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Appetite hormones

S Nymo, S R Coutinho, P H Eknes, I Vestbostad, J F Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng, C Martins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to a compensatory increase in appetite and changes in the plasma concentration of appetite-regulating hormones are likely to play a role. Whether these changes are transient or sustained remains unclear. This study aimed to assess if changes in subjective and objective appetite markers observed with WL are sustained after 1 year (1Y). SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total 100 (45 males) individuals with obesity (BMI: 37 ± 4 kg/m2 , age: 43 ± 10 years) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a very-low energy diet (VLED), followed by 4 wks refeeding, and a 1Y maintenance program...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Maartje S Spetter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is in the brain where the decision is made what and how much to eat. In the last decades neuroimaging research has contributed extensively to new knowledge about appetite control by revealing the underlying brain processes. Interestingly, there is the fast growing idea of using these methods to develop new treatments for obesity and eating disorders. In this review, we summarize the findings of the importance of the use of neuropharmacology and neuroimaging techniques in understanding and modifying appetite control...
June 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
G Montalbano, M Mania, F Abbate, M Navarra, M C Guerrera, R Laura, J A Vega, M Levanti, A Germanà
PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity are important risk factors for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and premature death in modern society. Recently, numerous natural and synthetic compounds have been tested in diet-induced obese animal models, to counteract obesity. Melatonin is a circadian hormone, produced by pineal gland and extra-pineal sources, involved in processes which have in common a rhythmic expression. In teleost, it can control energy balance by activating or inhibiting appetite-related peptides...
June 20, 2018: Endocrine
Desiree L Goetting, Rony Soto, Cheryl Van Buskirk
Behavioral plasticity allows for context-dependent prioritization of competing drives, such as sleep and foraging. Despite the identification of neuropeptides and hormones implicated in dual control of sleep drive and appetite, our understanding of the mechanism underlying the conserved sleep-suppressing effect of food deprivation is limited. C. elegans provides an intriguing model for the dissection of sleep function and regulation, as these nematodes engage a quiescence program following exposure to noxious conditions, a phenomenon known as stress-induced sleep (SIS)...
June 20, 2018: Genetics
Lewis R Mattin, Adora M W Yau, Victoria McIver, Lewis J James, Gethin H Evans
This study investigated the acute circulating gut hormone, appetite and gastric emptying rate responses to a semi-solid meal following exercise at different intensities. Twelve men completed three trials in a randomised-crossover design, consisting of continuous cycling at 70% V˙O2Peak (HIGH), 40% V˙O2Peak (LOW) or rest (CONTROL). Baseline samples were collected after an overnight fast before undertaking the 60 min exercise or rest period, followed by 30 min rest before consumption of a standardised semi-solid meal (~242 kcal)...
June 19, 2018: Nutrients
Cristina Gardelli, Hiroki Wada, Asim Ray, Moya Caffrey, Antonio Llinas, Igor Shamovsky, Joakim Tholander, Joakim Larsson, Ulf Sivars, Leif Hultin, Ulf Andersson, Hitesh J Sanganee, Kristina Stenvall, Brith Leidvik, Karin Gedda, Lisa Jinton, Marie Ryden Landergren, Kostas Karabelas
Cachexia and muscle wasting are very common among patients suffering from cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other chronic diseases. Ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion via the ghrelin receptor, which subsequently leads to increase of IGF-1 plasma levels. The activation of the GH/IGF-1 axis leads to an increase of muscle mass and functional capacity. Ghrelin further acts on inflammation, appetite and adipogenesis, and for this reason was considered an important target to address catabolic conditions...
June 17, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Henry Reyer, Michael Oster, Elizabeth Magowan, Eduard Murani, Helga Sauerwein, Dirk Dannenberger, Björn Kuhla, Siriluck Ponsuksili, Klaus Wimmers
Feed efficiency (FE) is a measure of the rate between feed intake and body weight gain and is subject to constant progress in pigs, based on extensive performance tests and analyses of physiological parameters. However, endocrine regulatory circuits which comprise the sensation and perception of intrinsic requirements and appropriate systemic responses have not yet been fully elucidated. It is hypothesized that the gut-brain-axis, which is a network of hierarchical anterior regulatory tissues, contributes largely to variations in FE...
