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Small airway change with age

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067952/histopathologic-findings-in-lung-biopsies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#1
Hee Eun Lee, Andrew Churg, Jay H Ryu, Ana Maria Bilawich, Brandon T Larsen, Henry D Tazelaar, Eunhee S Yi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune disease of the liver causing destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, associated with lymphocytic and granulomatous inflammation. PBC has been associated with many extrahepatic manifestations including interstitial lung disease. However, comprehensive pulmonary histopathology in PBC has not been well documented. Sixteen PBC patients who underwent lung biopsies were identified from surgical pathology files in three institutions. Histopathologic review was performed...
July 29, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047981/using-middle-finger-length-to-determine-the-internal-diameter-of-uncuffed-tracheal-tubes-in-paediatrics
#2
S Ritchie-McLean, V Ferrier, B Clevenger, M Thomas
The selection of an appropriately-sized tracheal tube is of critical importance in paediatric patients to reduce both the risk of subglottic stenosis from a tracheal tube that is too large, and inadequate ventilation or poor end-tidal gas monitoring from a tracheal tube that is too small. Age formulae are widely used, but known to be unreliable, often resulting in a need to change the tracheal tube. Previous work has shown that the length of the middle finger and the internal diameter can both be used to guide depth of tracheal tube insertion...
July 26, 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032523/-correlation-of-ct-small-airway-measurement-with-clinical-and-inflammation-factors-in-asthma-patients
#3
M J Li, C Chang, X H Wang, J Wang, Y Liang, Q Zhu
Objective: To evaluate the correlation of CT small airway measurement with clinical and inflammatory factors in asthma patients. Methods: From November 2014 to December 2015, a total of 20 patients with asthma were recruited in outpatient department of Peking University Third Hospital. All underwent asthma control test (ACT), CT and pulmonary function test. Serum leptin, immunoglobulin E(IgE) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), induced sputum eosinophil percentage(Eos%) and matrix metalloproteinase(MMP-9) results were collected...
July 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997573/obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-or-without-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-clinical-and-experimental-data-driven-phenotyping
#4
Sergio Garbarino, Egeria Scoditti, Paola Lanteri, Luana Conte, Nicola Magnavita, Domenico M Toraldo
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and prevalent medical condition with major consequences for health and safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common-but not universal-accompanying symptom. The purpose of this literature analysis is to understand whether the presence/absence of EDS is associated with different physiopathologic, prognostic, and therapeutic outcomes in OSA patients. Methods: Articles in English published in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE between January 2000 and June 2017, focusing on no-EDS OSA patients, were critically reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725764/a-preliminary-videofluoroscopic-investigation-of-swallowing-physiology-and-function-in-individuals-with-oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy-opmd
#5
Ashley A Waito, Catriona M Steele, Melanie Peladeau-Pigeon, Angela Genge, Zohar Argov
Dysphagia is one of the primary symptoms experienced by individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD). However, we lack understanding of the discrete changes in swallowing physiology that are seen in OPMD, and the resulting relationship to impairments of swallowing safety and efficiency. This study sought to describe the pathophysiology of dysphagia in a small sample of patients with OPMD using a videofluoroscopy examination (VFSS) involving 3 × 5 mL boluses of thin liquid barium (22% w/v)...
May 3, 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549701/assessment-of-small-airway-function-and-reversibility-in-symptom-controlled-asthma-in-pediatric-patients
#6
Rattapon Uppala, Prapapan Kaenpugdee, Sureeporn Srisutthikamol, Jamaree Teeratakulpisarn
BACKGROUND: The goals of asthma management aim to control the symptoms and minimize future risk. There is, however, an option to stop controller medication if the patient has been well-controlled for at least 6-12 months. To assess control, both clinical symptom assessment and lung function should be monitored periodically. In practical clinical practice of pediatric patients, lung function is not available at all health centers. OBJECTIVES: to determine lung function with a focus on small airway function and the risk of reversibility among children who have been symptom-controlled...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390328/foregut-duplication-cyst-a-novel-computed-tomography-finding-mimicking-a-small-bowel-hernia-a-case-report
#7
Ji Eun Choi, Soyeoun Lim, Chang Ryul Park, Hee Jeong Cha, Woon-Jung Kwon
RATIONALE: A foregut duplication cyst (FDC) is an uncommon congenital disease. This report presents a case of mediastinal foregut duplication cyst that mimicked a diaphragmatic small bowel hernia. PATIENT CONCERN: A 27-month-old girl was first referred for a mediastinal lesion found incidentally on a chest radiograph. At that time, our impression was cystic lung lesion such as congenital pulmonary airway malformation or pulmonary sequestration. At the age 6 years, she presented with recurrent vomiting...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279057/characterizing-patients-with-asthma-who-received-global-initiative-for-asthma-steps-4-5-therapy-and-managed-in-a-specialty-care-setting
#8
Brian Stone, Jill R Davis, Frank Trudo, Bradd Schiffman, Carlos Alzola, David Brown, Kathleen M Fox
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is recognized in the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines as a major unmet need in the management of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to describe the clinical burden of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4-5 asthma for patients treated by specialists in the U.S. community setting. METHODS: Patients, ages ≥12 years, with asthma who received GINA step 4 or 5 treatment and were treated at a large U...
