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Small airway change with age

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538537/a-predictive-algorithm-to-identify-genes-that-discriminate-individuals-with-fibromyalgia-syndrome-diagnosis-from-healthy-controls
#1
Nada Lukkahatai, Brian Walitt, Enrique J Deandrés-Galiana, Juan Luis Fernández-Martínez, Leorey N Saligan
Objectives: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic and often debilitating condition that is characterized by persistent fatigue, pain, bowel abnormalities, and sleep disturbances. Currently, there are no definitive prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers for FMS. This study attempted to utilize a novel predictive algorithm to identify a group of genes whose differential expression discriminated individuals with FMS diagnosis from healthy controls. Methods: Secondary analysis of gene expression data from 28 women with FMS and 19 age-and race-matched healthy women...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443542/role-of-lung-function-monitoring-by-the-forced-oscillation-technique-for-tailoring-ventilation-and-weaning-in-neonatal-ecmo-new-insights-from-a-case-report
#2
Genny Raffaeli, Chiara Veneroni, Stefano Ghirardello, Anna Lavizzari, Sofia Passera, Fabio Mosca, Giacomo Cavallaro, Raffaele L Dellacà
Respiratory management during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is complex. Assessment of lung mechanics might support a patient-tailored ventilatory strategy. We report, for the first time, the use of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to evaluate lung function during neonatal ECMO to improve the individualization of respiratory support. The patient was a formerly preterm infant at a corrected age of 40 weeks (gestational age 32 weeks) undergoing veno-arterial ECMO for refractory respiratory failure secondary to influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30419608/measuring-the-effects-of-bronchial-thermoplasty-using-oscillometry
#3
David Langton, Alvin Ing, Joy Sha, Kim Bennetts, Nicole Hersch, McKinny Kwok, Virginia Plummer, Francis Thien, Claude Farah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) has been consistently shown to reduce symptoms, exacerbations and the need for reliever medication in patients with severe asthma. Paradoxically, no consistent improvement in spirometry has been demonstrated. It has been suggested that this is due to a reduction in peripheral resistance in small airways, not captured by spirometry. Therefore, in this study, we evaluate the response to BT using oscillometry. METHODS: A total of 43 patients with severe asthma from two centres were evaluated at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months post BT, using spirometry, plethysmography and oscillometry, in addition to medication usage, exacerbation frequency and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (5-item version) (ACQ-5)...
November 12, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30303525/bos-is-associated-with-decreased-hdac2-from-steroid-resistant-lymphocytes-in-the-small-airways
#4
G Hodge, S Hodge, A Yeo, P Nguyen, E Hopkins, H Liu, C L Holmes-Liew, M Holmes
Immunosuppression therapies including corticosteroids fail to prevent bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), primarily a disease of the small airways, following lung transplantation. We reported increases in steroid-resistant proinflammatory lymphocytes and their loss of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2), an important mediator of steroid action, in the blood of stable lung transplant recipients. We noted similar increases in the steroid-resistant lymphocytes in both the blood and small airways in BOS compared with the large airways...
October 10, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30260472/nebulised-hypertonic-saline-for-cystic-fibrosis
#5
REVIEW
Peter Wark, Vanessa M McDonald
BACKGROUND: Impaired mucociliary clearance characterises lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypertonic saline enhances mucociliary clearance and may lessen the destructive inflammatory process in the airways. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy and tolerability of treatment with nebulised hypertonic saline on people with CF compared to placebo and or other treatments that enhance mucociliary clearance. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings...
September 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212648/airway-microbiota-dynamics-uncover-a-critical-window-for-interplay-of-pathogenic-bacteria-and-allergy-in-childhood-respiratory-disease
#6
Shu Mei Teo, Howard H F Tang, Danny Mok, Louise M Judd, Stephen C Watts, Kym Pham, Barbara J Holt, Merci Kusel, Michael Serralha, Niamh Troy, Yury A Bochkov, Kristine Grindle, Robert F Lemanske, Sebastian L Johnston, James E Gern, Peter D Sly, Patrick G Holt, Kathryn E Holt, Michael Inouye
Repeated cycles of infection-associated lower airway inflammation drive the pathogenesis of persistent wheezing disease in children. In this study, the occurrence of acute respiratory tract illnesses (ARIs) and the nasopharyngeal microbiome (NPM) were characterized in 244 infants through their first five years of life. Through this analysis, we demonstrate that >80% of infectious events involve viral pathogens, but are accompanied by a shift in the NPM toward dominance by a small range of pathogenic bacterial genera...
