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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339424/comparison-of-weight-loss-ghrelin-and-leptin-hormones-after-ligation-of-left-gastric-artery-and-sleeve-gastrectomy-in-a-rat-model
#1
Erkan Yardimci, Suleyman Bozkurt, Merve Busra Cengiz, Fatma Umit Malya
BACKGROUND Ligation of the left gastric artery (LLGA), which supplies the fundus of the stomach, may reduce the appetite hormone ghrelin, resulting in weight control. The aim of this study was to compare LLGA and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in terms of postoperative outcomes in a rat model. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifteen male Wistar albino rats, weighing >350 grams (range 350-525 grams), were enrolled in LLGA (N=5), SG (N=5), and control (N=5) groups. Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and also during the first and fourth week postoperatively to assay ghrelin and leptin hormone levels...
March 24, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334791/isolated-acth-deficiency-probably-induced-by-autoimmune-related-mechanism-evoked-with-nivolumab
#2
Keiko Kitajima, Kenji Ashida, Naoko Wada, Ryoko Suetsugu, Yukina Takeichi, Shohei Sakamoto, Hiroshi Uchi, Takamitsu Matsushima, Motoaki Shiratsuchi, Keizo Ohnaka, Masutaka Furue, Masatoshi Nomura
Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death-1 antibody, is a breakthrough treatment for several malignancies. Its specific adverse effects caused by autoimmunity are termed immune-related adverse events, which involve several endocrine dysfunctions. Herein, we report two cases of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency induced by nivolumab for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Case 1 was a 39-year-old man and Case 2 was a 50-year-old woman, both of whom presented with progressive melanoma...
February 18, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323997/degradation-paradigm-of-the-gut-hormone-pancreatic-polypeptide-by-hepatic-and-renal-peptidases
#3
Joyceline Cuenco, James Minnion, Tricia Tan, Rebecca Scott, Natacha Germain, Yiin Ling, Rong Chen, Mohammad Ghatei, Stephen Bloom
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a gut hormone that acts on Y4 receptors to reduce appetite. Obese humans display a reduced postprandial rise in PP and remain fully sensitive to the anorectic effects of exogenous PP. The utility of PP as an antiobesity treatment is limited by its short circulating half-life. Insight into the mechanisms by which PP is degraded may aid design of long-acting PP analogues.We aimed to investigate the role of peptidases in PP degradation with a view to determining whether inhibition of these enzymes enhanced PP plasma levels and bioactivity in vivo...
March 9, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318688/impact-of-phenylketonuria-type-meal-on-appetite-thermic-effect-of-feeding-and-postprandial-fat-oxidation
#4
Hani Alfheeaid, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Ana-Maria Năstase, Mie Elhauge, Barbara Cochrane, Dalia Malkova
BACKGROUND: Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298900/the-impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-the-management-of-hypoglycemic-events
#5
REVIEW
Mahmoud Attia Mohamed Kassem, Michael Andrew Durda, Nicoleta Stoicea, Omer Cavus, Levent Sahin, Barbara Rogers
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292401/what-bariatric-surgery-can%C3%A2-teach-us-about-endoluminal-treatment-of-obesity%C3%A2-and-metabolic-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Lee M Kaplan
Bariatric surgical procedures, including gastric bypass, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion, are the most effective and durable treatments for obesity. In addition, These operations induce metabolic changes that provide weight-independent improvement in type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and other metabolic disorders. Initially thought to work by mechanical restriction of food intake or malabsorption of ingested nutrients, these procedures are now known to work through complex changes in neuroendocrine and immune signals emanating from the gut, including peptide hormones, bile acids, vagal nerve activity, and metabolites generated by the gut microbiota, all collaborating to reregulate appetite, food preference, and energy expenditure...
April 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282925/associations-between-maternal-body-composition-and-appetite-hormones-and-macronutrients-in-human-milk
#7
Sambavi Kugananthan, Zoya Gridneva, Ching T Lai, Anna R Hepworth, Peter J Mark, Foteini Kakulas, Donna T Geddes
Human milk (HM) appetite hormones and macronutrients may mediate satiety in breastfed infants. This study investigated associations between maternal adiposity and concentrations of HM leptin, adiponectin, protein and lactose, and whether these concentrations and the relationship between body mass index and percentage fat mass (%FM) in a breastfeeding population change over the first year of lactation. Lactating women (n = 59) provided milk samples (n = 283) at the 2nd, 5th, 9th and/or 12th month of lactation...