January 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277419/systolic-blood-pressure-elevation-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-improved-with-positive-airway-pressure-use
#9
Lourdes M DelRosso, Janet King, Raffaele Ferri
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on blood pressure (BP) in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of children aged 7-17 referred to Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland for the evaluation of snoring. Data collected included age, body mass index (BMI), BP, heart rate, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen saturation nadir. Children were divided into 3 groups: snorers, untreated OSA, and OSA treated with CPAP...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#10
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita® system or standard PARI-LC® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834381/small-airway-oscillometry-indices-repeatability-and-bronchodilator-responsiveness-in-young-children
#11
Hanna Knihtilä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anna S Pelkonen, Satu Kalliola, Mika J Mäkelä, Leo Pekka Malmberg
INTRODUCTION: The impulse oscillometry (IOS) indices absolute and relative difference between respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5-20 and R5-20%, respectively) and the area under the reactance curve (AX) are postulated to reflect small airway function. Data on their cutoff values to evaluate bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) or between-visit changes after interventions are limited in young children. METHODS: We evaluated the BDR of 103 healthy children aged 2-7 years, who received either salbutamol (n = 84) or placebo (n = 19) in order to determine cutoff values for BDR of R5-20, R5-20%, and AX...
October 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787016/myofibroblasts-are-increased-in-the-lung-parenchyma-in-asthma
#12
Stacey R Boser, Thais Mauad, Bianca Bergamo de Araújo-Paulino, Ian Mitchell, Grishma Shrestha, Andrea Chiu, John Butt, Margaret M Kelly, Elia Caldini, Alan James, Francis H Y Green
BACKGROUND: Increased airway smooth muscle is observed in large and small airways in asthma. Semi-quantitative estimates suggest that cells containing alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) are also increased in the lung parenchyma. This study quantified and characterized α-SMA positive cells (α-SMA+) in the lung parenchyma of non-asthmatic and asthmatic individuals. METHODS: Post-mortem sections of peripheral lung from cases of fatal asthma (FA), persons with asthma dying of non-respiratory causes (NFA) and non-asthma control subjects (NAC) were stained for α-SMA, quantified using point-counting and normalised to alveolar basement membrane length and interstitial area...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743683/cross-sectional-study-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-prevalence-among-smokers-ex-smokers-and-never-smokers-in-almaty-kazakhstan-study-protocol
#13
Almaz Sharman, Baurzhan Zhussupov, Dana Sharman, Assel Stambekova, Sattar Yeraliyev
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is significantly underdiagnosed in Kazakhstan, and there is no previously conducted study on COPD prevalence in the country. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of COPD among individuals aged 40 to 59 years based on results of spirometry before and after bronchodilator, presence of structural changes in the lungs (emphysema, inflammatory changes, and thickening of the walls of the large and small airways) detected by computer tomography, and the symptoms of COPD...
July 25, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486753/small-airway-function-before-and-after-cold-dry-air-challenge-in-pediatric-asthma-patients-during-remission
#14
Michael Steinbacher, Andreas Pfleger, Gerold Schwantzer, Stefanie Jauk, Elisabeth Weinhandl, Ernst Eber
BACKGROUND: We wanted to compare cold dry air challenge (CACh) induced changes in spirometric parameters with changes in nitrogen multiple breath washout (N2 MBW) parameters in pediatric asthma patients during clinical remission over the past year (ie, with "inactive asthma"). As N2 MBW assesses ventilation heterogeneity we expected to gain detailed information about peripheral airways contribution. METHODS: In subjects with normal spirometry N2 MBW, spirometry and body plethysmography were performed at baseline, after CACh, and after salbutamol inhalation...
