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Persistent Inflammation

Sanae Hasegawa-Ishii, Atsuyoshi Shimada, Fumiaki Imamura
BACKGROUND: Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are olfactory disorders caused by inflammation of the nasal passage and paranasal sinuses. Although chronic rhinosinusitis patients have smaller olfactory bulbs (OBs), there is limited knowledge regarding the influence of chronic nasal inflammation on OB neurons. OBJECTIVE: Repeated intranasal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that induced persistent nasal inflammation in mice caused a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and gliosis and synaptic loss in the OB within three weeks...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
A Hünerwadel, S Fagagnini, G Rogler, C Lutz, S U Jaeger, C Mamie, B Weder, P A Ruiz, M Hausmann
Intestinal fibrosis is thought to be a consequence of excessive tissue repair, and constitutes a common problem in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). While fibrosis seems to require inflammation as a prerequisite it is unclear whether the severity or persistence of inflammation influences the degree of fibrosis. Our aim was to investigate the role of sustained inflammation in fibrogenesis. For the initiation of fibrosis in vivo the models of Il10-/- spontaneous colitis, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced chronic colitis and heterotopic transplantation were used...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Li, Y Sun, L Zhong, Z Xiao, M Yang, M Chen, C Wang, X Xie, X Chen
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of atherosclerosis; however, whether they have crosstalk on this issue remains elusive. Here, we investigated the potential associations between lncRNA-MALAT1 and miR-155 on the regulation of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to assess the expression of MALAT1, IL-6 and IL-8...
June 28, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Nikita B Gadekar, Jagadish V Hosmani, Kishore G Bhat, Vijayalakshmi S Kotrashetti, Ramakant S Nayak, Deepa V Babji, Smita M Pattanshetty, Vinayak M Joshi, Rani A Bansode
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a persistent polymicrobial infection, which leads to chronic inflammation in the tooth supporting tissues. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are normal commensals of oral cavity but are low in number in periodontally healthy subjects. They are one of the major pathogens aetiologically linked to periodontal disease. Plasma and salivary antibody measurement may be useful to support diagnosis, disease activity, classification and prognosis of periodontitis...
October 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Laura Tarancón-Diez, Felipe García, Jorge Del Romero, Jose Miguel Benito, Verónica Alba, Pol Herrero, Anna Rull, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Onofre Martinez-Madrid, Luisa Martin-Pena, Federico Pulido, Agathe León, Carmen Rodríguez, Norma Rallón, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Manuel Leal, Francesc Vidal, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos
Background: Elite Controllers (EC) spontaneously control plasma HIV-1-RNA without antiretroviral therapy. However, 25% lose virological control over time. The aim of this work was to study the proteomic profile that preceded this loss of virological control to identify potential biomarkers. Methods: Plasma samples from EC who spontaneously lost virological control (Transient Controllers, TC), at two and one year before the loss of control, were compared with a control group of EC who persistently maintained virological control during the same follow-up period (Persistent Controllers, PC)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Maurizio Marchesini, Edoardo Flaviano, Valentina Bellini, Marco Baciarello, Elena Giovanna Bignami
Epiduroscopy is defined as a percutaneous, minimally invasive endoscopic investigation of the epidural space. Periduroscopy is currently used mainly as a diagnostic tool to directly visualize epidural adhesions in patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS), and as a therapeutic action in patients with low back pain by accurately administering drugs, releasing inflammation, washing the epidural space, and mechanically releasing the scars displayed. Considering epiduroscopy a minimally invasive technique should not lead to underestimating its potential complications...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
John V Forrester, Paul G McMenamin, Samantha J Dando
Classically, the CNS is described as displaying immune privilege, as it shows attenuated responses to challenge by alloantigen. However, the CNS does show local inflammation in response to infection. Although pathogen access to the brain parenchyma and retina is generally restricted by physiological and immunological barriers, certain pathogens may breach these barriers. In the CNS, such pathogens may either cause devastating inflammation or benefit from immune privilege in the CNS, where they are largely protected from the peripheral immune system...
