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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625709/review-and-analysis-of-physical-exercise-at-hormonal-and-brain-level-and-its-influence-on-appetite
#1
Laura Gómez Escribano, Arancha Gálvez Casas, Antonio R Escribá Fernández-Marcote, Pedro Tárraga López, Loreto Tárraga Marcos
Due to the currently growing rate of obesity, it is important to maintain good control of food intake. The main purpose of the present study is to determine the influence of physical exercise on appetite, changes in hormone concentrations, and changes in certain neuronal regions. To achieve this, a literature search was conducted using different data bases. The results show how exercise produces changes in the appetite perception, in the amount of energy intake, and in different weight-control related hormones, as well as in specific neuronal responses...
June 15, 2017: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625043/pre-and-postprandial-acylated-ghrelin-in-obese-and-normal-weight-men
#2
Sri Andarini, Ferdy Bangun Kangsaputra, Dian Handayani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity in Indonesia has increasing. We have assessed the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin hormone and self-reported appetite ratings (hunger and desire to eat) in obese and normal weight men. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two men participated in an experimental study, where acylated ghrelin and self-reported appetite ratings were compared between a test group of 16 obese men and a control group of 16 men with normal body mass indices...
June 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621564/the-emerging-role-of-anamorelin-hydrochloride-in-the-management-of-patients-with-cancer-anorexia-cachexia
#3
David C Currow, Richard Je Skipworth
Cancer cachexia affects many patients with advanced cancer. This multifactorial syndrome, which involves loss of muscle mass and body weight, profoundly affects patients' physical functioning and quality of life. Pharmacologic interventions that target weight loss and also improve patient-reported measures are required. Anamorelin hydrochloride is an oral ghrelin receptor agonist for the treatment of cancer anorexia-cachexia that stimulates release of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1, and improves food intake and body weight...
June 16, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614708/thyroid-hormone-receptor-beta-in-the-ventromedial-hypothalamus-is-essential-for-the-physiological-regulation-of-food-intake-and-body-weight
#4
Saira Hameed, Michael Patterson, Waljit S Dhillo, Sofia A Rahman, Yue Ma, Christopher Holton, Apostolos Gogakos, Giles S H Yeo, Brian Y H Lam, Joseph Polex-Wolf, Wiebke Fenske, Jimmy Bell, Jelena Anastasovska, Jacques Samarut, Stephen R Bloom, J H Duncan Bassett, Graham R Williams, James V Gardiner
The obesity epidemic is a significant global health issue. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that regulate appetite and body weight will provide the rationale for the design of anti-obesity therapies. Thyroid hormones play a key role in metabolic homeostasis through their interaction with thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), which function as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The TR-beta isoform (TRβ) is expressed in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a brain area important for control of energy homeostasis...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613282/non-nutritive-sweeteners-evidence-on-their-association-with-metabolic-diseases-and-potential-effects-on-glucose-metabolism-and-appetite
#5
Alonso Romo-Romo, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Rita A Gómez-Díaz, Griselda X Brito-Córdova, Donají V Gómez-Velasco, María J López-Rocha, Paloma Almeda-Valdés
There is ongoing debate concerning non-nutritive sweeteners, their usage, and their effects on metabolism. The association between non-nutritive sweeteners consumption, development of metabolic diseases, and changes in appetite-regulating hormones is not clear. The aim of this article is to present an overview of non-nutritive sweeteners and to examine the scientific evidence of their effects on glucose metabolism and appetite-regulating hormones. Some observational studies suggest an association between non-nutritive sweeteners consumption and development of metabolic diseases; however, adiposity is a confounder frequently found in these studies...
May 2017: Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611686/hypoxia-related-hormonal-appetite-modulation-in-humans-during-rest-and-exercise-mini-review
#6
REVIEW
Tadej Debevec
Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611344/plasma-ghrelin-and-leptin-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-its-association-with-nutritional-status
#7
Firas A Ghomraoui, Sami T Alotaibi, Meshal A Alharthi, Saeed S Asiri, Majid A Almadi, Othman R Alharbi, Nahla A Azzam, Abdulrahman M Aljebreen, Maria Saeed, Baraa Hajkhder, Waleed Saeed, Mohammad A Alzoghaibi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ghrelin and leptin are thought to play a role in the loss of appetite in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study seeks to probe into the association of these markers with regards to IBD and the nutritional status of these patients. A case-control study was conducted between May 2015 and March 2016 at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH). Thirty-one patients with IBD (both active and non-active) and forty-one healthy controls (both non-fasting and fasting) were recruited...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604137/effects-of-dihydrotestosterone-administration-on-the-expression-of-reproductive-and-body-weight-regulatory-factors-in-ovariectomized-and-estradiol-treated-female-rats
#8
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Yiliyasi Mayila, Minoru Irahara
To clarify the direct effects of androgens, the changes in the hypothalamic levels of reproductive and appetite regulatory factors induced by chronic dihydrotestosterone (DHT) administration were evaluated in female rats. DHT treatment increased the BW and food intake of the ovariectomized rats, but not the estradiol (E2)-treated rats. DHT administration suppressed the expression of a hypothalamic anorexigenic factor. Although the kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA levels of the anterior hypothalamic block (the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, AVPV) were increased in the E2-treated rats, DHT administration did not affect the Kiss1 mRNA levels of the AVPV in the ovariectomized or E2-treated rats...
