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Changes in the lung with aging

Markus T Sainio, Salla Välipakka, Bruno Rinaldi, Helena Lapatto, Anders Paetau, Simo Ojanen, Virginia Brilhante, Manu Jokela, Sanna Huovinen, Mari Auranen, Johanna Palmio, Sylvie Friant, Emil Ylikallio, Bjarne Udd, Henna Tyynismaa
OBJECTIVE: To describe adult-onset limb-girdle-type muscular dystrophy caused by biallelic variants in the PYROXD1 gene, which has been recently linked to early-onset congenital myofibrillar myopathy. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed for adult-onset neuromuscular disease patients with no molecular diagnosis. Patients with PYROXD1 variants underwent clinical characterization, lower limb muscle MRI, muscle biopsy and spirometry. A yeast complementation assay was used to determine the biochemical consequences of the genetic variants...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Endalew Getnet Tsega
During human growth and development from infancy to adulthood, dramatic changes occur in the respiratory system. It is important to understand respiratory airflow in different age groups in age-specific treatment of respiratory disorders. This study numerically investigated the age-related effects on inspiratory and expiratory airflow dynamics in four-generation lung airway models under normal breathing conditions. Tracheobronchial airway models of infant (6 month old), child (5 years old), and adult (25 years old) from sixth to ninth generations were constructed for the study...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ingrid Guerra Azevedo, Saionara Maria Aires da Câmara, Catherine McLean Pirkle, Álvaro Campos Cavalcanti Maciel, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho Viana
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies show that multiparity and a number of chronic conditions are correlated among women. Also, low respiratory muscle strength has been associated to adverse health outcomes such as chronic lung disease and early mortality. This study aimed to investigate associations between the number of lifetime pregnancies and maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressures. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 204 women ages 41-80 years-old, from the rural community of Santa Cruz, Brazil, provided data regarding demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, and number of lifetime pregnancies (≤3, 4-6 or ≥7)...
2018: PloS One
Carla Saunders, James J Brown, David J Carter, Sam Lapkin
ISSUE ADDRESSED: This study investigates the current nature, levels and perceived need for workplace support among mature age Australian workers with chronic illness. METHODS: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted via a double opt-in panel sample of Australian workers aged 45 years and older with one or more of six major chronic diseases (diabetes and/or chronic heart, kidney, lung, mental health and/or musculoskeletal conditions). RESULTS: Three hundred and fourteen respondents reported being in the workforce and having at least one of the chronic conditions under investigation, of which almost one third reported having more than one of the conditions...
December 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Guanliu Yu, Yawen Wang, Minmin Zhang, Yun Lin, Yi Tang, Youxiang Diao
Hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) caused by group I fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is an acute and infectious disease in fowl, particularly in broilers aged 3-5 weeks. In June 2015, a highly pathogenic disease outbroke in 25-40 day-old ducklings in Shandong province, characterized similar symptom to HHS. In order to determine the pathogenic mechanism of FAdV-4 (SDSX strain) in meat ducks. We divided 90 25-day-old Cherry Valley meat ducks into three groups (oral, subcutaneous, and control; 30 ducks in each group) and infected them with the virus...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Kanan Desai, Neville Berkman, Irit Cohen-Manheim, Ronit Sinnreich, Abraham Aviv, Jeremy D Kark
AIM: The study aimed to examine the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) attrition over 13 years (between mean age 30 and mean age 43) and lung function at mean age 50. MATERIALS & METHODS: In a longitudinal observational study LTL was determined twice on a population-based sample of 481 Jewish residents of Jerusalem at mean ages 30 and 43 years. Pulmonary function was determined at mean age 50 years. Multiple linear regression and multivariable ordinal logistic modeling were applied...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
B Giordani, S Quattrucci, A Amato, M Salvatore, R Padoan
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in CF women is no longer an exceptional event, but few information on its effect on clinical status in European CF patients are available. This study describes Italian CF pregnant population, to investigate its effect on CF woman. METHODS: Data were collected (2010-2015) by the Italian CF Registry. A case-control study was performed between pregnant and never pregnant women. RESULTS: A total of 81 pregnant women (aged 18-45ys) were identified with a mean age at pregnancy of 31ys...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
M M Folqué, J Lozano, C Riggioni, M Piquer, M Álvaro, A Machinena, M T Giner, O Domínguez, R M Jiménez-Feijoo, M Dias da Costa, A M Plaza
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Omalizumab is present in international guidelines for the control of severe asthma, but data on the long-term effects in children are limited. Our objective was to perform a 'real-life' long-term trial of omalizumab in children with allergic asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational single center 'real-life' study was performed. Data for treatment, lung function, side effect, asthma exacerbations and hospitalizations were recorded at six months and annually...