June 15, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Olena Prykhodko, Jonna Sandberg, Stephen Burleigh, Inger Björck, Anne Nilsson, Frida Fåk Hållenius
Rye kernel bread (RKB) evening meals improve glucose tolerance, enhance appetite regulation and increase satiety in healthy volunteers. These beneficial effects on metabolic responses have been shown to be associated with increased gut fermentation. The present study aimed to elucidate if RKB evening meals may cause rapid alterations in microbiota composition that might be linked to metabolic-, immune-, and appetite- parameters. Gut-brain axis interaction was also studied by relating microbiota composition to amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood plasma...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ana I Duarte, Marie Sjögren, Maria S Santos, Catarina R Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, Maria Björkqvist
Neuronal loss alongside altered energy metabolism, are key features of Huntington's disease (HD) pathology. The orexigenic gut-peptide hormone ghrelin is known to stimulate appetite and affect whole body energy metabolism. Liraglutide is an efficient anti-type 2 diabetes incretin drug, with neuroprotective effects alongside anorectic properties. Combining liraglutide with the orexigenic peptide ghrelin may potentially promote brain/cognitive function in HD. The R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibits progressive central pathology, weight loss, deranged glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle atrophy and altered body composition...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alina Kondrashina, Sanja Seratlic, Dalia Kandil, Nicolas Treguier, Kieran Kilcawley, Harriët Schellekens, Tom Beresford, Linda Giblin
Appetite can be effectively reduced by targeting the production, secretion, circulation time or receptor of the enteric satiety hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate the potency of Irish Cheddar cheeses to modulate GLP-1 levels. Nine out of ten water-soluble extracts (WSEs) of representative Irish Cheddar cheeses, post 6 months ripening, significantly (p < 0.05) stimulated active GLP-1 secretion from the mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. This secretion was associated with protein content and ripening time of cheese...
November 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Patrizia Lo Cascio, Concetta Calabrò, Clara Bertuccio, Carmelo Iaria, Fabio Marino, Maria G Denaro
Gastrointestinal function in vertebrates is influenced by stressors, such as fasting and refeeding, different types of diet and hormonal factors. The aim of this paper was to analyze the effect of a Spirulina ( Arthrospira platensis ) diet, a microalga known for its nutraceutical properties, on the gastrointestinal tract of zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) regarding expression of oligopeptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and ghrelin (GHR). Food deprivation and refeeding was investigated to elucidate expression of PepT1 and GHR at a gastrointestinal level and the zebrafish compensatory mechanism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Catherine Chaumontet, Isidra Recio, Gilles Fromentin, Simon Benoit, Julien Piedcoq, Nicolas Darcel, Daniel Tomé
Background: Protein status is controlled by the brain, which modulates feeding behavior to prevent protein deficiency. Objective: This study tested in rats whether protein status modulates feeding behavior through brain reward pathways. Methods: Experiments were conducted in male Wistar rats (mean ± SD weight; 230 ± 16 g). In experiment 1, rats adapted for 2 wk to a low-protein (LP; 6% of energy) or a normal-protein (NP; 14% of energy) diet were offered a choice between 3 cups containing high-protein (HP; 50% of energy), NP, or LP feed; their intake was measured for 24 h...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
David Aguinaga, Mireia Medrano, Arnau Cordomí, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Edgar Angelats, Mireia Casanovas, Ignacio Vega-Quiroga, Enric I Canela, Milos Petrovic, Katia Gysling, Leonardo Pardo, Rafael Franco, Gemma Navarro
Despite ancient knowledge on cocaine appetite-suppressant action, the molecular basis of such fact remains unknown. Addiction/eating disorders (e.g., binge eating, anorexia, bulimia) share a central control involving reward circuits. However, we here show that the sigma-1 receptor (σ1 R) mediates cocaine anorectic effects by interacting in neurons with growth/hormone/secretagogue (ghrelin) receptors. Cocaine increases colocalization of σ1 R and GHS-R1a at the cell surface. Moreover, in transfected HEK-293T and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and in primary neuronal cultures, pretreatment with cocaine or a σ1 R agonist inhibited ghrelin-mediated signaling, in a similar manner as the GHS-R1a antagonist YIL-781...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Eman M Mortada, Reham A Salem, Omnia S Elseifi, Osama M Khalil