June 11, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597412/association-of-a-604g-ghrelin-gene-polymorphism-and-serum-ghrelin-levels-with-the-risk-of-obesity-in-a-mexican-population
#9
Iris Monserrat Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara Anaís Llamas-Covarrubias, Erika Martinez-López, Eloy Alfonso Zepeda-Carrillo, Edgar Alfonso Rivera-León, Beatriz Palmeros-Sánchez, Juan Luis Alcalá-Zermeño, Sergio Sánchez-Enríquez
Obesity is a metabolic disorder that has a multifactorial etiology and affects millions of people worldwide. Ghrelin, a hormone coded by the GHRL gene, plays a role in human body composition and appetite. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the GHRL gene have been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders. To evaluate the association of A-604G SNP of GHRL promoter region with serum ghrelin levels and the risk of obesity in a Mexican population. Two hundred and fifty individuals were enrolled and classified as obese or control subjects (CS) according to BMI...
June 9, 2017: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593706/does-the-ileal-brake-mechanism-contribute-to-sustained-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery
#10
REVIEW
Savio G Barreto, Stijn Soenen, Jacob Chisholm, Ian Chapman, Lilian Kow
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy for treating morbid obesity. Weight regain following significant weight loss, however, remains a problem, with the outcome proportional to the period of follow-up. This review revisits a well-established physiological neurohormonally-mediated feedback loop, the so called ileal brake mechanism, with a special emphasis on the gut hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine. The manuscript not only highlights the potential role of the ileal brake mechanism in weight loss and weight maintenance thereafter following obesity surgery, it also provides a compelling argument for using this appetite suppressing feedback loop to enable sustained long-term weight loss in patients undergoing surgery for morbid obesity...
June 8, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592656/hypothalamic-circuits-regulating-appetite-and-energy-homeostasis-pathways-to-obesity
#11
REVIEW
Katharina Timper, Jens C Brüning
The 'obesity epidemic' represents a major global socioeconomic burden that urgently calls for a better understanding of the underlying causes of increased weight gain and its associated metabolic comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Improving our understanding of the cellular basis of obesity could set the stage for the development of new therapeutic strategies. The CNS plays a pivotal role in the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. Distinct neuronal cell populations, particularly within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, sense the nutrient status of the organism and integrate signals from peripheral hormones including pancreas-derived insulin and adipocyte-derived leptin to regulate calorie intake, glucose metabolism and energy expenditure...
June 1, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588153/gastric-dilatation-and-abdominal-compartment-syndrome-in-a-child-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#12
Clara Blat, Elisenda Busquets, Teresa Gili, Assumpta Caixàs, Elisabeth Gabau, Raquel Corripio
BACKGROUND Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by initial muscular hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and later an insatiable appetite, hyperphagia and obesity along with mild to moderate intellectual impairment. Affected individuals' food-seeking behavior and suspected delayed gastric emptying can lead to gastric dilatation with subsequent necrosis and perforation. CASE REPORT We present the case of a 5-year-old boy diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome at neonatal age due to muscular hypotonia, who started growth hormone therapy at 20 months...
June 7, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585209/influence-of-antioxidants-on-leptin-metabolism-and-its-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity
#13
Harald Mangge, Christian Ciardi, Kathrin Becker, Barbara Strasser, Dietmar Fuchs, Johanna M Gostner
Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Leptin, a hormone made by fat cells regulates appetite and hunger and thus food intake behavior. Interestingly, , food preservatives like sodium sulfite and sodium benzoate and also natural colorant and spice compounds such as curcumin were found to decrease the release of leptin in murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes, after co-incubation with LPS, which was added to mimic the pro-inflammatory status in obesity. Several of these compounds are well known food antioxidants...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585108/contribution-of-malabsorption-to-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Kamal K Mahawar, Alistair J Sharples
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is traditionally classified as a combined restrictive and malabsorptive operation. This notion of the operation influences its technical variations and revisions for patients who do not achieve significant weight loss after this surgery. There is an increasing body of literature suggesting a role for appetite suppression mediated by neuro-hormonal signals after RYGB. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review published English language scientific literature to determine the role of malabsorption towards weight loss achieved with RYGB...
