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Changes in the lung with aging

Melissa Burroughs Peña, Katrina Swett, Neil Schneiderman, Daniel M Spevack, Sonia G Ponce, Gregory A Talavera, Mayank M Kansal, Martha L Daviglus, Jianwen Cai, Barry E Hurwitz, Maria M Llabre, Carlos J Rodriguez
Objective: We assessed the hypothesis that metabolic syndrome is associated with adverse changes in cardiac structure and function in participants of the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (Echo-SOL). Methods: Non-diabetic Echo-SOL participants were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute 2009 Joint Scientific Statement. Survey multivariable linear regression analyses using sampling weights were used adjusting for multiple potential confounding variables...
2018: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Hongyan Li, Daniel E Furst, Hongtao Jin, Chao Sun, Xiaoping Wang, Lin Yang, Jingjing He, Yanru Wang, Aijing Liu
BACKGROUND: Thickened skin is a major clinical feature in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). We investigated changes of skin thickness in patients with SSc using both high frequency ultrasound (HFU) and the modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) to evaluate the feasibility of application of HFU in skin involvement and the relationship between HFU and clinical profiles. METHODS: We recruited 31 consecutive patients with SSc and 31 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls in this prospective, cross-sectional study...
August 16, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Fu-Sung Lo, Jung-Pan Wang, Lung-Kun Yeh, An-Lun Wu, Yun-Ju Tseng, Chun-Ting Yeh, Laura Liu, Kuan-Jen Chen, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai, Nan-Kai Wang
The need for screening for retinopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been emphasised, but diagnostic delays were reported when screening was done at fixed intervals. To establish an individualised risk-prediction model to assist screening non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in T1DM, we performed a retrospective cohort study enrolling participants in the Chang Gung Juvenile Diabetes Eye Study. There were 413 patients with 12 381 records analysed from 2005 to 2015. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to evaluate the risks of NPDR development and a nomogram with risk-stratification indicators was established based on the results...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anita Thapar
The 21st century has witnessed the discovery of multiple rare and common gene variants associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and these discoveries have already provided a starting point for the investigation of the biology of the disorder and novel treatments. The purpose of this selective review is to examine genetic findings from the past 5 years and consider their implications for the conceptualization of ADHD and future clinical practice. Recent discoveries reveal the strong genetic overlaps between ADHD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as intellectual disability...
August 16, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Hao Liu, Xue Li, Wen Qian Yu, Cai Xia Liu
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common congenital malformation associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension following birth. The present study aimed to investigate abnormal lung development in a rat CDH model, and examine temporal and spatial changes in the expression of ephrin type‑B receptor 4 (EPHB4) and ephrin‑B2 (EFNB2) during fetal lung development, to elucidate the role of these factors during lung morphogenesis. Pregnant rats received nitrofen on embryonic day (E) 8...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Michael S Broder, Beilei Cai, Eunice Chang, Maureen P Neary
BACKGROUND: As reported in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, US incidence and prevalence of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) has increased over recent years. The study objective was to update incidence and prevalence information for lung NET using administrative claims. METHODS: This descriptive epidemiological study used 2009-2014 data from 2 US claims databases: MarketScan and PharMetrics. Patients (18-64 years old) had ≥1 inpatient or ≥ 2 outpatient claims with NET of bronchus or lung, identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes...
August 13, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Erik H Van Iterson, Joshua R Smith, Thomas P Olson
BACKGROUND: Peak exercise V̇O2 is a primary marker of prognosis in heart failure (HF). The pathophysiology of impaired peak V̇O2 is unclear in patients. To what extent alveolar airway function impacts V̇O2 during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to phenotype how changes in alveolar ventilation (V̇A ), volume (VA ), and related parameters couple with exercise V̇O2 in HF. METHODS: N=35 HF (LVEF=20±6%; ages, 53±7 years) participated in CPET with breath-to-breath measurements of ventilation and gas-exchange...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Gianfranco Alicandro, Arianna Bisogno, Matteo Rota, Rita Padoan, Carla Colombo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A higher mortality rate at young ages has been reported in cystic fibrosis (CF) girls compared to boys. The reasons of this gap remain unclear but may be related to a different evolution of the disease, in terms of growth and lung function throughout childhood and adolescence. This study aimed at investigating gender differences in growth patterns in a cohort of children with CF through a longitudinal study, and as secondary objectives, to evaluate gender differences in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 ) trend and transplant-free survival...