The increased survival of breast cancer (BC) patients by earlier detection and improved treatment outcomes together with younger age at diagnosis, raised the concerns about Quality Of Life among survivors, suffering from treatment side effects. To measure QOL among BC Egyptian females, then to compare HRQOL scores in BC patients receiving different lines of treatment. A comparative cross-sectional study on a sample 142 BC survivor receiving different lines of treatment, using EORTC QLQ-C30, and a BC-specific scale (QLQBR23 scale)...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Marion Fouré, Camille Dugardin, Benoit Foligne, Philippe Hance, Thierry Cadalen, Abigael Delcourt, Bernard Taminiau, George Daube, Rozenn Ravallec, Benoit Cudennec, Jean Louis Hilbert, Anca Lucau-Danila
The objectives of this work are to address the prebiotic effects of the chicory (Cichorium intybus) together with its possible role in appetite control. We compared nine chicory genotypes in order to determine if variations in the content of metabolites in the roasted roots would lead to modifications in release of satiety hormones and in composition of gut microbiota. To this aim, a 5-week dietary intervention study was achieved using mice fed with distinct chicory-based preparations. A 16S rRNA gene-based metagenetic analysis of fecal microbiota was performed...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Joe Herbert
Both testosterone and cortisol have major actions on financial decision-making closely related to their primary biological functions, reproductive success and response to stress, respectively. Financial risk-taking represents a particular example of strategic decisions made in the context of choice under conditions of uncertainty. Such decisions have multiple components, and this article considers how much we know of how either hormone affects risk-appetite, reward value, information processing and estimation of the costs and benefits of potential success or failure, both personal and social...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Weijiang Zheng, Xu Ji, Qing Zhang, Wenchao Du, Quanwei Wei, Wen Yao
The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW) or lactulose (LAC) could protect against the adverse effects of Fusarium mycotoxins-contaminated diet on the growth performance and antioxidant status in weaning piglets. A total of 24 individually housed female piglets were randomly assigned to receive four treatments for 25 days (six pigs/treatment): uncontaminated basal diet (negative control), mycotoxin-contaminated (MC) diet, MC diet + HRW (MC + HRW) and MC diet + LAC (MC + LAC)...
June 4, 2018: Toxins
Breanna M McArthur, Richard D Mattes, Robert V Considine
The low digestibility and high satiety effects of nuts have been partly attributed to mastication. This work examines chewing forces and the bolus particle size of nuts (walnuts, almonds, pistachios) varying in physical properties under different conditions (with and without water, juice, sweetened yogurt and plain yogurt) along with satiety sensations and gut hormone concentrations following walnut consumption (whole or butter). In a randomized, cross-over design with 50 adults (25 males, 25 females; Body Mass Index (BMI) 24...
June 1, 2018: Nutrients
Marina Boix-Castejón, María Herranz-López, Alberto Pérez Gago, Mariló Olivares-Vicente, Nuria Caturla, Enrique Roche, Vicente Micol
TRIAL DESIGN: Plant-derived polyphenols have shown potential to alleviate obesity-related pathologies by a multi-targeted mechanism in animal models and human intervention studies. A dietary supplement based on a combination of Lippia citriodora (LC) and Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) polyphenolic extracts was assayed in a double blind and placebo-controlled intervention study with 54 overweight subjects. METHODS: Blood pressure, body weight, height, triceps, biceps and abdominal skinfold thickness, and arm and abdominal circumferences were taken at the baseline, 30 and 60 days of the intervention period...
June 4, 2018: Food & Function
Beatriz Ferrer, Tanara Vieira Peres, Alessandra Antunes Dos Santos, Julia Bornhorst, Patricia Morcillo, Cinara Ludvig Gonçalves, Michael Aschner
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant that affects primarily the central nervous system (CNS), causing neurological alterations. An early symptom of MeHg poisoning is the loss of body weight and appetite. Moreover, the CNS has an important role in controlling energy homeostasis. It is known that in the hypothalamus nutrient and hormonal signals converge to orchestrate control of body weight and food intake. In this study, we investigated if MeHg is able to induce changes in the expression of key hypothalamic neuropeptides that regulate energy homeostasis...
June 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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