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Pneumonia and changes in small lung airways

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067952/histopathologic-findings-in-lung-biopsies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#1
Hee Eun Lee, Andrew Churg, Jay H Ryu, Ana Maria Bilawich, Brandon T Larsen, Henry D Tazelaar, Eunhee S Yi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune disease of the liver causing destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, associated with lymphocytic and granulomatous inflammation. PBC has been associated with many extrahepatic manifestations including interstitial lung disease. However, comprehensive pulmonary histopathology in PBC has not been well documented. Sixteen PBC patients who underwent lung biopsies were identified from surgical pathology files in three institutions. Histopathologic review was performed...
July 29, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245357/igg4-related-lung-disease-presenting-as-interstitial-lung-disease-with-bronchiolitis-a-case-report
#2
Chiu-Fan Chen, Kuo-An Chu, Yen-Chiang Tseng, Chang-Che Wu, Ruay-Sheng Lai
RATIONALE: IgG4-related disease is a rare and novel disease entity that tends to involve multiple organs. The pulmonary manifestation of this disease is highly variable and may mimic lung cancer, pneumonia, interstitial lung disease (ILD), sarcoidosis, and so forth. Small airway disease is rarely reported in IgG4-related lung disease (IgG4-RLD). In the current study, we describe a rare case of IgG4-RLD with patterns of ILD and bronchiolitis. PATIENT CONCERN: A 43-year-old man had chronic cough and dyspnea on exertion for 4 years...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242720/correlation-between-radiological-and-pathological-findings-in-patients-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia
#3
REVIEW
Hiroshi Tanaka
Studies focused on the pathological-radiological correlation of human Mycoplasma (M) pneumoniae pneumonia have rarely been reported. Therefore, we extensively reviewed the literature regarding pathological and radiological studies of Mycoplasma pneumonia, and compared findings between open lung biopsy specimen and computed tomography (CT). Major three correlations were summarized. (1) Peribronchial and perivascular cuffing characterized by mononuclear cells infiltration was correlated with bronchovascular bundles thickening on CT, which was the most common finding of this pneumonia...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850892/-nose-only-cigarette-smoke-exposure-plus-airway-lipopolysaccharide-inhalation-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-associated-pulmonary-hypertension-in-mice
#4
Jiaze Shu, Wenju Lu, Defu Li, Zhihao Liang, Xiaoming Xu, Bo Zhang, Jian Wang
OBJECTIVE: To establish a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated pulmonary hypertension (COPD-PH) induced by nose-only cigarette smoking exposure plus airway lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation. METHODS: There were 24 male C57B6 mice divided into a control group and a model group at random. The model group was given LPS by intranasal inhalation on day 1 and day 14 and exposed to the cigarette smoke in a nose-only exposure system, while the control group was given physiological saline and exposed to normal air...
December 2015: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26742436/changes-of-airway-reactivity-after-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-children-a-study-for-early-precautions-against-pediatric-asthma
#5
Han Zhang, Gaomei Lv, Yunxiao Shang, Liyun Liu, Yun Xiang, Jing Feng, Zhijia Wang
The relationship between Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection and asthma has rarely been explored through examination of airway reactivity. The aim of this study was to determine airway reactivity changes after MP infection in children. First, 106 children were divided into four groups according to the existence of MP infection and/or asthma. Then children with only MP belonged to the MP group; children who had both MP infection and asthma belonged to the MP+A group; children with asthma but not MP infection belonged to the non-MP+A group; normal children were classified as normal control (NC) group...
October 2015: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890330/jagged-1-is-required-for-the-expansion-of-cd4-cd25-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-and-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells-by-murine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#6
Emer F Cahill, Laura M Tobin, Fiona Carty, Bernard P Mahon, Karen English
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have well defined immunomodulatory properties including the suppression of lymphocyte proliferation and inhibition of dendritic cell (DC) maturation involving both cell contact and soluble factors. These properties have made MSC attractive candidates for cellular therapy. However, the mechanism underlying these characteristics remains unclear. This study sought to investigate the mechanisms by which MSC induce a regulatory environment. METHOD: Allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were cultured with T cells or dendritic cells in the presence or absence of gamma secretase inhibitor to block Notch receptor signalling...
March 11, 2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25604113/-clinical-investigation-of-detecting-the-bronchi-responsible-for-pulmonary-air-leakage-by-injecting-methylene-blue-saline-in-27-cases-with-intractable-pneumothorax-and-bronchial-fistula
#7
Pule Jin, Hui Ge, Luanshun Peng, Guojun Wang, Wenxia Hu, Shan Song
OBJECTIVE: To establish a new method for detecting the bronchus responsible for pulmonary air leakage by injecting methylene blue saline and to evaluate its efficacy and safety in cases with intractable pneumothorax and bronchial fistula. METHODS: From January 2006 to October 2013, a total of 19 cases of intractable spontaneous pneumothorax and 8 cases of bronchial fistula were recruited in the study at the Fourth Hospital affiliated to Hebei Medical University...
