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Changes in the lung with aging

Wangmi Liu, Jiayan Wu
The present study used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to identify demographic and prognostic characteristics of lung cancer with bone metastases in the United States from 2010 to 2014. 30,364 patients with metastatic lung cancer to bones were identified in the SEER database. Their information on the basic characteristics and the histological signatures of the cancer was extracted and analyzed. Joinpoint analysis was used to test the trends in annual percentage change (APC) of the incidence...
October 19, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Freja Stæhr Holm, Pradeesh Sivapalan, Niels Seersholm, Theis Skovsgaard Itenov, Per Hjort Christensen, Jens-Ulrik Stæhr Jensen
BACKGROUND: Gelsolin is an actin-scavenger controlling the tissue damage from actin in the blood. Gelsolin levels in circulation drops when tissue damage and corresponding actin release is pronounced due to catabolic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if low plasma gelsolin independently predicts a reduced chance of weaning from ventilator-demanding respiratory failure in critically ill patients within 28 days from admission. RESULTS: This cohort study included 746 critically ill patients with ventilator-demanding respiratory failure from the randomized clinical trial, "Procalcitonin And Survival Study"...
October 18, 2018: Shock
Madhusmita Mohanty Mohapatra, Manju Rajaram, Archana Mallick
BACKGROUND: The incidence of lung abscess acquired in the community is unknown, but this is a common clinical problem encountered in developing countries. The incidence of lung abscess was high in the pre-antibiotic era but the advent of susceptible antibiotics it has reduced with an equal fall in mortality to 8.7%. With the emerging antibiotic resistance and change in the trends of bacteriological profile causing lung abscess, it is the need of time to reevaluate lung abscess. AIM: The study aimed to determine the clinical, radiological and bacteriological profile of lung abscess...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Jung Min Kim, Hyeong Geug Kim, Chang Gue Son
Oxidative stress is a common phenomenon and is linked to a wide range of diseases and pathological processes including aging. Tissue-specific variation in redox signaling and cellular responses to oxidative stress may be associated with vulnerability especially to age-related and chronic diseases. In order to provide a basis for tissue-specific difference, we examined the tissue-specific transcriptional features of 101 oxidative stress-associated genes in 10 different tissues and organs of healthy mice under physiological conditions...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
BreAnna Kinghorn, Rosalyn Singleton, Gabrielle B McCallum, Lisa Bulkow, Keith Grimwood, Leslie Hermann, Anne B Chang, Gregory Redding
INTRODUCTION: Alaska Native (AN) children from the Yukon Kuskokwim (YK) Delta region have high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD), including bronchiectasis. We characterized the clinical progress of an AN adolescent cohort with CSLD/bronchiectasis, and estimated bronchiectasis prevalence trends in this region. METHODS: The original cohort comprised 41 AN children (originally aged 0.5-8 years) with CSLD/bronchiectasis, recruited between 2005 and 2008, with follow-up in 2015-2016...
October 16, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Zhi Li, Ban Liu, Wen Ge, Wei Zhang, Chang Gu, Jingjing Liu, Xianting Ke, Yangyang Zhang
Objective The co-incidence of lung cancer and coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing in patients of advanced age. This study was performed to demonstrate the efficiency and safety of simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting and lung cancer surgery in a selected group of older patients. Methods Twenty patients with severe CAD and coexisting lung cancer underwent simultaneous surgical interventions (Group A), and 20 patients with lung cancer underwent an isolated lung cancer operation (Group B). In Group A, the combined operations were carried out through 2 incisions in 3 patients, a single incision in 14 patients, and median sternotomy for heart surgery and thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer in 3 patients...
