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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444097/the-effects-of-intensified-training-on-resting-metabolic-rate-rmr-body-composition-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#1
Amy L Woods, Anthony J Rice, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Alice M Wallett, Bronwen Lundy, Margot A Rogers, Marijke Welvaert, Shona Halson, Andrew McKune, Kevin G Thompson
BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated decreases in resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and performance following a period of intensified training in elite athletes, however the underlying mechanisms of change remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate how an intensified training period, designed to elicit overreaching, affects RMR, body composition, and performance in trained endurance athletes, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. METHOD: Thirteen (n = 13) trained male cyclists completed a six-week training program consisting of a "Baseline" week (100% of regular training load), a "Build" week (~120% of Baseline load), two "Loading" weeks (~140, 150% of Baseline load, respectively) and two "Recovery" weeks (~80% of Baseline load)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441654/effect-of-rivastigmine-on-plasma-butyrylcholine-esterase-activity-and-plasma-ghrelin-levels-in-patients-with-dementia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Atsushi Kuroda, Manabu Setoguchi, Yasushi Uchino, Kazuya Nagata, Daisuke Hokonohara
AIM: Alzheimer's disease causes loss of appetite, resulting in bodyweight reduction. This, in turn, causes progression of cognitive dysfunction and physical complications that hasten death. Earlier care for loss of appetite is essential in Alzheimer's disease management. Rivastigmine is a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease that has dual inhibition effects on acetylcholine esterase and butyrylcholine esterase. Butyrylcholine esterase is known to degrade the gastric hormone, ghrelin, which regulates appetite; therefore, we considered that rivastigmine might have an effect on appetite...
February 14, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431535/differences-in-the-postprandial-release-of-appetite-related-hormones-between-active-and-inactive-men
#3
Linn Bøhler, Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Jens F Rehfeld, Linda Morgan, Catia Martins
Active, as opposed to inactive, individuals are able to adjust their energy intake after preloads of different energy content. The mechanisms responsible for this remain unknown. This study examined differences in plasma concentration of appetite-related hormones in response to breakfasts of different energy content, between active and inactive men. 16 healthy non-obese (BMI 18.5-27 kg/m 2 ) adult males (9 active, 7 inactive), participated in the study. Participants were given a high- (HE, 570 kcal) or a low-energy (LE, 205 kcal) breakfast in random order...
February 12, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431471/appetite-suppression-and-altered-food-preferences-coincide-with-changes-in-appetite-mediating-hormones-during-energy-deficit-at-high-altitude-but-are-not-affected-by-protein-intake
#4
J Philip Karl, Renee E Cole, Claire E Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N Radcliffe, Matthew T Kominsky, Nancy E Murphy, John W Carbone, Jennifer C Rood, Andrew J Young, Stefan M Pasiakos
Karl, J. Philip, Renee E. Cole, Claire E. Berryman, Graham Finlayson, Patrick N. Radcliffe, Matthew T. Kominsky, Nancy E. Murphy, John W. Carbone, Jennifer C. Rood, Andrew J. Young, and Stefan M. Pasiakos. Appetite Suppression and Altered Food Preferences Coincide with Changes in Appetite-Mediating Hormones During Energy Deficit at High Altitude, But Are Not Affected by Protein Intake. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018.-Anorexia and unintentional body weight loss are common during high altitude (HA) sojourn, but underlying mechanisms are not fully characterized, and the impact of dietary macronutrient composition on appetite regulation at HA is unknown...
February 12, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427691/subjective-satiety-and-plasma-pyy-concentration-after-wholemeal-pasta
#5
Giuseppina Costabile, Ettore Griffo, Paola Cipriano, Claudia Vetrani, Marilena Vitale, Gianfranco Mamone, Angela A Rivellese, Gabriele Riccardi, Rosalba Giacco
Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30 ± 2 yrs (mean ± SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial...
February 7, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420992/food-acceptability-affects-ghrelin-and-insulin-levels-in-healthy-male-subjects-a-pilot-study
#6
Ammar Olabi, Nahla Hwalla, Hamza Daroub, Omar Obeid, Christelle Cordahi
The obesity prevalence worldwide is reaching epidemic proportions, which makes the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite of paramount importance. This study assessed whether the hedonic characteristics of a food item (high acceptability [HA] vs modified low acceptability [LA]) have a significant effect on postprandial ghrelin and insulin levels and appetite scores of isoenergetic meals in normal-weight men. We hypothesize that food acceptability would significantly impact appetite scores and affect the studied postprandial hormones...
