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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219000/acute-ghrelin-changes-food-preference-from-high-fat-diet-to-chow-during-binge-like-eating-in-rodents
#1
Tina Bake, Kim T Hellgren, Suzanne L Dickson
Ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone released from the empty stomach, provides a gut-brain signal that promotes many appetitive behaviors, including anticipatory and goal-directed behaviors for palatable treats high in sugar and/or fat. Here we sought to determine whether ghrelin is able to influence and/or may even have a role in binge-like behavior in rodents. To this end, we used a palatable scheduled feeding (PSF) paradigm in which ad libitum chow-fed rodents are trained to "binge" on high fat diet (HFD) offered each day for a limited period of 2 hr...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216550/the-acute-effects-of-simple-sugar-ingestion-on-appetite-gut-derived-hormone-response-and-metabolic-markers-in-men
#2
Adora M W Yau, John McLaughlin, William Gilmore, Ronald J Maughan, Gethin H Evans
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min...
February 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#3
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205670/leptin-and-ghrelin-concentration-in-hyperthyroid-cats-before-and-after-radioactive-iodine-therapy-compared-to-euthyroid-control-cats
#4
Sina Marsilio, Barbara Glanemann, Lucile Martin, Balazs Szladovits, Reto Neiger
OBJECTIVE: Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1)...
February 16, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195823/clinical-safety-of-bariatric-arterial-embolization-preliminary-results-of-the-beat-obesity-trial
#5
Clifford R Weiss, Olaguoke Akinwande, Kaylan Paudel, Lawrence J Cheskin, Brian Holly, Kelvin Hong, Aaron M Fischman, Rahul S Patel, Eun J Shin, Kimberley E Steele, Timothy H Moran, Kristen Kaiser, Amie Park, David M Shade, Dara L Kraitchman, Aravind Arepally
Purpose To conduct a pilot prospective clinical trial to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and short-term efficacy of bariatric embolization, a recently developed endovascular procedure for the treatment of obesity, in patients with severe obesity. Materials and Methods This is an institutional review board- and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prospective physician-initiated investigational device exemption study. This phase of the study ran from June 2, 2014, to August 4, 2015. Five severely obese patients (four women, one man) who were 31-49 years of age and who had a mean body mass index of 43...
January 17, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193195/assessing-the-burden-of-treatment-emergent-adverse-events-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-medications
#6
Pierre-Michel Llorca, Christophe Lançon, Ann Hartry, T Michelle Brown, Dana B DiBenedetti, Siddhesh A Kamat, Clément François
BACKGROUND: Treatment of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) show improved efficacy and reduced side effect burden compared with older antipsychotic medications. However, a risk of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) remains. TEAEs are hard to quantify and perspectives on the importance of TEAEs differ across patients and between patients and physicians. The current study is a qualitative assessment that investigates TEAEs of AAPs from both patient and physician perspectives to provide better understanding of the occurrence and burden of TEAEs associated with these medications...
February 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177745/pre-and-within-meal-effects-of-fluid-dairy-products-on-appetite-food-intake-glycemia-and-regulatory-hormones-in-children
#7
Shirley Vien, Bohdan L Luhovyy, Barkha P Patel, Shirin Panahi, Dalia El Khoury, Rebecca C Mollard, Jill K Hamilton, G Harvey Anderson
The effect of beverages commonly consumed by children in-between or with meals on short-term food intake (FI) and glycemic control has received little attention. Therefore, two experiments were conducted in 9-14 y old children following a randomized repeated measures design. Experiment 1 (<i>n</i>=32) compared the effects of water (control) and isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk, chocolate milk, yogurt drink and fruit punch on subjective appetite and FI. Experiment 2 (<i>n</i>=20) compared the effects of isocaloric (130 kcal) amounts of 2% milk and fruit punch on subjective appetite, FI, glycemic and appetite hormone responses...
