideyuki Koga, Takeshi Muneta
BACKGROUND: The major complaint of knee osteoarthritis (OA) is persistent pain. Unlike acute inflammatory pain, persistent pain is usually difficult to manage since its pathology is not fully understood. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of persistent pain, we established 2 different inflammation-induced arthritis models by injecting monoiodo-acetic acid (MIA) into the joint cavity and performed integrated analyses of the structural changes in the synovial tissue and articular cartilage, sensory neuron rearrangement, and pain avoidance behavior in a rat arthritis model...
August 16, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Gökhan Keser, Kenan Aksu, Haner Direskeneli
Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a challenging chronic, granulomatous, large-vessel systemic vasculitis, mostly due to difficulties in early diagnosis and assessing actual disease activity. Since there are no specific diagnostic laboratory tests, biomarkers, or autoantibodies, many patients experience considerable delay in diagnosis. Remembering the possibility of TAK together with the use of acute phase responses and appropriate imaging studies may be helpful for early diagnosis. Since there may be discrepancies between systemic and vascular wall inflammation, using only acute phase responses is not reliable in assessing current disease activity...
August 16, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Lucy D Burr, Geraint B Rogers, Alice C-H Chen, Steven L Taylor, Simon D Bowler, Rebecca L Keating, Megan L Martin, Sumaira Z Hasnain, Michael A McGuckin
BACKGROUND: Chronic airway inflammation in conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis is characterised by a predominant neutrophilic inflammatory response, commonly due to the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We hypothesised that down-regulation of the anti-inflammatory nuclear transcription regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ in non-CF bronchiectasis subjects may explain why this exuberant neutrophilic inflammation is able to persist unchecked in the inflamed airway...
2018: PloS One
Shao-Jun Li, Yu-Fen Zhang, Se-Hui Ma, Yao Yi, Hong-Yan Yu, Lei Pei, Dan Feng
BACKGROUND: NLRP3 inflammasome plays a prominent role in the pathogenesis and progression of many diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. However, little knowledge is known about the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in central post-stroke pain (CPSP). METHODS: We selected relevant studies by searching PubMed, Embase, and Medline from inception through February, 2018. We systematically reviewed available publications according to the terms "NLRP3 inflammasome" and "stroke" or "central post-stroke pain" in the title/abstract field...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Fei Ma, David E Hunt, Lin Leng, Richard Bucala, Katherine L Meyer-Siegler, Pedro L Vera
OBJECTIVES: To develop a rodent model of persistent non-inflammatory bladder pain and to test macrophage migration inhibitory factor and high mobility box group 1 as mediators of bladder pain. METHODS: Female C57BL/6 mice received intravesical instillations of protease activated receptor 4 (100 μmol/L, for 1 h) three times every other day and abdominal mechanical hypersensitivity (50% mechanical threshold) was tested on day 0 (baseline), and at days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 after the first protease-activated receptor 4 injection...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
M Sarkar, N Terrault, C C Duwaerts, P Tien, M I Cedars, H Huddleston
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) affects 10-15% of reproductive age women and is a recognized risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The more severe form of NAFLD, known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), results in liver inflammation with or without fibrosis, and is now a leading cause of cirrhosis. Ethnic differences are apparent in NAFLD, with higher prevalence in Hispanics, although the role of Hispanic ethnicity on risk for NAFLD/NASH in women with PCOS is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence and risk of NAFLD/NASH in women with PCOS...
February 20, 2018: Current opinion in gynecology and obstetrics
Ching-Chou Tsai, Yu-Ju Lin, Hong-Ren Yu, Jiunn-Ming Sheen, You-Lin Tain, Li-Tung Huang, Mao-Meng Tiao
Prenatal exposure to glucocorticoids is associated with negative health consequences for the offspring that persist into adulthood, including liver steatosis. Melatonin has previously been demonstrated to suppress liver steatosis and oxidative stress in humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and in animal models of obesity. The present study aimed to determine whether melatonin protects against liver steatosis induced by prenatal dexamethasone exposure followed by postnatal high-fat diet. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestational days 14-21 were administered dexamethasone (0...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
David Schwarz, Konrad Johannes Stuermer, Jan Christoffer Luers
AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate different irrigation solutions during sialendoscopy to reduce complaints caused by sialodochitis. METHODS: The investigators designed and implemented a retrospective study composed of 94 patients with sialodochitis but no sialolithiasis or relevant stenosis of the salivary duct system. Three different irrigations (normal saline, cortisone single-shot, and cortisone) were used. After the sialendoscopy, the patients were asked about the current status of the affected salivary gland, and the quantity and quality of the gland swelling/inflammation over a follow-up period of 11...