November 2014: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25378080/altered-molecular-specificity-of-surfactant-phosphatidycholine-synthesis-in-patients-with-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Victoria Goss, Rebecca Cusack, Michael P W Grocott, Anthony D Postle
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening critical illness, characterised by qualitative and quantitative surfactant compositional changes associated with premature airway collapse, gas-exchange abnormalities and acute hypoxic respiratory failure. The underlying mechanisms for this dysregulation in surfactant metabolisms are not fully explored. Lack of therapeutic benefits from clinical trials, highlight the importance of detailed in-vivo analysis and characterisation of ARDS patients according to patterns of surfactant synthesis and metabolism...
2014: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25172162/glyphosate-rich-air-samples-induce-il-33-tslp-and-generate-il-13-dependent-airway-inflammation
#9
Sudhir Kumar, Marat Khodoun, Eric M Kettleson, Christopher McKnight, Tiina Reponen, Sergey A Grinshpun, Atin Adhikari
Several low weight molecules have often been implicated in the induction of occupational asthma. Glyphosate, a small molecule herbicide, is widely used in the world. There is a controversy regarding a role of glyphosate in developing asthma and rhinitis among farmers, the mechanism of which is unexplored. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of glyphosate induced pulmonary pathology by utilizing murine models and real environmental samples. C57BL/6, TLR4-/-, and IL-13-/- mice inhaled extracts of glyphosate-rich air samples collected on farms during spraying of herbicides or inhaled different doses of glyphosate and ovalbumin...
November 5, 2014: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24866797/development-and-characterization-of-a-long-term-murine-model-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-of-the-lower-airways
#10
Louise Haste, Kathryn Hulland, Sarah Bolton, Hasan Yesilkaya, Kenneth McKechnie, Peter W Andrew
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by long periods of stable symptoms, but exacerbations occur, which result in a permanent worsening of symptoms. Previous studies have shown a link between bacterial colonization of the lower airways of COPD sufferers and an increase in exacerbation frequency. One of the most frequent bacterial colonizers is Streptococcus pneumoniae. To mimic this aspect of COPD, a murine model of low-level pneumococcal colonization in the lung has been developed, in which S...
August 2014: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24766293/acute-pulmonary-toxicity-following-inhalation-exposure-to-aerosolized-vx-in-anesthetized-rats
#11
Xinqi Peng, Michael W Perkins, Jannitt Simons, Alicia M Witriol, Ashley M Rodriguez, Brittany M Benjamin, Jennifer Devorak, Alfred M Sciuto
This study evaluated acute toxicity and pulmonary injury in rats at 3, 6 and 24 h after an inhalation exposure to aerosolized O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX). Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were incubated with a glass endotracheal tube and exposed to saline or VX (171, 343 and 514 mg×min/m³ or 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8 LCt₅₀, respectively) for 10 min. VX was delivered by a small animal ventilator at a volume of 2.5 ml × 70 breaths/minute. All VX-exposed animals experienced a significant loss in percentage body weight at 3, 6, and 24 h post-exposure...
June 2014: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24486067/the-transcription-factor-etv5-controls-th17-cell-development-and-allergic-airway-inflammation
#12
Duy Pham, Sarita Sehra, Xin Sun, Mark H Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of TH17 cells, which promote pulmonary inflammation, requires the cooperation of a network of transcription factors. OBJECTIVES: We sought to define the role of Etv5, an Ets-family transcription factor, in TH17 cell development and function. METHODS: TH17 development was examined in primary mouse T cells wherein Etv5 expression was altered by retroviral transduction, small interfering RNA targeting a specific gene, and mice with a conditional deletion of Etv5 in T cells...
July 2014: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24276489/post-mortem-computed-tomography-ventilation-simulating-breath-holding
#13
C Robinson, M J Biggs, J Amoroso, M Pakkal, B Morgan, G N Rutty
Whilst the literature continues to report on advances in the use of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT), particularly in relation to post-mortem angiography, there are few papers published that address the diagnostic problems related to post-mortem changes in the lungs and ventilation. We present a development of previous methods to achieve ventilated PMCT (VPMCT). We successfully introduced a supraglottic airway in 17/18 cases without causing overt damage, despite rigor mortis. Using a clinical portable ventilator, we delivered continuous positive airway pressure to mimic clinical breath-hold inspiratory scans...
January 2014: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24057988/chest-physiotherapy-for-pneumonia-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Gabriela S S Chaves, Guilherme A F Fregonezi, Fernando A L Dias, Cibele T D Ribeiro, Ricardo O Guerra, Diana A Freitas, Veronica F Parreira, Karla M P P Mendonca
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is an inflammatory lung disease and it is the greatest cause of deaths in children younger than five years of age worldwide. Chest physiotherapy is widely used in the treatment of pneumonia because it can help to eliminate inflammatory exudates and tracheobronchial secretions, remove airway obstructions, reduce airway resistance, enhance gas exchange and reduce the work of breathing. Thus, chest physiotherapy may contribute to patient recovery as an adjuvant treatment even though its indication remains controversial...