October 14, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Katharina Kerschan-Schindl, Gerold Ebenbichler, Wolfgang Gruther, Ursula Föger-Samwald, Stefan Kudlacek, Janina Patsch, Andreas Gleiss, Peter Jaksch, Walter Klepetko, Peter Pietschmann
Recipients of lung transplantation (LuTx) may experience impaired muscle function and bone metabolism even after rehabilitation. We investigated the potential use of musculoskeletal markers in identifying the impairment of muscle function and bone function in these patients. Biochemical parameters, bodily functions, and lung function of 37 LuTx recipients were evaluated at the time of their discharge from the hospital stay and about 6 months later. The biomarkers were also assessed in 30 healthy age and gender distribution-matched controls...
October 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Yazeed Toukan, Michal Gur, Fahed H Hakim, Yuval Geffen, Ronen Bar-Yoseph, Vered Nir, Lea Bentur
INTRODUCTION: CF pulmonary guidelines recommend alternate therapy (one month on, one month off) with inhaled tobramycin for chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in cystic fibrosis (CF). Tobramycin-inhaled powder (TIP™) is increasingly replacing time-consuming nebulizer therapy. It is unclear whether laboratory parameters change during the month off period compared with the month on therapy. PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess whether spirometry, lung clearance index and circulating inflammatory markers differ between on/off treatment periods...
September 30, 2018: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
Dandan Liang, Shaoshan Liang, Feng Xu, Mingchao Zhang, Xiaomei Li, Yiyao Tu, Zhihong Liu, Caihong Zeng
AIM: To explore the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with anti-GBM antibody-negative anti-GBM disease. METHODS: The clinical and renal pathological findings were retrospectively studied in 19 patients. All patients met the following inclusion criteria: linear GBM IgG deposition on immunofluorescence(IF); and lack of serum anti-GBM antibodies by ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assay. RESULTS: There were 17 male and two female patients, with a median age of 36 years (range 15-61 years)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Luc Dauchet, Sébastien Hulo, Nathalie Cherot-Kornobis, Régis Matran, Philippe Amouyel, Jean-Louis Edmé, Jonathan Giovannelli
INTRODUCTION: Air pollution impacts health by increasing mortality and the incidence of acute events in unhealthy individuals. In contrast, the acute effects of pollution in healthy individuals are less obvious. The present study was designed to evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution on one hand and lung function, and inflammatory markers on the other in middle-aged, non-smoking adults with no respiratory disease, in two urban areas in northern France. METHODS: A sample of 1506 non-smoking adults (aged from 40 to 65) with no respiratory disease was selected from the participants in the 2011-2013 cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement (ELISABET) survey in two urban areas in the northern France...
October 9, 2018: Environment International
Pavol Sajgalik, Chul-Ho Kim, John M Stulak, Sudhir S Kushwaha, Simon Maltais, David L Joyce, Lyle D Joyce, Bruce D Johnson, John A Schirger
AIM: The lungs-and particularly the alveolar-capillary membrane-may be sensitive to continuous flow (CF) and pulmonary pressure alterations in heart failure (HF). We aimed to investigate long-term effects of CF pumps on respiratory function. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with end-stage HF at our institution. We analysed pulmonary function tests [e.g. forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )] and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO ) from before and after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation and compared them with invasive haemodynamic studies...
October 12, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Ahmed E Hegab, Mari Ozaki, Fatma Y Meligy, Shizuko Kagawa, Makoto Ishii, Tomoko Betsuyaku
High fat diet (HFD) decreases the lifespan of mice, and is a risk factor for several human diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of a HFD on lung epithelial and stem cells and its interaction with aging. Young and old mice were fed with either a standard diet (SD) or a HFD then their trachea and lung were examined for histological changes, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Their stem cell function was examined using the in vitro organoid/colony forming efficiency (CFE) assay. Aging reduced the number of tracheal basal and alveolar type-2 (AT2) cells...
