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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057588/gub06-046-a-novel-secretin-glucagon-like-peptide-1-co-agonist-decreases-food-intake-improves-glycemic-control-and-preserves-beta-cell-mass-in-diabetic-mice
#1
Søren B van Witteloostuijn, Louise S Dalbøge, Gitte Hansen, Søren Roi Midtgaard, Grethe Vestergaard Jensen, Knud J Jensen, Niels Vrang, Jacob Jelsing, Søren L Pedersen
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment of obesity, which has spurred an interest in developing pharmaceutical mimetics. It is thought that the marked body weight-lowering effects of bariatric surgery involve stimulated secretion of appetite-regulating gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1. We here report that intestinal expression of secretin is markedly upregulated in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, suggesting an additional role of secretin in the beneficial metabolic effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057482/evaluation-of-the-safety-of-daily-administration-of-capromorelin-in-cats
#2
J A Wofford, B Zollers, L Rhodes, M Bell, E Heinen
Capromorelin is a ghrelin receptor agonist that is FDA approved for appetite stimulation in dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of daily oral administration of capromorelin to cats over a range of doses and for an extended period. Two randomized, controlled studies were conducted: in Study 1, cats (n = 6 per group) received placebo or capromorelin at a dose of 9, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg once daily for 14 days; and in Study 2, cats received capromorelin at 6 mg/kg (n = 8) or placebo (n = 4) once daily for 91 days...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056157/the-role-of-the-ghrelin-system-in-drug-addiction
#3
Lia J Zallar, Mehdi Farokhnia, Brendan J Tunstall, Leandro F Vendruscolo, Lorenzo Leggio
In the past years, a significant volume of research has implicated the appetitive hormone ghrelin in the mechanisms underlying drug use and addiction. From a neuroscientific standpoint, ghrelin modulates both reward and stress pathways, two key drivers of substance use behaviors. Previous investigations support a connection between the ghrelin system and alcohol, stimulants, and tobacco use in both animals and humans, while the research on opioids and cannabis is scarce. In general, upregulation of the ghrelin system seems to enhance craving for drugs as well as substances use...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054797/the-effects-of-ovariectomy-and-lifelong-high-fat-diet-consumption-on-body-weight-appetite-and-lifespan-in-female-rats
#4
Takeshi Iwasa, Toshiya Matsuzaki, Kiyohito Yano, Minoru Irahara
In females, ovarian hormones play pivotal roles in metabolic, appetite, and body weight regulation. In addition, it has been reported that ovarian hormones also affect longevity in some species. Recently, it was found that the consumption of a high-fat diet aggravates ovariectomy-associated metabolic dysregulation in female rodents. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that long-term high-fat diet consumption and ovariectomy interact to worsen body weight regulation and longevity in female rats...
October 17, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040812/a-randomized-controlled-cross-over-study-of-appetite-related-sensations-after-consuming-snacks-made-from-buckwheat
#5
Danielle M Defries, Jay C Petkau, Terri Gregor, Heather Blewett
With the rising incidence of overweight and obesity in developed countries, there is an interest in developing food products that may aid in satiety and reduce energy intake. Buckwheat is a gluten-free edible seed that has been previously shown to induce changes in post-prandial concentrations of satiety hormones; however, subjective measures of appetite-related sensations and objective measures of energy intake at subsequent meals following buckwheat consumption have not been measured. Thirty eight healthy adults were recruited to participate in a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial with the main objective to determine if consuming snacks made from buckwheat would increase satiety and reduce energy intake compared to snacks comparable in serving size, physical characteristics, and nutrient composition...
October 17, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025878/elevated-postoperative-endogenous-glp-1-levels-mediate-effects-of-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-on-neural-responsivity-to-food-cues
#6
Jennifer S Ten Kulve, Dick J Veltman, Victor E A Gerdes, Liselotte van Bloemendaal, Frederik Barkhof, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Madeleine L Drent, Michaela Diamant, Richard G IJzerman
OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that weight reduction and improvements in satiety after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) are partly mediated via postoperative neuroendocrine changes. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut hormone secreted after food ingestion and is associated with appetite and weight reduction, mediated via effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Secretion of GLP-1 is greatly enhanced after RYGB. We hypothesized that postoperative elevated GLP-1 levels contribute to the improved satiety regulation after RYGB via effects on the CNS...