July 31, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
John Brodersen, Volkert Siersma, Hanne Thorsen
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer screening will inevitably lead to unintentional harmful effects e.g. detection of indolent pathological conditions defined as overdetection or overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis often leads to overutilisation, overtreatment, labelling and thereby negative psychosocial consequences. There is a lack of adequate psychosocial measures when it comes to measurement of the harms of medical screening. However, the Consequences of Screening questionnaire (COS) has been found relevant and comprehensive with adequate psychometric properties in breast and lung cancer screening...
August 10, 2018: BMC Psychology
Oscar F Araneda, Felipe Contreras-Briceño, Gabriel Cavada, Ginés Viscor
PURPOSE: The respiratory redox-state of swimmers can be affected by chronic exposures to chlorinated pools, and the effects of different exercises on it are unknown. Our aim was to compare two exercises performed at high-intensity and under habitual environmental conditions (swimming indoor vs. running outdoor) on the production of pro-oxidants (hydrogen peroxide and nitrite) and pH in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and spirometry parameters in competitive swimmers chronically exposed to chlorinated pools...
August 9, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jennifer A Ogren, Raghav Tripathi, Paul M Macey, Rajesh Kumar, John M Stern, Dawn S Eliashiv, Luke A Allen, Beate Diehl, Jerome Engel, M R Sandhya Rani, Samden D Lhatoo, Ronald M Harper
Objective: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures are accompanied by cardiovascular and respiratory sequelae that threaten survival. The frequency of these seizures is a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), a leading cause of untimely death in epilepsy. The circumstances accompanying such fatal events suggest a cardiovascular or respiratory failure induced by unknown neural processes rather than an inherent cardiac or lung deficiency. Certain cortical regions, especially the insular, cingulate, and orbitofrontal cortices, are key structures that integrate sensory input and influence diencephalic and brainstem regions regulating blood pressure, cardiac rhythm, and respiration; output from those cortical regions compromised by epilepsy-associated injury may lead to cardiorespiratory dysregulation...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Karen M Butler, Luz Huntington-Moskos, Mary Kay Rayens, Amanda T Wiggins, Ellen J Hahn
PURPOSE: To examine the short-term impact of a personalized environmental report-back intervention to reduce home exposure to tobacco smoke and radon on perception of synergistic risk for lung cancer. Radon-induced lung cancer is more common among those exposed to tobacco smoke. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care clinics and a pharmacy waiting area at a University Medical Center in the Southeastern United States and community events...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
Mahmoud H Abou Alaiwa, Jan L Launspach, Brenda Grogan, Suzanne Carter, Joseph Zabner, David A Stoltz, Pradeep K Singh, Edward F McKone, Michael J Welsh
BACKGROUND: Disruption of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel function causes cystic fibrosis (CF), and lung disease produces most of the mortality. Loss of CFTR-mediated HCO3- secretion reduces the pH of airway surface liquid (ASL) in vitro and in neonatal humans and pigs in vivo. However, we previously found that, in older children and adults, ASL pH does not differ between CF and non-CF. Here, we tested whether the pH of CF ASL increases with time after birth...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Yao-Lung Chang, An-Shine Chao, Hsiu-Huei Peng, Shuenn-Dyh Chang, Kuan-Ju Chen, Po-Jen Cheng, Tzu-Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that fetal plasma erythropoietin (EPO) concentrations are significantly increased in growth-restricted fetuses with abnormal umbilical artery (UA) Doppler. During hypoxia in an ovine model, the primary site of fetal EPO synthesis was switched from the kidneys to the placenta. Therefore, we designed this study to evaluate human placental EPO gene expression and the correlation to fetal serum EPO concentration in growth-restricted fetuses in a monochorionic (MC) twin model...