2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23831616/ablation-of-arg1-in-hematopoietic-cells-improves-respiratory-function-of-lung-parenchyma-but-not-that-of-larger-airways-or-inflammation-in-asthmatic-mice
#15
Roy H E Cloots, Selvakumari Sankaranarayanan, Chiel C de Theije, Matthew E Poynter, Els Terwindt, Paul van Dijk, Theodorus B M Hakvoort, Wouter H Lamers, S Eleonore Köhler
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small airways, with airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation as hallmarks. Recent studies suggest a role for arginase in asthma pathogenesis, possibly because arginine is the substrate for both arginase and NO synthase and because NO modulates bronchial tone and inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the importance of increased pulmonary arginase 1 expression on methacholine-induced AHR and lung inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma...
September 2013: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23625938/staphylococcus-aureus-small-colony-variants-are-independently-associated-with-worse-lung-disease-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#16
Daniel J Wolter, Julia C Emerson, Sharon McNamara, Anne M Buccat, Xuan Qin, Elizabeth Cochrane, Laura S Houston, Geraint B Rogers, Peter Marsh, Karandeep Prehar, Christopher E Pope, Marcella Blackledge, Eric Déziel, Kenneth D Bruce, Bonnie W Ramsey, Ronald L Gibson, Jane L Burns, Lucas R Hoffman
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is associated with diverse bacteria chronically infecting the airways. Slow-growing, antibiotic-resistant mutants of Staphylococcus aureus known as small-colony variants (SCVs) have been isolated from respiratory secretions from European adults and children with CF lung disease using specific but infrequently used culture techniques. Staphylococcus aureus SCVs can be selected either by exposure to specific antibiotics or by growth with another CF pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
August 2013: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23422413/respiratory-infections-in-hiv-infected-adults-epidemiology-clinical-features-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Santino Capocci, Marc Lipman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Using the evidence published over the last 2 years, this review discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of HIV-related pulmonary infections other than mycobacterial disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Longstanding, vertically acquired and apparently stable HIV infection is associated with significant and symptomatic small airways disease in African adolescents. The use of population-based pneumococcal vaccination in children is changing the severity and serotypes associated with HIV-related pneumococcal disease...
May 2013: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23327697/-clinical-analysis-of-47-children-with-types-3-and-7-adenovirus-pneumonia
#18
Feng-hua Hu, Dong Qu, Xiao-xu Ren, Jie Deng, Yuan Qian, Ru-nan Zhu, Lin-qing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical features of types 3 and 7 adenovirus pneumonia in children and compare the difference between two types. METHODS: A total of 47 patients with adenovirus pneumonia at our hospital from January 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed. According to the serological types, they were divided into two groups: type 3 (n = 19) and type 7 (n = 28). Two groups were analyzed statistically with regards to age, gender, clinical presentation, critical scores, laboratory examinations, radiographic findings, lung function changes, complications and prognosis respectively...
December 25, 2012: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23289668/hypoxia-induced-mitogenic-factor-himf-fizz1-relm%C3%AE-in-chronic-hypoxia-and-antigen-mediated-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Daniel J Angelini, Qingning Su, Kazuyo Yamaji-Kegan, Chunling Fan, John T Skinner, Andre Poloczek, Hazim El-Haddad, Chris Cheadle, Roger A Johns
BACKGROUND: Both chronic hypoxia and allergic inflammation induce vascular remodeling in the lung, but only chronic hypoxia appears to cause PH. We investigate the nature of the vascular remodeling and the expression and role of hypoxia-induced mitogenic factor (HIMF/FIZZ1/RELMα) in explaining this differential response. METHODS: We induced pulmonary vascular remodeling through either chronic hypoxia or antigen sensitization and challenge. Mice were evaluated for markers of PH and pulmonary vascular remodeling throughout the lung vascular bed as well as HIMF expression and genomic analysis of whole lung...
January 4, 2013: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22297284/a-study-on-pulmonary-manifestations-in-patients-with-malaria-from-northwestern-india-bikaner
#20
K C Nayak, Mohini, S Kumar, R S Tanwar, V Kulkarni, A Gupta, P Sharma, P Sirohi, P Ratan
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) are responsible for most of the global burden of malaria. With changing spectrum of clinical presentation in malaria, pulmonary system involvement has always been under diagnosed. The present study was planned to estimate the pulmonary system involvement in patients with malaria from north- western India (Bikaner). STUDY DESIGN & DESCRIPTION OF THE PATIENTS: Our study was conducted during 2007 to 2009 in 200 cases of severe malaria [Pf , Pv, and mixed (Pf + Pv)] with pulmonary involvement...
December 2011: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
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