January 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413587/targeting-the-leptin-receptor-to-evaluate-therapeutic-efficacy-and-anti-tumor-effects-of-doxil-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-mice-bearing-c26-colon-carcinoma-tumor
#7
Shahrzad Amiri Darban, Sara Nikoofal-Sahlabadi, Nafise Amiri, Nafiseh Kiamanesh, Amin Mehrabian, Bamdad Zendehbad, Zahra Gholizadeh, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Leptin is an appetite regulatory hormone that is secreted into the blood circulation by the adipose tissue and it functions via its over expressed receptors (Ob-R) in a wide variety of cancers. In the present study, the function of a leptin-derived peptide (LP16, 91-110 of Leptin) was investigated as a targeting ligand to decorate PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD, Doxil®) surface and the anti-tumor activity and therapeutic efficacy of Doxil in C26 (Colon Carcinoma) tumor model were also evaluated. As a result of this, Doxil with different LP16 peptide density (25, 50, 100 and 200 peptide on the surface of each liposome) was successfully prepared and characterized...
January 26, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412828/emerging-therapeutic-potential-for-peptide-yy-for-obesity-diabetes
#8
Ryan A Lafferty, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
The vast majority of research to date on the gut hormone Peptide YY (PYY) has focused on appetite suppression and body weight regulation effects. These biological actions are believed to occur through interaction of PYY with hypothalamic Y2 receptors. However, more recent studies have added additional knowledge to understanding of the physiological, and potential therapeutic, roles of PYY beyond obesity alone. Thus, PYY has now been shown to impart improvements in pancreatic beta-cell survival and function, with obvious benefits for diabetes...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412824/ghrelin-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#9
Anne-Laure Poher, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
The a 28-amino acid peptide ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as a growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide. Soon after its discovery, ghrelin was found to increase body weight and adiposity by acting on the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system. Subsequently, ghrelin was found to exert a series of metabolic effects, overall testifying ghrelin a pleiotropic nature of broad pharmacological interest. Ghrelin acts through the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor with high expression in the anterior pituitary, pancreatic islets, thyroid gland, heart and various regions of the brain...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412820/a-novel-glp-1-xenin-hybrid-peptide-improves-glucose-homeostasis-circulating-lipids-and-restores-gip-sensitivity-in-high-fat-fed-mice
#10
Annie Hasib, Ming T Ng, Dawood Khan, Victor A Gault, Peter R Flatt, Nigel Irwin
Combined modulation of peptide hormone receptors including, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and xenin, have established benefits for the treatment of diabetes. The present study has assessed the biological actions and therapeutic efficacy of a novel exendin-4/xenin-8-Gln hybrid peptide, both alone and in combination with the GIP receptor agonist (DAla2)GIP. Exendin-4/xenin-8-Gln was enzymatically stable and exhibited enhanced insulin secretory actions when compared to its parent peptides...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411421/tanycytes-and-hypothalamic-control-of-energy-metabolism
#11
Francis J P Ebling, Jo E Lewis
Studies from a number of areas of neuroendocrinology indicate that hypothalamic tanycytes play a key role in control of energy metabolism. First, profound annual changes in gene expression have been identified in these unusual glial cells in seasonal mammals, for example in genes relating to the transport and metabolism of thyroid hormone into the hypothalamus. The consequent changes in local thyroid hormone availability in the hypothalamus have been shown experimentally to regulate annual cycles in energy intake, storage and expenditure in seasonal species...
February 7, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410591/effects-of-12-week-circuit-exercise-program-on-obesity-index-appetite-regulating-hormones-and-insulin-resistance-in-middle-aged-obese-females
#12
Seol-Jung Kang, Jong-Hyu Kim, Zhao Gang, Young-Sook Yook, Jea-Ryang Yoon, Gi-Chul Ha, Kwang-Jun Ko
[Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of circuit exercise on obesity index, appetite regulating hormones and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 obese middle-aged women who were selected among participants in exercise class at K Region Health Promotion Center in South Korea and were randomly assigned to the exercise group (n=13; age 50.15 ± 3.82, % body fat 38.79 ± 3.28) and the control group (n=13; age 49.84 ± 2...
January 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408859/transcriptome-analysis-revealed-the-possible-regulatory-pathways-initiating-female-geese-broodiness-within-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis
#13
Hehe Liu, Jiwen Wang, Liang Li, Chunchun Han, Hua He, Hengyong Xu
Geese have the strongest tendency toward broodiness among all poultry. The mechanisms initiating broodiness within the goose hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) are still unclear. Here, we reported the transcriptome differences between laying and initial nesting within the HPGA tissues of geese. We constructed a unigene database based on HPGA tissues and identified 128,148 unigenes, 100% of which have been annotated. By using Digital Gene Expression (DGE) sequencing, we screened 19, 110, 289, and 211 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, stroma ovarii, and follicles, respectively, between laying and nesting geese...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405517/activation-of-amylin-receptors-attenuates-alcohol-mediated-behaviours-in-rodents
#14
Aimilia Lydia Kalafateli, Daniel Vallöf, Elisabet Jerlhag
Alcohol expresses its reinforcing properties by activating areas of the mesolimbic dopamine system, which consists of dopaminergic neurons projecting from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The findings that reward induced by food and addictive drugs involve common mechanisms raise the possibility that gut-brain hormones, which control appetite, such as amylin, could be involved in reward regulation. Amylin decreases food intake, and despite its implication in the regulation of natural rewards, tenuous evidence support amylinergic mediation of artificial rewards, such as alcohol...