November 30, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Nathalie Fuentes, Patricia Silveyra
Sex-differences in the incidence and severity of inflammatory lung diseases have been recognized for years. Women of reproductive age are more likely to suffer from chronic lung disease, with higher mortality rates than men. Physiological changes in hormone levels such as those occurring during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause have been associated with lung function changes and asthma symptoms. Despite this, the roles of sex hormones in the mechanisms associated with lung diseases have not been fully elucidated...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Min Sung Kim, Chang-Jin Choi, Kyung Min Kwon, Kyung-Soo Kim, Whan-Seok Choi, Yoon Jee Oh
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infection and the treatment outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level and lung function in Korean adults according to whether or not there is a history of PTB. Methods: The data for subjects aged 19 years or older from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 who underwent spirometry, chest radiography, and serum 25(OH)D level measurement were analyzed...
December 4, 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Chien-Wei Chen, Li-Sheng Hsu, Jun-Cheng Weng, Hsu-Huei Weng, Yu-Ling Ye, Sheng-Lung Hsu, Wei-Ming Lin
To explore the role of quantitative digital subtraction angiography (QDSA) in the diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Between November 2015 and November 2017, all patients who underwent chemoembolization for HCC were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with tumors measuring more than 5 cm or evident post-processing imaging artifacts were excluded. Images were post-processed using the QDSA technique. Regions of interest were manually drawn on proper hepatic artery (as a reference), target HCC and peritumoral liver...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Marlies Wijsenbeek, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Claudia Valenzuela, Michael T Henry, Catharina Moor, Monica Bengus, Andras Perjesi, Frank Gilberg, Klaus-Uwe Kirchgaessler, Carlo Vancheri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study will aim to characterise disease behaviour during the peri-diagnostic period in patients with suspected interstitial lung disease (ILD), including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), using daily home spirometry and accelerometry. Additionally, this study will aim to increase collaboration between secondary and tertiary centres using a digital collaboration platform. METHODS: The STARLINER study (NCT03261037) will enrol approximately 180 symptomatic patients aged 50 years or more with radiological evidence of ILD/IPF from community and tertiary centres in Canada and Europe...
November 30, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Yaqiong Ma, Shikui Zhang, Lianping Zhao, Xing Zhou, Zeqing Mao, Huaxin Xu, Xiaorui Ru, Gang Huang
Background: This retrospective study aimed to investigate the computed tomography (CT) manifestations, short-term dynamic evolution features and quantitative lung CT analysis of inhalation lung injury induced by smoke bomb flare. Methods: Eleven pediatric patients (aged 11 to 13) who inhaled the smoke of smoke bombs underwent several low-dose chest CT scans. The image characteristics and their dynamic changes were observed and quantitative CT values were analyzed...
October 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Benjamin Strauss, Yassine Sassi, Carlos Bueno-Beti, Zeki Ilkan, Nour Raad, Marine Cacheux, Malik Bisserier, Irene C Turnbull, Erik Kohlbrenner, Roger J Hajjar, Lahouaria Hadri, Fadi G Akar
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) results in right ventricular (RV) failure, electro-mechanical dysfunction and heightened risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD), although exact mechanisms and predisposing factors remain unclear. Because impaired chronotropic response to exercise is a strong predictor of early mortality in patients with PAH, we hypothesized that progressive elevation in heart rate can unmask ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) in a rodent model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Niamh O'Donoghue, Shiva Shrotriya, Aynur Aktas, Barbara Hullihen, Serkan Ayvaz, Bassam Estfan, Declan Walsh
PURPOSE: Weight changes occur throughout the cancer trajectory. Most research has focused on changes during or after treatment, so clinical significance of change at diagnosis remains unclear. This study aimed to determine prevalence, predictors and prognostic significance of weight changes at diagnosis in outpatients with solid tumours presenting to a tertiary academic medical centre. METHODS: A retrospective study of the electronic medical record was conducted (n = 6477)...
