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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#1
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#2
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876640/physiological-state-tunes-mesolimbic-signaling-lessons-from-sodium-appetite-and-inspiration-from-randall-r-sakai
#3
REVIEW
Samantha M Fortin, Mitchell F Roitman
Sodium deficit poses a life-threatening challenge to body fluid homeostasis and generates a sodium appetite - the behavioral drive to ingest sodium. Dr. Randall R. Sakai greatly contributed to our understanding of the hormonal responses to negative sodium balance and to the central processing of these signals. Reactivity to the taste of sodium solutions and the motivation to seek and consume sodium changes dramatically with body fluid balance. Here, we review studies that collectively suggest that sodium deficit recruits the mesolimbic system to play a role in the behavioral expression of sodium appetite...
November 19, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875537/effect-of-l-tryptophan-and-l-leucine-on-gut-hormone-secretion-appetite-feelings-and-gastric-emptying-rates-in-lean-and-non-diabetic-obese-participants-a-randomized-double-blind-parallel-group-trial
#4
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Simon Häfliger, Julian Meili, Alison Doody, Jens F Rehfeld, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Wölnerhanssen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871070/khat-catha-edulis-and-obesity-a-scoping-review-of-animal-and-human-studies
#5
Mustafa Ahmed Alshagga, Mohammed Abdullah Alshawsh, Atefehalsadat Seyedan, Abdulsamad Alsalahi, Yan Pan, Suresh Kumar Mohankumar, Abdolgodose Alkebsi, Saba Kassim, Zahurin Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a plant that is deeply rooted in the cultural life of East African and Southwestern Arabian populations. Prevalent traditional beliefs about khat are that the plant has an effect on appetite and body weight. SUMMARY: This review assesses the accumulated evidences on the mutual influence of monoamines, hormones and neuropeptides that are linked to obesity. A few anti-obesity drugs that exert their mechanisms of action through monoamines are briefly discussed to support the notion of monoamines being a critical target of drug discovery for new anti-obesity drugs...
November 22, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864453/glial-cells-and-energy-balance
#6
Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, Julie A Chowen
The search for new strategies and drugs to abate the current obesity epidemic has led to the intensification of research aimed at understanding the neuroendocrine control of appetite and energy expenditure. This intensified investigation of metabolic control has also included the study of how glial cells participate in this process. Glia, the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, perform a wide spectrum of functions and are vital for the correct functioning of neurons and neuronal circuits...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863129/mechanisms-of-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
M J Khan, K Gerasimidis, C A Edwards, M G Shaikh
Obesity is the most common cause of metabolic complications and poor quality of life in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Hyperphagia and obesity develop after an initial phase of poor feeding and failure to thrive. Several mechanisms for the aetiology of obesity in PWS are proposed, which include disruption in hypothalamic pathways of satiety control resulting in hyperphagia, aberration in hormones regulating food intake, reduced energy expenditure because of hypotonia and altered behaviour with features of autism spectrum disorder...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834797/leptin-levels-are-higher-in-whole-compared-to-skim-human-milk-supporting-a-cellular-contribution
#8
Sambavi Kugananthan, Ching Tat Lai, Zoya Gridneva, Peter J Mark, Donna T Geddes, Foteini Kakulas
Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers...
November 8, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829482/microencapsulated-bitter-compounds-from-gentiana-lutea-reduce-daily-energy-intakes-in-humans
#9
Ilario Mennella, Vincenzo Fogliano, Rosalia Ferracane, Marco Arlorio, Franco Pattarino, Paola Vitaglione
Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract...
November 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829021/plasma-ghrelin-concentrations-were-altered-with-oestrous-cycle-stage-and-increasing-age-in-reproductively-competent-wistar-females
#10
Michelle L Johnson, M Jill Saffrey, Victoria J Taylor
Changes in appetite occur during the ovarian cycle in female mammals. Research on appetite-regulatory gastrointestinal peptides in females is limited, because reproductive changes in steroid hormones present additional experimental factors to control for. This study aimed to explore possible changes in the orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin during the rodent oestrous cycle. Fed and fasted plasma and stomach tissue samples were taken from female Wistar rats (32-44 weeks of age) at each stage of the oestrous cycle for total ghrelin quantification using radioimmunoassay...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822713/dexamethasone-alters-the-appetite-regulation-via-induction-of-hypothalamic-insulin-resistance-in-rat-brain
#11
Ragitha Chruvattil, Shreya Banerjee, Sarmi Nath, Jatin Machhi, Gitika Kharkwal, Mange Ram Yadav, Sarita Gupta
Elevated levels of glucocorticoid, a steroid hormone released in response to stress, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, which is now known to extend its effect on brain functions. Hence, we aimed to investigate the status of brain insulin signaling in response to dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment in female Charles Foster rat. This model exhibited pronounced hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance with loss in appetite and body weight. Immunoblotting of insulin receptor (INSR)-PI3kinase-AKT demonstrated reduced insulin signaling in hypothalamus but no change in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum in dexamethasone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats, signifying the diversity of distribution and function of insulin in different brain regions...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819353/a-novel-non-peptidic-agonist-of-the-ghrelin-receptor-with-orexigenic-activity-in-vivo
#12
Elena Pastor-Cavada, Leticia M Pardo, Dalia Kandil, Cristina Torres-Fuentes, Sarah L Clarke, Hamdy Shaban, Gerard P McGlacken, Harriet Schellekens
Loss of appetite in the medically ill and ageing populations is a major health problem and a significant symptom in cachexia syndromes, which is the loss of muscle and fat mass. Ghrelin is a gut-derived hormone which can stimulate appetite. Herein we describe a novel, simple, non-peptidic, 2-pyridone which acts as a selective agonist for the ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1a). The small 2-pyridone demonstrated clear agonistic activity in both transfected human cells and mouse hypothalamic cells with endogenous GHS-R1a receptor expression...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-energy-balance-regulation-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Ari Shechter
: Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a reciprocal relationship. Sleep disruptions characteristic of OSA may promote behavioral, metabolic, and/or hormonal changes favoring weight gain and/or difficulty losing weight. The regulation of energy balance (EB), i.e., the relationship between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE), is complex and multi-factorial, involving food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety/appetite, and EE via metabolism and physical activity (PA)...