February 6, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396372/ghrelin-mediates-exercise-endurance-and-the-feeding-response-post-exercise
#15
Bharath K Mani, Carlos M Castorena, Sherri Osborne-Lawrence, Prasanna Vijayaraghavan, Nathan P Metzger, Joel K Elmquist, Jeffrey M Zigman
OBJECTIVE: Exercise training has several well-established health benefits, including many related to body weight, appetite control, and blood glucose homeostasis. However, the molecular mechanisms and, in particular, the hormonal systems that mediate and integrate these beneficial effects are poorly understood. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the role of the hormone ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR; ghrelin receptor), in mediating the effects of exercise on food intake and blood glucose following exercise as well as in regulating exercise endurance capacity...
January 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395244/the-effects-of-ghrelin-on-sleep-appetite-and-memory-and-its-possible-role-in-depression-a-review-of-the-literature
#16
V Morin, F Hozer, J-F Costemale-Lacoste
OBJECTIVES: Ghrelin is an orexigenic digestive hormone that plays a role in sleep and memory. Our work aims is to synthesize the effects of ghrelin on appetite, sleep and memory, and also to evidence its role in depressive disorders. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out on PubMed with no time boundaries. The following MeSH terms were used: ghrelin AND (appetite regulation OR obesity), (sleep wake disorders OR sleep) (memory OR cognition disorders) (depression OR depressive disorder OR mood disorder)...
January 26, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394908/intermittent-fasting-energy-balance-and-associated-health-outcomes-in-adults-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#17
Iain Templeman, Dylan Thompson, Javier Gonzalez, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Sue Reeves, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Leonidas G Karagounis, Kostas Tsintzas, James A Betts
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that intermittent fasting is capable of producing improvements in body weight and fasted health markers. However, the extent to which intermittent fasting incurs compensatory changes in the components of energy balance and its impact on postprandial metabolism are yet to be ascertained. METHODS: A total of 30-36 lean participants and 30-36 overweight/obese participants will be recruited to provide two separate study groups who will undergo the same protocol...
February 2, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390437/chronic-primary-adrenal-insufficiency-after-unilateral-adrenonephrectomy-a-case-report
#18
Satoshi Yoshiji, Kimitaka Shibue, Toshihito Fujii, Takeshi Usui, Keisho Hirota, Daisuke Taura, Mayumi Inoue, Masakatsu Sone, Akihiro Yasoda, Nobuya Inagaki
RATIONALE: Unilateral adrenalectomy as part of surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not thought to increase the risk of chronic adrenal insufficiency, as the contralateral adrenal gland is assumed to be capable of compensating for the lost function of the resected gland. However, recent studies have indicated that adrenalectomy might cause irreversible impairment of the adrenocortical reserve. We describe a case of chronic primary adrenal insufficiency in a 68-year-old man who previously underwent unilateral adrenonephrectomy, which was complicated by severe postoperative adrenal stress that involved cardiopulmonary disturbance and systemic infection...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387569/anorexia-highlights-in-traditional-persian-medicine-and-conventional-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Majid Nimrouzi, Mohammad Mehdi Zarshenas
Objective: Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use...
January 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385178/a-high-carbohydrate-but-not-fat-or-protein-meal-attenuates-postprandial-ghrelin-pyy-and-glp-1-responses-in-chinese-men
#20
Ehsan Parvaresh Rizi, Tze Ping Loh, Sonia Baig, Vanna Chhay, Shiqi Huang, Jonathan Caleb Quek, E Shyong Tai, Sue-Anne Toh, Chin Meng Khoo
It is known that the macronutrient content of a meal has different impacts on the postprandial satiety and appetite hormonal responses. Whether obesity interacts with such nutrient-dependent responses is not well characterized. We examined the postprandial appetite and satiety hormonal responses after a high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC), or high-fat (HF) mixed meal. This was a randomized cross-over study of 9 lean insulin-sensitive (mean±SEM HOMA-IR 0.83±0.10) and 9 obese insulin-resistant (HOMA-IR 4...
2018: PloS One
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