June 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581443/neuropeptide-ff-increases-m2-activation-and-self-renewal-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages
#15
Syed F Hassnain Waqas, Anh Cuong Hoang, Ya-Tin Lin, Grace Ampem, Hind Azegrouz, Lajos Balogh, Julianna Thuróczy, Jin-Chung Chen, Ivan C Gerling, Sorim Nam, Jong-Seok Lim, Juncal Martinez-Ibañez, José T Real, Stephan Paschke, Raphaëlle Quillet, Safia Ayachi, Frédéric Simonin, E Marion Schneider, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Dudley W Lamming, Christine M Seroogy, Tamás Röszer
The quantity and activation state of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) impact the development of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Appetite-controlling hormones play key roles in obesity; however, our understanding of their effects on ATMs is limited. Here, we have shown that human and mouse ATMs express NPFFR2, a receptor for the appetite-reducing neuropeptide FF (NPFF), and that NPFFR2 expression is upregulated by IL-4, an M2-polarizing cytokine. Plasma levels of NPFF decreased in obese patients and high-fat diet-fed mice and increased following caloric restriction...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572083/oatmeal-particle-size-alters-glycemic-index-but-not-as-a-function-of-gastric-emptying-rate
#16
Alan R Mackie, Balazs Bajka, Neil M Rigby, Peter J Wilde, Fatima Alves-Pereira, Ellen F Mosleth, Anne Rieder, Bente Kirkhus, Louise J Salt
SCOPE: The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which oat particle size in a porridge could alter glucose absorption, gastric emptying, gastrointestinal hormone response and subjective feelings of appetite and satiety. METHOD AND RESULTS: Porridge was prepared from either oat flakes or oat flour with the same protein, fat, carbohydrate and mass. These were fed to eight volunteers on separate days in a crossover study and subjective appetite ratings, gastric contents and plasma glucose, insulin, and gastrointestinal hormones were determined over a period of three hours...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569635/thyrotoxicosis-induced-by-excessive-3-5-3-triiodothyronine-in-a-dog
#17
Wendy A Morré, David L Panciera, Gregory B Daniel, Kent R Refsal, Markus Rick, Kathy Arrington
CASE DESCRIPTION A 7-year-old castrated male Havanese was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of a 12-week history of hyperactivity, aggression, and progressive weight loss despite a healthy appetite. CLINICAL FINDINGS Tachycardia was the only remarkable finding during physical examination. Serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and free T3 concentrations were markedly increased, and thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations were at or decreased from the respective reference ranges...
June 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566533/brown-adipose-tissue-is-associated-with-systemic-concentrations-of-peptides-secreted-from-the-gastrointestinal-system-and-involved-in-appetite-regulation
#18
Maria Chondronikola, Craig Porter, Ioannis Malagaris, Aikaterini A Nella, Labros S Sidossis
OBJECTIVE: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target against obesity and its related metabolic conditions. Data from studies in rodents support a cross talk between BAT and other distal tissues. The relation between BAT and peptide hormones secreted from the gastrointestinal system (GI) and involved in appetite regulation is not known in humans. DESIGN: We studied 18 men during thermoneutral conditions and mild non-shivering cold exposure (CE)...
July 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557682/an-infant-presenting-with-failure-to-thrive-and-hyperkalaemia-owing-to-transient-pseudohypoaldosteronism-case-report
#19
Marieke De Clerck, Johan Vande Walle, Evelyn Dhont, Joke Dehoorne, Werner Keenswijk
A 3-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive and a history of a prenatally detected unilateral hydroureteronephrosis which was confirmed after birth. His growth and developmental milestones had been normal during the first 2 months but in the third month his appetite was poor with reduced intake but no vomiting. At presentation, his temperature was normal, there was mild dehydration and there was weight loss (his weight had decreased by 270 g in the past month). Haemoglobin was 11.9 g/dL, total white cell count 20...
May 30, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552562/the-central-anorexigenic-mechanism-of-amylin-in-japanese-quail-coturnix-japonica-involves-pro-opiomelanocortin-calcitonin-receptor-and-the-arcuate-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#20
Jingwei Yuan, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Mark A Cline
Amylin is a 37-amino acid peptide hormone that exerts anorexigenic effects in humans and animals. We demonstrated that central injection of amylin into chicks affected feeding and related behaviors via the hypothalamus and brainstem, although the molecular mechanisms remained elusive. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anorexigenic effects of amylin in 7 day-old Japanese quail. Food but not water intake was reduced after intracerebroventricular amylin injection, and the behavior analysis indicated that this was associated with decreased food pecks and preening...
August 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
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