July 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356403/short-and-long-term-effects-of-diving-on-pulmonary-function
#15
Kay Tetzlaff, Paul S Thomas
The diving environment provides a challenge to the lung, including exposure to high ambient pressure, altered gas characteristics and cardiovascular effects on the pulmonary circulation. Several factors associated with diving affect pulmonary function acutely and can potentially cause prolonged effects that may accumulate gradually with repeated diving exposure. Evidence from experimental deep dives and longitudinal studies suggests long-term adverse effects of diving on the lungs in commercial deep divers, such as the development of small airways disease and accelerated loss of lung function...
March 31, 2017: European Respiratory Review: An Official Journal of the European Respiratory Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243075/longitudinal-changes-in-structural-abnormalities-using-mdct-in-copd-do-the-ct-measurements-of-airway-wall-thickness-and-small-pulmonary-vessels-change-in-parallel-with-emphysematous-progression
#16
Shin Takayanagi, Naoko Kawata, Yuji Tada, Jun Ikari, Yukiko Matsuura, Shin Matsuoka, Shoichiro Matsushita, Noriyuki Yanagawa, Yasunori Kasahara, Koichiro Tatsumi
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) facilitate acquiring important clinical information for managing patients with COPD. MDCT can detect the loss of lung tissue associated with emphysema as a low-attenuation area (LAA) and the thickness of airways as the wall area percentage (WA%). The percentage of small pulmonary vessels <5 mm(2) (% cross-sectional area [CSA] <5) has been recently recognized as a parameter for expressing pulmonary perfusion...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197800/small-airway-obstruction-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-potential-parameters-for-early-detection
#17
Tomasz Piorunek, Magdalena Kostrzewska, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Marcin Mardas, Sławomir Michalak, Joanna Goździk-Spychalska, Halina Batura-Gabryel
The impulse oscillometry (IOS) is recognized as a complementary method to spirometry in the diagnostics of obstructive pulmonary disorders. The IOS enables to measure total respiratory resistance (R5) and proximal respiratory resistance (R20), with the R5-R20 difference reflecting small airway resistance. This study seeks to evaluate the usefulness of R5-R20, maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF), and forced expiratory volume in 3 s/forced vital capacity ratio (FEV3/FVC), in the assessment of small airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079597/histologic-findings-of-severe-therapy-resistant-asthma-from-video-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-biopsies
#18
Humberto E Trejo Bittar, Daniel Doberer, Mitra Mehrad, Diane C Strollo, Joseph K Leader, Sally Wenzel, Samuel A Yousem
The histologic changes occurring in severe/therapy-resistant asthma (SA) as defined by the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines, particularly at the level of the distal airways are unknown. This study describes the clinical, radiologic, and histologic characteristics of 29 SA patients who underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lung biopsy. Pathologic observations were correlated with clinical features, especially the presence of autoimmune disease (AID) (15/29, 51.7%). Ten biopsies (10/29, 34...
February 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677047/sleep-breathing-disorders-and-cognitive-decline-in-healthy-elderly-followed-for-eight-years-the-proof-cohort
#19
Magali Saint Martin, Emilia Sforza, Emilie Crawford-Achour, Lefèvre Pascal, Georges Lienard, Roche Frédéric
OBJECTIVE: Sleep breathing disorders (SBD) are the most common sleep disorders frequently under-diagnosed in elderly populations. However, it is it well known that this disorder may contribute to the age-related cognitive decline. In a cohort of healthy elderly subjects, we performed an 8-year longitudinal study to assess whether changes in cognitive function occur in untreated SBD elderly and the nocturnal factors implicated in these changes. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 559 participants of the community-based PROOF study aged 67years at the study entry and free from neurological disorders were examined...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649894/cognitive-behavioural-therapy-cbt-for-adults-and-adolescents-with-asthma
#20
Kayleigh M Kew, Marina Nashed, Valdeep Dulay, Janelle Yorke
BACKGROUND: People with asthma have a higher prevalence of anxiety and depression than the general population. This is associated with poorer asthma control, medication adherence, and health outcomes. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) may be a way to improve the quality of life of people with asthma by addressing associated psychological issues, which may lead to a lower risk of exacerbations and better asthma control. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of CBT for asthma compared with usual care...
September 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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