November 29, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Francis J Gilchrist, Richard Buka, Mary Jones, Sheng Ang Ho, Warren Lenney, William D Carroll
Objectives: Chest CT is increasingly used to monitor disease progression in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) but there is no national guideline regarding its use. Our objective was to assess the indications for undertaking chest CT and the protocols used to obtain scans. Design Setting and participants: An electronic questionnaire was developed to assess clinicians views on chest CT in children with CF. It included general questions on perceived benefits and specific questions about its role in five clinical scenarios...
2018: BMJ paediatrics open
Michelle N Reichert, Paulo R C de Oliveira, George M P R Souza, Henriette G Moranza, Wilmer A Z Restan, Augusto S Abe, Wilfried Klein, William K Milsom
The structure and function of crocodilian lungs are unique compared to other reptiles. We examine the extent to which this, and the semi-aquatic lifestyle of crocodilians affect their respiratory mechanics. We measured changes in intratracheal pressure in adult and juvenile caiman ( Caiman yacare ) during static and dynamic lung volume changes. Respiratory mechanics of juvenile caiman were additionally measured while floating in water and submerged at 30°, 60°, and 90° to the water's surface. The static compliance of the juvenile pulmonary system (2...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Nicholas Steel, John A Ford, John N Newton, Adrian C J Davis, Theo Vos, Mohsen Naghavi, Scott Glenn, Andrew Hughes, Alice M Dalton, Diane Stockton, Ciaran Humphreys, Mary Dallat, Jürgen Schmidt, Julian Flowers, Sebastian Fox, Ibrahim Abubakar, Robert W Aldridge, Allan Baker, Carol Brayne, Traolach Brugha, Simon Capewell, Josip Car, Cyrus Cooper, Majid Ezzati, Justine Fitzpatrick, Felix Greaves, Roderick Hay, Simon Hay, Frank Kee, Heidi J Larson, Ronan A Lyons, Azeem Majeed, Martin McKee, Salman Rawaf, Harry Rutter, Sonia Saxena, Aziz Sheikh, Liam Smeeth, Russell M Viner, Stein Emil Vollset, Hywel C Williams, Charles Wolfe, Anthony Woolf, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported national and regional Global Burden of Disease (GBD) estimates for the UK. Because of substantial variation in health within the UK, action to improve it requires comparable estimates of disease burden and risks at country and local levels. The slowdown in the rate of improvement in life expectancy requires further investigation. We use GBD 2016 data on mortality, causes of death, and disability to analyse the burden of disease in the countries of the UK and within local authorities in England by deprivation quintile...
November 3, 2018: Lancet
Julie Chi Chow, Chen-Sen Ouyang, Chin-Ling Tsai, Ching-Tai Chiang, Rei-Cheng Yang, Rong-Ching Wu, Hui-Chuan Wu, Lung-Chang Lin
Diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently based on core symptoms or checklists; however, the inevitability of practitioner subjectivity leads to over- and underdiagnosis. Although the Federal Drug Administration has approved an elevated theta/beta ratio (TBR) of the electroencephalogram (EEG) band as a tool for assisting ADHD diagnosis, several studies have reported no significant differences of the TBR between ADHD and control subjects. This study detailed the development of a method based on approximate entropy (ApEn) analysis of EEG to compare ADHD and control groups...
November 29, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Abouzar Bagheri, Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid, Mahmood Tavallaie, Seyed Javad Mowla, Masih Sherafatian, Mohsen Rashidi, Mehryar Zargari, Mahdi Eskandarian Boroujeni, Sayed Mostafa Hosseini
Non-small-lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death. Early detection of NSCLC could pave the way for effective therapies. Analysis of molecular genetic biomarkers in biological fluids has been proposed as a useful tool for cancer diagnosis. Here, we aimed to develop a panel of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in sputum for NSCLC early detection. Expression of 11 ncRNAs were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in sputum samples of 30 NSCLC patients and 30 sex- and age-matched cancer-free controls...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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