August 15, 2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Fereshteh Asgharzadeh, Rahimeh Bargi, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mehdi Farzadnia, Majid Khazaei
BACKGROUND: Subclinical inflammation induced by persistent exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is found in some clinical conditions such as obesity or diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the effect of recurrent LPS exposure on inflammatory markers, oxidative stress balance and cardiac and renal fibrosis in male rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into control and LPS-treated. LPS (10 mg/kg/week) was injected intraperitoneally. After 4 weeks, left ventricles and kidneys were homogenized and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome for histological examination...
March 2018: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Benoit Allard, Alice Panariti, James G Martin
Pathogen persistence in the respiratory tract is an important preoccupation, and of particular relevance to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. The equilibrium between elimination of pathogens and the magnitude of the host response is a sword of Damocles for susceptible patients. The alveolar macrophage is the first sentinel of the respiratory tree and constitutes the dominant immune cell in the steady state. This immune cell is a key player in the balance between defense against pathogens and tolerance toward innocuous stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Simon Soudet, David Fajgenbaum, Claire Delattre, Alexandra Forestier, Eric Hachulla, Pierre Yves Hatron, David Launay, Louis Terriou
Patients with HHV-8-negative/idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) experience systemic inflammatory symptoms and polyclonal lymphoproliferation due to an unknown etiology. Schnitzler's syndrome (SS) is characterized by recurrent urticarial rash, monoclonal IgM gammopathy, and other clinical signs of inflammation. To our knowledge, we report the first case of iMCD associated with SS and the fourth case of anakinra inducing a complete response for an iMCD patient. A forty-four year old woman with a history of a recurrent urticarial rash, presented to our hospital complaining of 6 months of night sweats, fever, chronic urticaria, iliac bone pain, and generalized lymphadenopathy...
August 11, 2018: Current Research in Translational Medicine
Felicity C Fitzgerald, Edouard Lhomme, Kathryn Harris, Julia Kenny, Ronan Doyle, Cissy Kityo, Liam B Shaw, George Abongomera, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Julianne R Brown, Anthony Brooks, Ellen Owen-Powell, Diana M Gibb, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Nigel Klein
Objective: Immune activation is associated with morbidity/mortality in HIV-infection despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether microbial translocation drives immune activation in HIV-infected Ugandan children. Methods: Nineteen markers of immune activation/inflammation were measured over 96 weeks in HIV-infected Ugandan children in CHAPAS-3 (ISRCTN69078957) and HIV-uninfected age-matched controls. Microbial translocation was assessed using molecular techniques including next-generation sequencing...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Elena Bruzzesi, Irini Sereti
The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the 1990s has dramatically changed the course of HIV infection, decreasing the risk for both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related events. Cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), liver and kidney disease, neurological disorders and frailty have become of great importance lately in the clinical management as they represent the principal cause of death in people living with HIV who receive cART (Kirk et al. in Clin Infect Dis 45(1):103-10, 2007; Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy Study et al...
August 14, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Meng-Yu Wu, Giuo-Teng Yiang, Pei-Wen Cheng, Pei-Yi Chu, Chia-Jung Li
Hepatocarcinogenesis comprises of multiple, complex steps that occur after liver injury and usually involve several pathways, including telomere dysfunction, cell cycle, WNT/β-catenin signaling, oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction, autophagy, apoptosis, and AKT/mTOR signaling. Following liver injury, gene mutations, accumulation of oxidative stress, and local inflammation lead to cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and necrosis. The persistence of this vicious cycle in turn leads to further gene mutation and dysregulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-18, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, resulting in immune escape by means of the NF-κB and inflammasome signaling pathways...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Simon Lecoutre, Paul Petrus, Mikael Rydén, Christophe Breton
An adverse nutritional environment during the perinatal period increases the risk of adult-onset metabolic diseases, such as obesity, which may persist across generations. Adipose tissue (AT) from offspring of malnourished dams has been shown to display altered adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and adipokine expression, impaired thermogenesis, and low-grade inflammation. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these alterations remain unclear, epigenetic processes are believed to have an important role. In this review, we focus on epigenetic mechanisms in AT that may account for transgenerational dysregulation of adipocyte formation and adipose function...
August 10, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
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