October 12, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987626/no-involvement-in-the-inhibition-of-ghrelin-on-voltage-dependent-potassium-currents-in-rat-hippocampal-cells
#7
Yong Lu, Shaokang Dang, Xu Wang, Junli Zhang, Lin Zhang, Qian Su, Huiping Zhang, Tianwei Lin, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Yurong Zhang, Hongli Sun, Zhongliang Zhu, Hui Li
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that plays an important role in promoting appetite, regulating distribution and rate of use of energy, cognition, and mood disorders, but the relevant neural mechanisms of these function are still not clear. In this study, we examined the effect of ghrelin on voltage-dependent potassium (K(+)) currents in hippocampal cells of 1-3 days SD rats by whole-cell patch-clamp technique, and discussed whether NO was involved in this process. The results showed that ghrelin significantly inhibited the voltage-dependent K(+) currents in hippocampal cells, and the inhibitory effect was more significant when L-arginine was co-administered...
October 4, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985338/rfamide-related-peptide-3-and-the-trade-off-between-reproductive-and-ingestive-behavior
#8
Jill E Schneider, Noah A Benton, Kim A Russo, Candice M Klingerman, Wilbur P Williams, Jessica Simberlund, Amir Abdulhay, Jeremy M Brozek, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Ingestive and sex behaviors are important for individual survival and reproductive success, but when environmental energy availability is limited, individuals of many different species make a trade-off, forfeiting sex for ingestive behavior. For example, food-deprived female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) forego vaginal scent marking and lordosis (sex behaviors) in favor of foraging, hoarding, and eating food (ingestive behavior). Reproductive processes tend to be energetically costly, and individual survival requires homeostasis in metabolic energy...
July 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977605/hydrogen-sulfide-and-sulfate-prebiotic-stimulates-the-secretion-of-glp-1-and-improves-glycemia-in-male-mice
#9
Jennifer Pichette, Nancy Fynn-Sackey, Jeffrey Gagnon
Recently, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and its metabolites, has emerged as a potential regulator of host metabolism. However, to date little is known on the precise mechanisms of how this regulation occurs. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is abundantly produced in the colon by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). H2S is a bioactive gas that plays regulatory roles in many systems, including metabolic hormone regulation. This gas metabolite is produced in close proximity to the glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1)-secreting cells in the gut epithelium...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973869/butyrylcholinesterase-gene-transfer-in-obese-mice-prevents-postdieting-body-weight-rebound-by-suppressing-ghrelin-signaling
#10
Vicky Ping Chen, Yang Gao, Liyi Geng, Stephen Brimijoin
The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate but treatment options remain limited. Despite initial success, weight loss by calorie restriction (CR) often fails because of rebound weight gain. Postdieting hyperphagia along with altered hypothalamic neuro-architecture appears to be one direct cause of this undesirable outcome. In response to calorie deficiency the circulating levels of the appetite-promoting hormone, acyl-ghrelin, rise sharply. We hypothesize that proper modulation of acyl-ghrelin and its receptor's sensitivity will favorably impact energy intake and reprogram the body weight set point...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972540/proprotein-convertase-furin-regulates-osteocalcin-and-bone-endocrine-function
#11
Omar El-Rifai, Jacqueline Chow, Julie Lacombe, Catherine Julien, Denis Faubert, Delia Susan-Resiga, Rachid Essalmani, John Wm Creemers, Nabil G Seidah, Mathieu Ferron
Osteocalcin (OCN) is an osteoblast-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and glucose tolerance. The cDNA sequence of OCN predicts that, like many other peptide hormones, OCN is first synthesized as a prohormone (pro-OCN). The importance of pro-OCN maturation in regulating OCN and the identity of the endopeptidase responsible for pro-OCN cleavage in osteoblasts are still unknown. Here, we show that the proprotein convertase furin is responsible for pro-OCN maturation in vitro and in vivo...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969110/variations-of-adipokines-and-insulin-resistance-in-primary-hypothyroidism
#12
Kaushik Kar, Satwika Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism is a common concern in endocrinology practice, which plays a significant role in metabolic and development processes. Obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hypertension may complicate hypothyroidism. Recent studies have shown that cytokines like leptin and adiponectin, secreted by adipose tissue and exert their endocrinal functions by modulating appetite, obesity and insulin sensitivity in conjunction with thyroid hormones. Interrelation between thyroid hormone, insulin resistance and adipokines are not yet clear...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963067/nucb2-nesfatin-1-expression-and-functions-in-the-regulation-of-emotion-and-stress
#13
REVIEW
Yanyan Wei, Jiangbo Li, Huiling Wang, Gaohua Wang
Nesfatin-1, a food-intake inhibiting factor processed from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was originally identified by the Oh-I research group. The initial functional studies on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 were mainly focused on its properties of appetite regulation. As is well known, emotional state has an interactional relationship with food intake, and difficulties in regulating emotion and stress have a great influence on appetite and body weight. Some anorexigenic or orexigenic neurotransmitters also play a role in the adjustment of emotion and stress responses in addition to their actions on the homeostatic regulation of food intake, including neuropeptide Y (NPY), melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and ghrelin...