September 12, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211626/why-an-aging-smoker-lung-develops-ipf-and-not-copd
#7
Moisés Selman, Fernando J Martinez, Annie Pardo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are generally progressive and irreversible chronic-degenerative disorders. COPD is associated with chronic inflammation, and changes in both the alveolar and airway compartments, resulting in small airways disease and emphysema. IPF is driven by an abnormal activation of the alveolar lung epithelium resulting in progressive scarring of the lung parenchyma. Both diseases are heterogeneous with several clinical phenotypes, and usually occur in aged individuals, mostly smokers...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30190273/myeloperoxidase-oxidation-of-methionine-associates-with-early-cystic-fibrosis-lung-disease
#8
Joshua D Chandler, Camilla Margaroli, Hamed Horati, Matthew B Kilgore, Mieke Veltman, H Ken Liu, Alexander J Taurone, Limin Peng, Lokesh Guglani, Karan Uppal, Young-Mi Go, Harm A W M Tiddens, Bob J Scholte, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Dean P Jones, Hettie M Janssens
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease progressively worsens from infancy to adulthood. Disease-driven changes in early CF airway fluid metabolites may identify therapeutic targets to curb progression.CF patients aged 12-38 months (n=24; three out of 24 later denoted as CF screen positive, inconclusive diagnosis) received chest computed tomography scans, scored by the Perth-Rotterdam Annotated Grid Morphometric Analysis for CF (PRAGMA-CF) method to quantify total lung disease (PRAGMA-%Dis) and components such as bronchiectasis (PRAGMA-%Bx)...
October 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122765/-airway-inflammation-and-small-airway-wall-remodeling-in-neutrophilic-asthma
#9
X Y Gai, C Chang, J Wang, Y Liang, M J Li, Y C Sun, B He, W Z Yao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of airway inflammation phenotype in patients with bronchial asthma (asthma), and to analyze clinical characteristics, inflammatory cytokines, pulmonary small vessels remodeling and small airway wall remodeling in patients with neutrophilic asthma. METHODS: Sixty-three patients with asthma were enrolled from January 2015 to December 2015 in Peking University Third Hospital. Clinical data including gender, age, body mass index (BMI), pulmonary function tests (PFTs), asthma control test (ACT) were recorded...
August 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067952/histopathologic-findings-in-lung-biopsies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#10
Hee Eun Lee, Andrew Churg, Jay H Ryu, Ana Maria Bilawich, Brandon T Larsen, Henry D Tazelaar, Eunhee S Yi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune disease of the liver causing destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts, associated with lymphocytic and granulomatous inflammation. PBC has been associated with many extrahepatic manifestations including interstitial lung disease. However, comprehensive pulmonary histopathology in PBC has not been well documented. Sixteen PBC patients who underwent lung biopsies were identified from surgical pathology files in three institutions. Histopathologic review was performed...
July 29, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047981/using-middle-finger-length-to-determine-the-internal-diameter-of-uncuffed-tracheal-tubes-in-paediatrics
#11
S Ritchie-McLean, V Ferrier, B Clevenger, M Thomas
The selection of an appropriately-sized tracheal tube is of critical importance in paediatric patients to reduce both the risk of subglottic stenosis from a tracheal tube that is too large, and inadequate ventilation or poor end-tidal gas monitoring from a tracheal tube that is too small. Age formulae are widely used, but known to be unreliable, often resulting in a need to change the tracheal tube. Previous work has shown that the length of the middle finger and the internal diameter can both be used to guide depth of tracheal tube insertion...
October 2018: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032523/-correlation-of-ct-small-airway-measurement-with-clinical-and-inflammation-factors-in-asthma-patients
#12
M J Li, C Chang, X H Wang, J Wang, Y Liang, Q Zhu
Objective: To evaluate the correlation of CT small airway measurement with clinical and inflammatory factors in asthma patients. Methods: From November 2014 to December 2015, a total of 20 patients with asthma were recruited in outpatient department of Peking University Third Hospital. All underwent asthma control test (ACT), CT and pulmonary function test. Serum leptin, immunoglobulin E(IgE) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1), induced sputum eosinophil percentage(Eos%) and matrix metalloproteinase(MMP-9) results were collected...