October 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
Zheng Wang, Francesco Bonella, Wenting Li, Eda B Boerner, Qiongya Guo, Xianglong Kong, Xiaoju Zhang, Ulrich Costabel, Michael Kreuter
The mechanisms of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a rare, devastating disease with a median survival of 3-5 years, are not fully understood. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a frequent comorbidity encountered in IPF. Hypothetically, GERD-associated microaspiration may lead to persistent inflammation impairing lung infrastructure, thereby possibly accelerating the progression of IPF. IPF may increase intrathoracic pressure, which can aggravate GERD and vice versa. On the basis of the possible beneficial effects of antireflux or antacid therapy on lung function, acute exacerbation, and survival, the recent international IPF guideline recommends antacid therapies for patients with IPF, regardless of symptomatic GERD...
October 11, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Ashlyn C Harmon, Valeria Y Hebert, Stephania A Cormier, Balamurugan Subramanian, James R Reed, Wayne L Backes, Tammy R Dugas
Particulate matter (PM) is emitted during the combustion of fuels and wastes. PM exposure exacerbates pulmonary diseases, and the mechanism may involve oxidative stress. At lower combustion temperatures such as occurs in the cool zone of a flame, aromatic compounds chemisorb to the surface of metal-oxide-containing PM, resulting in the formation of surface-stabilized environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR). Prior studies showed that PM-containing EPFR redox cycle to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and after inhalation, EPFR induce pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress...
2018: PloS One
Peter Kuhn, Hetalben M Kalariya, Alexander Poulev, David M Ribnicky, Asha Jaja-Chimedza, Diana E Roopchand, Ilya Raskin
High-fat diet (HFD)-induced leaky gut syndrome combined with low-grade inflammation increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the intestine and may contribute to dysbiosis and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Poorly bioavailable and only partially metabolizable dietary polyphenols, such as proanthocyanidins (PACs), may exert their beneficial effects on metabolic health by scavenging intestinal ROS. To test this hypothesis, we developed and validated a novel, noninvasive, in situ method for visualizing intestinal ROS using orally administered ROS-sensitive indocyanine green (ICG) dye...
2018: PloS One
Joo Hee Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Seung Woo Shin, Dong Gyu Baek, Ji Hye Son, Choon Sik Park, Jong Sook Park
PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that responds to medications to varying degrees. Cluster analyses have identified several phenotypes and variables related to fixed airway obstruction; however, few longitudinal studies of lung function have been performed on adult asthmatics. We investigated clinical, demographic, and inflammatory factors related to persistent airflow limitation based on lung function trajectories over 1 year. METHODS: Serial post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1% values were obtained from 1,679 asthmatics who were followed up every 3 months for 1 year...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Tresa George, Mainak Chakraborty, Mark A Giembycz, Robert Newton
Background: Asthma exacerbations are associated with the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs. These cells release proteases and mediators, many of which act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that couple via Gq to promote bronchoconstriction and inflammation. Common asthma therapeutics up-regulate expression of the regulator of G protein signalling (RGS), RGS2. As RGS2 reduces signaling from Gq-coupled GPCRs, we have defined role(s) for this GTPase-activating protein in an acute neutrophilic model of lung inflammation...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Alexandra Y Soare, Natasha D Durham, Ramya Gopal, Benjamin Tweel, Kevin W Hoffman, Julia A Brown, Megan O'Brien, Nina Bhardwaj, Jean K Lim, Benjamin K Chen, Talia H Swartz
HIV-1 causes a persistent infection of the immune system that is associated with chronic comorbidities. The mechanisms that underlie this inflammation are poorly understood. Emerging literature has implicated pro-inflammatory purinergic receptors and downstream signaling mediators in HIV-1 infection. This study probed whether inhibitors of purinergic receptors would reduce HIV-1 infection and HIV-1 stimulated inflammation. A human ex vivo human tonsil histo-culture infection model was developed to support HIV-1 productive infection and stimulated inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and immunosuppressive cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Scott M O'Grady
Mucociliary clearance is critically important in protecting the airways from infection and from the harmful effects of smoke and various inspired substances known to induce oxidative stress and persistent inflammation. An essential feature of the clearance mechanism involves regulation of the periciliary liquid layer (PCL) on the surface of the airway epithelium, which is necessary for normal ciliary beating and for maintaining mucus hydration. The underlying ion transport processes associated with airway surface hydration include ENaC-dependent Na+ absorption occurring in parallel with CFTR and Ca2+ -activated Cl- channel-dependent anion secretion, which are coordinately regulated to control the depth of the PCL layer...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Lingling Yang, Songmei Zhang, Haoyun Duan, Muchen Dong, Xiaoli Hu, Zhaohua Zhang, Yao Wang, Xiaoping Zhang, Weiyun Shi, Qingjun Zhou
Chronic inflammation and severe dry eye are two important adverse factors for the successful transplant of cultured limbal stem cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inflammation and hyperosmotic stress (a key pathological factor in dry eye) on corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs) and corneal epithelial wound healing. We observed that the CESCs exhibited significant morphological changes when treated with either interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), or hyperosmotic stress...