September 26, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954751/unilateral-adrenal-mass-as-the-sole-initial-manifestation-of-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#14
Geethalakshmi Sampathkumar, Arun S Menon, Bindhu M R, Vasantha Nair
Unilateral adrenal metastases without disseminated disease has rarely been reported in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). A 72-year-old female presented with vague abdominal discomfort and loss of appetite of 2 months duration. She had undergone left hemithyroidectomy for a benign thyroid nodule 18 years ago. A contrast CT of the abdomen showed a large left adrenal mass measuring 11×9 cm, suspicious of adrenocortical carcinoma. Hormonal evaluation was in keeping with a non-functional tumour. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy, histopathology of which revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma...
September 27, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950854/hormonal-contraceptive-use-and-prevalence-of-premenstrual-symptoms-in-a-multiethnic-canadian-population
#15
Alicia Caroline Jarosz, Joseph Jamnik, Ahmed El-Sohemy
BACKGROUND: Hormonal contraceptive use may be associated with a reduction in some premenstrual symptoms, however, the evidence remains equivocal. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the associations between ethnicity and hormonal contraceptive use with premenstrual symptoms. METHODS: One thousand one hundred two women participating in the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study provided data on their premenstrual symptoms and hormonal contraceptive use...
September 26, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942790/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-a-class-update-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Julie A Lovshin
Current management options for treating type 2 diabetes are diverse. Many different classes of antidiabetes therapies are used in clinic, and several new candidates are in late-phase clinical trial. This therapeutic abundance is a windfall for patients because it facilitates individualized patient care. Evidence-based positioning of these agents is challenging, however, requiring comprehensive and balanced familiarity with each drug class. In this review, I provide a clinical update of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), a class of incretin-based, injectable antidiabetes therapies which improve fasting and postprandial blood glucose control through glucose-dependent pancreatic islet cell hormone secretion without significant risks for hypoglycemia...
October 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934819/the-role-of-gut-hormones-in-diet-induced-weight-change-a-systematic-review
#17
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, Xiaokun Gang, You Lv, Yujia Liu, Chenglin Sun, Guixia Wang
Gut hormones are known to play an important role in long-term weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. However, the interplay between gut hormones and diet-induced weight changes remains unclear. Our aims were to evaluate the alterations of gut hormones in diet-induced weight loss, weight maintenance, and weight regain periods. Available studies were searched on MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Web of science from inception to October 2016. After selection, 16 studies with 656 participants were included...
September 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916138/peptide-yy-induces-characteristic-meal-patterns-of-aged-mice
#18
Sachiko Mogami, Chihiro Yamada, Naoki Fujitsuka, Tomohisa Hattori
BACKGROUND & AIM: Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894993/effect-of-growth-hormone-overexpression-on-gastric-evacuation-rate-in-coho-salmon
#19
Jin-Hyoung Kim, Satid Chatchaiphan, Michelle T Crown, Samantha L White, Robert H Devlin
Growth hormone (GH) transgenic (T) coho salmon consistently show remarkably enhanced growth associated with increased appetite and food consumption compared to non-transgenic wild-type (NT) coho salmon. To improve understanding of the mechanism by which GH overexpression mediates food intake and digestion in T fish, feed intake and gastric evacuation rate (over 7 days) were measured in size-matched T and NT coho salmon. T fish displayed greatly enhanced feed intake levels (~ 2.5-fold), and more than 3-fold increase in gastric evacuation rates relative to NT coho salmon...
September 11, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887853/neuroendocrine-mechanisms-underlying-bariatric-surgery-insights-from-human-studies-and-animal-models
#20
REVIEW
A Stefanidis, B J Oldfield
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and, to date, bariatric surgery remains the only effective treatment for morbid obesity in terms of its capacity to achieve durable weight loss. Bariatric surgery procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG), have been the primary procedures conducted over the past decade, with SG increasing in popularity over the past 5 years at the expense of both RYGB and AGB. Although these procedures were initially proposed to function via restrictive or malabsorptive mechanisms, it is now clear that profound physiological changes underlie the metabolic improvements in patients who undergo bariatric surgery...
October 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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