July 15, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812676/cardiac-cachexia-perspectives-for-prevention-and-treatment
#14
Marina Politi Okoshi, Rafael Verardino Capalbo, Fernando G Romeiro, Katashi Okoshi
Cachexia is a prevalent pathological condition associated with chronic heart failure. Its occurrence predicts increased morbidity and mortality independent of important clinical variables such as age, ventricular function, or heart failure functional class. The clinical consequences of cachexia are dependent on both weight loss and systemic inflammation, which accompany cachexia development. Skeletal muscle wasting is an important component of cachexia; it often precedes cachexia development and predicts poor outcome in heart failure...
October 27, 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807695/pharmacological-tool-compounds-for-the-free-fatty-acid-receptor-4-ffa4-gpr120
#15
Steffen V F Hansen, Trond Ulven
The free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4), also known as GPR120, is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by long-chain fatty acids and that has been associated with regulation of appetite, release of insulin controlling hormones, insulin sensitization, anti-inflammatory and potentially anti-obesity activity, and is progressively appearing as an attractive potential target for the treatment of metabolic dysfunctions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and inflammatory disorders. Ongoing investigations of the pharmacological functions of FFA4 and validation of its potential as a therapeutic target depend critically on the appropriateness and quality of the available pharmacological probes or tool compounds...
November 3, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806971/effect-of-24-h-severe-energy-restriction-on-appetite-regulation-and-ad-libitum-energy-intake-in-lean-men-and-women
#16
David J Clayton, Kirsty Burrell, Georgina Mynott, Mark Creese, Nicola Skidmore, David J Stensel, Lewis J James
BACKGROUND: Intermittent severe energy restriction (SER) can induce substantial weight loss, but the appetite regulatory responses to SER are unknown and may dictate long-term dietary adherence. OBJECTIVE: We determined the effect of 24-h SER on appetite regulation, metabolism, and energy intake. DESIGN: Eighteen lean men and women completed two 3-d trials in randomized, counterbalanced order. On day 1 subjects consumed standardized diets containing 100% (mean ± SD: 9...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792164/the-effect-of-a-20-km-run-on-appetite-regulation-in-long-distance-runners
#17
Chihiro Kojima, Aya Ishibashi, Kumiko Ebi, Kazushige Goto
The purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-related hormonal responses and energy intake after a 20 km run in trained long distance runners. Twenty-three male long-distance runners completed two trials: either an exercise trial consisting of a 20 km outdoor run (EX) or a control trial with an identical period of rest (CON). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and other hormonal and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during a buffet test meal was also measured 30 min after the exercise or rest periods...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783863/hpa-axis-interactions-with-behavioral-systems
#18
Amy E B Packard, Ann E Egan, Yvonne M Ulrich-Lai
Perhaps the most salient behaviors that individuals engage in involve the avoidance of aversive experiences and the pursuit of pleasurable experiences. Engagement in these behaviors is regulated to a significant extent by an individual's hormonal milieu. For example, glucocorticoid hormones are produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, and influence most aspects of behavior. In turn, many behaviors can influence HPA axis activity. These bidirectional interactions not only coordinate an individual's physiological and behavioral states to each other, but can also tune them to environmental conditions thereby optimizing survival...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781093/gut-chemosensing-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780736/add-on-therapy-with-anagliptin-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-treated-with-metformin-and-miglitol-can-maintain-higher-concentrations-of-biologically-active-glp-1-total-gip-and-a-lower-concentration-of-leptin
#20
Takeshi Osonoi, Miyoko Saito, Natsuyo Hariya, Moritaka Goto, Kazuki Mochizuki
Metformin, α-glucosidase inhibitors (α-GIs), and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP-4Is) reduce hyperglycemia without excessive insulin secretion, and enhance postprandial plasma concentration of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We assessed add-on therapeutic effects of DPP-4I anagliptin in Japanese T2DM patients treated with metformin, an α-GI miglitol, or both drugs on postprandial responses of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and on plasma concentration of the appetite-suppressing hormone leptin...
December 2016: Peptides
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