July 17, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29997573/obstructive-sleep-apnea-with-or-without-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-clinical-and-experimental-data-driven-phenotyping
#13
Sergio Garbarino, Egeria Scoditti, Paola Lanteri, Luana Conte, Nicola Magnavita, Domenico M Toraldo
Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and prevalent medical condition with major consequences for health and safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common-but not universal-accompanying symptom. The purpose of this literature analysis is to understand whether the presence/absence of EDS is associated with different physiopathologic, prognostic, and therapeutic outcomes in OSA patients. Methods: Articles in English published in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE between January 2000 and June 2017, focusing on no-EDS OSA patients, were critically reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725764/a-preliminary-videofluoroscopic-investigation-of-swallowing-physiology-and-function-in-individuals-with-oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy-opmd
#14
Ashley A Waito, Catriona M Steele, Melanie Peladeau-Pigeon, Angela Genge, Zohar Argov
Dysphagia is one of the primary symptoms experienced by individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD). However, we lack understanding of the discrete changes in swallowing physiology that are seen in OPMD, and the resulting relationship to impairments of swallowing safety and efficiency. This study sought to describe the pathophysiology of dysphagia in a small sample of patients with OPMD using a videofluoroscopy examination (VFSS) involving 3 × 5 mL boluses of thin liquid barium (22% w/v)...
December 2018: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549701/assessment-of-small-airway-function-and-reversibility-in-symptom-controlled-asthma-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Rattapon Uppala, Prapapan Kaenpugdee, Sureeporn Srisutthikamol, Jamaree Teeratakulpisarn
BACKGROUND: The goals of asthma management aim to control the symptoms and minimize future risk. There is, however, an option to stop controller medication if the patient has been well-controlled for at least 6-12 months. To assess control, both clinical symptom assessment and lung function should be monitored periodically. In practical clinical practice of pediatric patients, lung function is not available at all health centers. OBJECTIVES: to determine lung function with a focus on small airway function and the risk of reversibility among children who have been symptom-controlled...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390328/foregut-duplication-cyst-a-novel-computed-tomography-finding-mimicking-a-small-bowel-hernia-a-case-report
#16
Ji Eun Choi, Soyeoun Lim, Chang Ryul Park, Hee Jeong Cha, Woon-Jung Kwon
RATIONALE: A foregut duplication cyst (FDC) is an uncommon congenital disease. This report presents a case of mediastinal foregut duplication cyst that mimicked a diaphragmatic small bowel hernia. PATIENT CONCERN: A 27-month-old girl was first referred for a mediastinal lesion found incidentally on a chest radiograph. At that time, our impression was cystic lung lesion such as congenital pulmonary airway malformation or pulmonary sequestration. At the age 6 years, she presented with recurrent vomiting...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279057/characterizing-patients-with-asthma-who-received-global-initiative-for-asthma-steps-4-5-therapy-and-managed-in-a-specialty-care-setting
#17
Brian Stone, Jill R Davis, Frank Trudo, Bradd Schiffman, Carlos Alzola, David Brown, Kathleen M Fox
BACKGROUND: Severe asthma is recognized in the European Respiratory Society/American Thoracic Society guidelines as a major unmet need in the management of asthma. OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to describe the clinical burden of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) steps 4-5 asthma for patients treated by specialists in the U.S. community setting. METHODS: Patients, ages ≥12 years, with asthma who received GINA step 4 or 5 treatment and were treated at a large U...
January 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277419/systolic-blood-pressure-elevation-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-improved-with-positive-airway-pressure-use
#18
Lourdes M DelRosso, Janet King, Raffaele Ferri
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on blood pressure (BP) in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of children aged 7-17 referred to Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland for the evaluation of snoring. Data collected included age, body mass index (BMI), BP, heart rate, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen saturation nadir. Children were divided into 3 groups: snorers, untreated OSA, and OSA treated with CPAP...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#19
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita® system or standard PARI-LC® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834381/small-airway-oscillometry-indices-repeatability-and-bronchodilator-responsiveness-in-young-children
#20
Hanna Knihtilä, Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen, Anna S Pelkonen, Satu Kalliola, Mika J Mäkelä, Leo Pekka Malmberg
INTRODUCTION: The impulse oscillometry (IOS) indices absolute and relative difference between respiratory resistance at 5 and 20 Hz (R5-20 and R5-20%, respectively) and the area under the reactance curve (AX) are postulated to reflect small airway function. Data on their cutoff values to evaluate bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) or between-visit changes after interventions are limited in young children. METHODS: We evaluated the BDR of 103 healthy children aged 2-7 years, who received either salbutamol (n = 84) or placebo (n = 19) in order to determine cutoff values for BDR of R5-20, R5-20%, and AX...
October 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
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