October 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Takeshi Nawa
PURPOSE: To detect early, curable lung cancer, screening using low-dose CT (CT screening) was initiated in Japan and Western countries around the early 1990s. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2013, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) reported that annual CT screening for high-risk participants leads to a 16% reduction in lung cancer death. In Hitachi City, CT screening for citizens 50 years of age or older was started in 1998, and 30% of the citizens had received a CT examination at least once by 2006...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Joo Hee Kim, Hun Soo Chang, Seung Woo Shin, Dong Gyu Baek, Ji Hye Son, Choon Sik Park, Jong Sook Park
PURPOSE: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that responds to medications to varying degrees. Cluster analyses have identified several phenotypes and variables related to fixed airway obstruction; however, few longitudinal studies of lung function have been performed on adult asthmatics. We investigated clinical, demographic, and inflammatory factors related to persistent airflow limitation based on lung function trajectories over 1 year. METHODS: Serial post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume (FEV) 1% values were obtained from 1,679 asthmatics who were followed up every 3 months for 1 year...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Yao-Chun Hsu, Tomi Jun, Yen-Tsung Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Chia-Long Lee, Shintaro Ogawa, Shu-Hsien Cho, Jaw-Town Lin, Ming-Lung Yu, Mindie H Nguyen, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) is an emerging biomarker for risk prediction of liver disease, but data remain sparse for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who are treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA). AIM: To clarify serial changes in M2BPGi and its association with subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in NA-treated CHB patients. METHODS: We enrolled 384 previously untreated CHB patients who received NAs...
October 10, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Barbara Joschtel, Sjaan R Gomersall, Sean Tweedy, Helen Petsky, Anne B Chang, Stewart G Trost
Introduction: Chronic disease in children is increasing, including the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), bronchiectasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on health outcomes in children with chronic respiratory disease. Method: Five databases were searched for randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of exercise training on children with chronic respiratory disease...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
John P Pierce, Yuyan Shi, Sara B McMenamin, Tarik Benmarhnia, Dennis R Trinidad, David R Strong, Martha M White, Sheila Kealey, Erik M Hendrickson, Matthew D Stone, Adriana Villasenor, Sandy Kwong, Xueying Zhang, Karen Messer
Three cigarette smoking behaviors influence lung cancer rates: how many people start, the amount they smoke, and the age they quit. California has reduced smoking faster than the rest of the US and trends in these 3 smoking behaviors should inform lung cancer trends. We examined trends in smoking behavior (initiation, intensity, and quitting) in California and the rest of US by regression models using the 1974-2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=962,174). Lung cancer mortality data for 1970-2013 was obtained from the national Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Shikma Katz, Nissim Arish, Ariel Rokach, Yacov Zaltzman, Esther-Lee Marcus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are routinely performed in the upright position due to measurement devices and patient comfort. This systematic review investigated the influence of body position on lung function in healthy persons and specific patient groups. METHODS: A search to identify English-language papers published from 1/1998-12/2017 was conducted using MEDLINE and Google Scholar with key words: body position, lung function, lung mechanics, lung volume, position change, positioning, posture, pulmonary function testing, sitting, standing, supine, ventilation, and ventilatory change...
October 11, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Jihyoun Jeon, Theodore R Holford, David T Levy, Eric J Feuer, Pianpian Cao, Jamie Tam, Lauren Clarke, John Clarke, Chung Yin Kong, Rafael Meza
Background: Tobacco control efforts implemented in the United States since the 1960s have led to considerable reductions in smoking and smoking-related diseases, including lung cancer. Objective: To project reductions in tobacco use and lung cancer mortality from 2015 to 2065 due to existing tobacco control efforts. Design: Comparative modeling approach using 4 simulation models of the natural history of lung cancer that explicitly relate temporal smoking patterns to lung cancer rates...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Rob J Hallifax, Raph Goldacre, Martin J Landray, Najib M Rahman, Michael J Goldacre
Importance: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a common disease known to have an unusual epidemiological profile, but there are limited contemporary population-based data. Objective: To estimate the incidence of hospital admissions for spontaneous pneumothorax, its recurrence and trends over time using large, longstanding hospitalization data sets in England. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based epidemiological study was conducted using an English national data set and an English regional data set, each spanning 1968 to 2016, and including 170 929 hospital admission records of patients 15 years and older...
October 9, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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