March 9, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281382/elevated-glycemia-and-brain-glucose-utilization-predict-bdnf-lowering-since-early-life
#8
Maria Angela Guzzardi, Elena Sanguinetti, Antonietta Bartoli, Alessandra Kemeny, Daniele Panetta, Piero A Salvadori, Silvia Burchielli, Patricia Iozzo
Obesity and diabetes associate with neurodegeneration. Brain glucose and BDNF are fundamental in perinatal development. BDNF is related to brain health, food intake and glucose metabolism. We characterized the relationship between glycemia and/or brain glucose utilization (by (18)FDG-PET during fasting and glucose loading), obesity and BDNF in 4-weeks old (pre-obese) and 12-weeks old (obese) Zucker fa/fa rats, and their age-matched fa/+ controls. In 75 human infants, we assessed cord blood BDNF and glucose levels, appetite regulating hormones, body weight and maternal factors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277117/structural-imaging-of-the-brain-reveals-decreased-total-brain-and-total-gray-matter-volumes-in-obese-but-not-in-lean-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-compared-to-body-mass-index-matched-counterparts
#9
Basak Ozgen Saydam, Arzu Ceylan Has, Gurkan Bozdag, Kader Karli Oguz, Bulent Okan Yildiz
PURPOSE: To detect differences in global brain volumes and identify relations between brain volume and appetite-related hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) compared to body mass index-matched controls. METHODS: Forty subjects participated in this study. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of fasting ghrelin, leptin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), as well as GLP-1 levels during mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), were performed...
March 1, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276830/bariatric-surgery-time-to-replace-with-glp-1
#10
Dominic-Luc Webb, Niclas Abrahamsson, Magnus Sundbom, Per M Hellström
Obesity with a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m(2) represents a significant risk for increased morbidity and mortality, with reduced life expectancy of about 10 years. Until now, surgical treatment has been the only effective longterm intervention. The currently standardized method of bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, means that many gastrointestinal peptide hormones are activated, yielding net reductions in appetite and food intake. Among the most important gut peptide hormones in this perspective is glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which rises sharply after gastric bypass...
February 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276114/reproductive-and-appetite-hormones-and-bulimic-symptoms-during-midlife
#11
Jessica H Baker, Claire M Peterson, Laura M Thornton, Kimberly A Brownley, Cynthia M Bulik, Susan S Girdler, Marsha D Marcus, Joyce T Bromberger
Eating disorders and related symptoms occur during midlife; however, little is known about their aetiology. It has been hypothesised that perimenopause represents a window of vulnerability for the development or exacerbation of eating disorder symptomatology because, like puberty, perimenopause is a period of reproductive hormone change. We compared symptoms of bulimia nervosa (bulimic symptomatology) assessed via mean scores on a self-report questionnaire in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. We also examined the association between hormone concentrations (reproductive/appetite) and bulimic symptomatology...
March 9, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274821/the-galanin-3-receptor-antagonist-snap-37889-suppresses-alcohol-drinking-and-morphine-self-administration-in-mice
#12
Karlene J Scheller, Spencer J Williams, Andrew J Lawrence, Elvan Djouma
The neuropeptide, galanin, is widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is involved in a range of different functions including nociception, neurogenesis, hormone release, reproduction, cognitive function and appetite. Given the overlap between galanin expression and reward circuitry in the brain, galanin has been targeted for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and opioid dependency. Furthermore, the galanin-3 receptor (GAL3) specifically regulates emotional states and plays a role in motivation, reward and drug-seeking behaviour...
March 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273066/physiology-bone-derived-hormone-suppresses-appetite
#13
Richard D Palmiter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273060/mc4r-dependent-suppression-of-appetite-by-bone-derived-lipocalin-2
#14
Ioanna Mosialou, Steven Shikhel, Jian-Min Liu, Antonio Maurizi, Na Luo, Zhenyan He, Yiru Huang, Haihong Zong, Richard A Friedman, Jonathan Barasch, Patricia Lanzano, Liyong Deng, Rudolph L Leibel, Mishaela Rubin, Thomas Nicholas, Wendy Chung, Lori M Zeltser, Kevin W Williams, Jeffrey E Pessin, Stavroula Kousteni
Bone has recently emerged as a pleiotropic endocrine organ that secretes at least two hormones, FGF23 and osteocalcin, which regulate kidney function and glucose homeostasis, respectively. These findings have raised the question of whether other bone-derived hormones exist and what their potential functions are. Here we identify, through molecular and genetic analyses in mice, lipocalin 2 (LCN2) as an osteoblast-enriched, secreted protein. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments in mice demonstrate that osteoblast-derived LCN2 maintains glucose homeostasis by inducing insulin secretion and improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity...