August 8, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Kun Qing, Nicholas J Tustison, John P Mugler, Jaime F Mata, Zixuan Lin, Li Zhao, Da Wang, Xue Feng, Ji Young Shin, Sean J Callahan, Michael P Bergman, Kai Ruppert, Talissa A Altes, Joanne M Cassani, Y Michael Shim
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is highly heterogeneous and not well understood. Hyperpolarized xenon-129 (Xe129) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a unique way to assess important lung functions such as gas uptake. In this pilot study, we exploited multiple imaging modalities, including computed tomography (CT), gadolinium-enhanced perfusion MRI, and Xe129 MRI, to perform a detailed investigation of changes in lung morphology and functions in COPD...
August 4, 2018: Academic Radiology
T J Measey, M Pouliot, W Wierzbicki, C Swanson, D Brown, J Stamatopoulos, D Proulx, S Authier, O Donini
In collaboration with the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), the authors recently conducted a pilot study in a hemi-body shielded model of radiation-induced gastrointestinal (GI) injury in Göttingen minipigs following exposure to radiation dose levels between 8-16 Gy. Herein, the impact of oral dosing procedures is assessed, as well as the specific causes of death in animals exposed to radiation doses of 14 and 16 Gy (n = 64; 32 male, 32 female, between 6 and 8 mo of age). Oral dosing using a 2-tablet placebo system comprised of both immediate release and enteric-coated tablets starting 24 h post-irradiation resulted in inhibited gastric emptying of the enteric-coated tablets, which were found to be retained in the stomach and/or regurgitated...
January 2018: Health Physics
Tanel Laisaar, Bruno Sarana, Indrek Benno, Kaja-Triin Laisaar
Since publication of the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) results early lung cancer detection has been widely studied, targeting individuals based on smoking history and age. However, over recent decades several changes in lung cancer epidemiology, including risk factors, have taken place. The aim of the current study was to explore smoking prevalence among lung cancer patients who had been treated surgically or undergone a diagnostic operation and whether these patients would have met the NLST inclusion criteria...
July 2018: ERJ Open Research
Sapana Kadel, Susan Kovats
Sex differences in the incidence and severity of respiratory virus infection are widely documented in humans and murine models and correlate with sex biases in numbers and/or functional responses of innate immune cells in homeostasis and lung infection. Similarly, changes in sex hormone levels upon puberty, pregnancy, and menopause/aging are associated with qualitative and quantitative differences in innate immunity. Immune cells express receptors for estrogens (ERα and ERβ), androgens (AR), and progesterone (PR), and experimental manipulation of sex hormone levels or receptors has revealed that sex hormone receptor activity often underlies sex differences in immune cell numbers and/or functional responses in the respiratory tract...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kyungjong Lee, Hye Ok Kim, Hee Kyoung Choi, Gi Hyeon Seo
BACKGROUND: Old age is an important factor that could affect the treatment of early-stage lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the treatment patterns and outcomes of patients over the age of 80 years who had been diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer in real-world practice. METHODS: Elderly patients who were diagnosed with early-stage lung cancer between 2008 and 2016 were identified using claims data provided by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service...
August 3, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Fu-Huang Lin, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Chin Lin, Yu-Lung Chiu, Herng-Sheng Lee, Hung Chang, Guo-Shu Huang, Hsueh-Lu Chang, Shih-Jen Yeh, Wen Su, Chih-Chien Wang, Sui-Lung Su
Total knee replacement (TKR) is considered as one of the most success among clinical interventions for patients with who suffering from knee osteoarthritis (OA). We sought to estimate the incidence of TKR using demographics, incidence rates, lengths of hospital stay, and costs from 1996 to 2010 by analyzing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 154,553 patients obtained primary TKR surgery between 1996 and 2010. The diagnosis code for knee OA and the procedure code for TKR were selected from the records...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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