October 9, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Gautam Mehta, Sam Rousell, Gary Burgess, Mark Morris, Gavin Wright, Stuart McPherson, Catherine Frenette, Matthew Cave, David T Hagerty, Alfred Spada, Rajiv Jalan
Background: Cirrhosis and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) are associated with systemic inflammation, and caspase-mediated hepatocyte cell death. Emricasan is a novel, pan-caspase inhibitor. Aims of this study were to assess the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety and clinical outcomes of emricasan in acute decompensation (AD) of cirrhosis. Methods: This was a phase 2, multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial. The primary objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of emricasan in patients with cirrhosis presenting with AD and organ failure...
September 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Richard J Lamont, Hyun Koo, George Hajishengallis
The dynamic and polymicrobial oral microbiome is a direct precursor of diseases such as dental caries and periodontitis, two of the most prevalent microbially induced disorders worldwide. Distinct microenvironments at oral barriers harbour unique microbial communities, which are regulated through sophisticated signalling systems and by host and environmental factors. The collective function of microbial communities is a major driver of homeostasis or dysbiosis and ultimately health or disease. Despite different aetiologies, periodontitis and caries are each driven by a feedforward loop between the microbiota and host factors (inflammation and dietary sugars, respectively) that favours the emergence and persistence of dysbiosis...
October 9, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Kulveer Mankia, Maria-Antonietta D'Agostino, Richard J Wakefield, Jackie L Nam, Waqar Mahmood, Andrew J Grainger, Paul Emery
OBJECTIVES: To use high-resolution imaging to characterise palindromic rheumatism (PR) and to compare the imaging pattern observed to that seen in new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (NORA). METHODS: Ultrasound (US) assessment of synovitis, tenosynovitis and non-synovial extracapsular inflammation (ECI) was performed during and between flares in a prospective treatment-naive PR cohort. MRI of the flaring region was performed where possible. For comparison, the same US assessment was also performed in anticyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) positive individuals with musculoskeletal symptoms (CCP+ at risk) and patients with NORA...
October 8, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Katia Fettucciari, Lara Macchioni, Magdalena Davidescu, Paolo Scarpelli, Camilla Palumbo, Lanfranco Corazzi, Andrea Marchegiani, Matteo Cerquetella, Andrea Spaterna, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile infection causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, with dramatic incidence/mortality worldwide. C. difficile virulence factors are toxin A and B (TcdB) which cause cytopathic/cytotoxic effects and inflammation. Until now studies were focused on molecular effects of C. difficile toxins on different cells while unexplored aspect is the status/fate of cells that survived their cytotoxicity. Recently we demonstrated that EGC are susceptible to TcdB cytotoxicity, but several EGC survived and were irreversibly cell-cycle arrested and metabolically active, suggesting that EGC could became senescent...
October 5, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Jonghyuck Park, Joseph T Decker, Dominique R Smith, Brian J Cummings, Aileen J Anderson, Lonnie D Shea
Recently, many clinical trials have challenged the efficacy of current therapeutics for neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) due to their life-threatening side-effects including addictions. Growing evidence suggests that persistent inflammatory responses after primary SCI lead to an imbalance between anti-inflammation and pro-inflammation, resulting in pathogenesis and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Conversely, a variety of data suggest that inflammation contributes to regeneration. Herein, we investigated long-term local immunomodulation using anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 or IL-4-encoding lentivirus delivered from multichannel bridges...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
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