March 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267585/disturbances-of-thirst-and-fluid-balance-associated-with-aging
#15
REVIEW
Denovan P Begg
During heat waves, significant mortality and morbidity occurs in elderly populations due to heat-stress and dehydration. The dehydration is primarily attributable to inadequate water intake caused by dysfunction of the central nervous system mechanisms controlling thirst. The phenomenon of a reduced thirst in response to dehydration in aging was first observed decades ago and has been examined extensively since. The reduced thirst and ingestive behavior have been reported consistently in response to hyperosmotic stimuli, hypovolemic stimuli and dehydration in both elderly humans and animal models of aging...
March 3, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265542/the-effect-of-hydro-alcoholic-extract-of-achillea-millefolium-on-appetite-hormone-in-rats
#16
Mohsen Nematy, Mohsen Mazidi, Atefeh Jafari, Sara Baghban, Hasan Rakhshandeh, Abdolreza Norouzy, Habibollah Esmaily, Leila Etemad, Michael Patterson, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour
OBJECTIVE: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. In this study, the possible orexigenic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of A. millefolium was investigated by measuring plasmaghrelin level. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Control group received water. Treatment groups received 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of A. millefolium extract for 7 days via gavage. Before the intervention, daily amount of the food eaten by each rat was measured for 10 days...
January 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257941/the-effect-of-moderate-versus-severe-simulated-altitude-on-appetite-gut-hormones-energy-intake-and-substrate-oxidation-in-men
#17
Jamie Matu, Kevin Deighton, Theocharis Ispoglou, Lauren Duckworth
Acute exposure to high altitude (>3500 m) is associated with marked changes in appetite regulation and substrate oxidation but the effects of lower altitudes are unclear. This study examined appetite, gut hormone, energy intake and substrate oxidation responses to breakfast ingestion and exercise at simulated moderate and severe altitudes compared with sea-level. Twelve healthy males (mean ± SD; age 30 ± 9years, body mass index 24.4 ± 2.7 kg·m(-2)) completed in a randomised crossover order three, 305 min experimental trials at a simulated altitude of 0 m, 2150 m (∼15...
February 28, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257088/involvement-of-astrocytes-in-mediating-the-central-effects-of-ghrelin
#18
REVIEW
Laura M Frago, Julie A Chowen
Although astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, much remains to be learned about their molecular and functional features. Astrocytes express receptors for numerous hormones and metabolic factors, including the appetite-promoting hormone ghrelin. The metabolic effects of ghrelin are largely opposite to those of leptin, as it stimulates food intake and decreases energy expenditure. Ghrelin is also involved in glucose-sensing and glucose homeostasis. The widespread expression of the ghrelin receptor in the central nervous system suggests that this hormone is not only involved in metabolism, but also in other essential functions in the brain...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245609/lifestyle-risk-factors-for-weight-gain-in-children-with-and-without-asthma
#19
Megan E Jensen, Peter G Gibson, Clare E Collins, Jodi M Hilton, Lisa G Wood
A higher proportion of children with asthma are overweight and obese compared to children without asthma; however, it is unknown whether asthmatic children are at increased risk of weight gain due to modifiable lifestyle factors. Thus, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare weight-gain risk factors (sleep, appetite, diet, activity) in an opportunistic sample of children with and without asthma. Non-obese children with (n = 17; age 10.7 (2.4) years) and without asthma (n = 17; age 10.8 (2.3) years), referred for overnight polysomnography, underwent measurement of lung function, plasma appetite hormones, dietary intake and food cravings, activity, and daytime sleepiness...
February 25, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238732/ghrelin-and-cancer-progression
#20
REVIEW
Tsung-Chieh Lin, Michael Hsiao
Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function...
February 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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