November 21, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170279/regulation-of-gip-and-ghrelin-in-healthy-subjects-fed-on-sun-dried-raisins-a-pilot-study-with-a-crossover-trial-design
#8
Andriana C Kaliora, Panagiotis T Kanellos, Aristea Gioxari, Vaios T Karathanos
The comparative effects of glucose and fructose on appetite and specifically on hormones regulating appetite remain controversial, and the role of different types of sugars has not been investigated broadly. To estimate the effect of raisins, a dried fruit rich in fructose, fibers, and phenolics, on hormones involved in the postprandial response. Ten healthy normal-weight subjects received in a crossover design 74 g raisins or 50 g glucose as reference food. Glucose, insulin, and appetite hormones were measured at time 0 and 60, 120, and 180 min after consumption...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168997/icv-galanin-like-peptide-stimulates-non-contact-erections-but-not-touch-based-erections-in-adult-sexually-experienced-male-rats
#9
Gregory S Fraley
Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a neuropeptide transcribed only within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is thought to be a mediator between energetics and reproductive function. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of GALP is known to have effects on feeding, and to significantly increase gonadotropin releasing hormone- (GnRH-) mediated luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Furthermore, ICV GALP is known to stimulate fos production in the medial pre-optic area (mPOA) and to a lesser extent, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
January 23, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167792/ghrelin-affects-stopover-decisions-and-food-intake-in-a-long-distance-migrant
#10
Wolfgang Goymann, Sara Lupi, Hiroyuki Kaiya, Massimiliano Cardinale, Leonida Fusani
Billions of birds migrate long distances to either reach breeding areas or to spend the winter at more benign places. On migration, most passerines frequently stop over to rest and replenish their fuel reserves. To date, we know little regarding how they decide that they are ready to continue their journey. What physiological signals tell a bird's brain that its fuel reserves are sufficient to resume migration? A network of hormones regulates food intake and body mass in vertebrates, including the recently discovered peptide hormone, ghrelin...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158900/biochemical-proximates-of-pumpkin-cucurbitaeae-spp-and-their-beneficial-effects-on-the-general-well-being-of-poultry-species
#11
REVIEW
M C Achilonu, I C Nwafor, D O Umesiobi, M M Sedibe
There is a growing need to increase productivity in poultry. Growth hormones and antibiotics have the ability to improve health, weight gain and feed efficiency in meat-producing animals. The growth-promoting antibiotics are administered to poultry to improve the general performance of the chicken. However, the use of the xenobiotic drugs in food-producing animals has been a concern and a sensitive issue of debate for several decades in the EU and many other regional blocks of the world. Consequently, the use of hormones in animal production has been banned in Italy, Denmark and Germany for over 4-5 decades, while Belgium and Greece had never permitted its use for livestock fattening purposes...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135243/hormonal-gain-control-of-a-medial-preoptic-area-social-reward-circuit
#12
Jenna A McHenry, James M Otis, Mark A Rossi, J Elliott Robinson, Oksana Kosyk, Noah W Miller, Zoe A McElligott, Evgeny A Budygin, David R Rubinow, Garret D Stuber
Neural networks that control reproduction must integrate social and hormonal signals, tune motivation, and coordinate social interactions. However, the neural circuit mechanisms for these processes remain unresolved. The medial preoptic area (mPOA), an essential node for social behaviors, comprises molecularly diverse neurons with widespread projections. Here we identify a steroid-responsive subset of neurotensin (Nts)-expressing mPOA neurons that interface with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to form a socially engaged reward circuit...
January 30, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134808/from-belly-to-brain-targeting-the-ghrelin-receptor-in-appetite-and-food-intake-regulation
#13
REVIEW
Ken Howick, Brendan T Griffin, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Ghrelin is the only known peripherally-derived orexigenic hormone, increasing appetite and subsequent food intake. The ghrelinergic system has therefore received considerable attention as a therapeutic target to reduce appetite in obesity as well as to stimulate food intake in conditions of anorexia, malnutrition and cachexia. As the therapeutic potential of targeting this hormone becomes clearer, it is apparent that its pleiotropic actions span both the central nervous system and peripheral organs. Despite a wealth of research, a therapeutic compound specifically targeting the ghrelin system for appetite modulation remains elusive although some promising effects on metabolic function are emerging...
January 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123937/fermentable-carbohydrate-stimulates-ffar2-dependent-colonic-pyy-cell-expansion%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-increase-satiety
#14
Lucy Brooks, Alexander Viardot, Anastasia Tsakmaki, Emilie Stolarczyk, Jane K Howard, Patrice D Cani, Amandine Everard, Michelle L Sleeth, Arianna Psichas, Jelena Anastasovskaj, Jimmy D Bell, Kim Bell-Anderson, Charles R Mackay, Mohammad A Ghatei, Stephen R Bloom, Gary Frost, Gavin A Bewick
OBJECTIVE: Dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrate protects against body weight gain. Fermentation by the resident gut microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, which act at free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2). Our aim was to test the hypothesis that FFAR2 is important in regulating the beneficial effects of fermentable carbohydrate on body weight and to understand the role of gut hormones PYY and GLP-1. METHODS: Wild-type or Ffar2(-/-) mice were fed an inulin supplemented or control diet...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109731/eating-moderates-the-link-between-body-mass-index-and-perceived-social-connection
#15
Lisa M Jaremka, Naoyuki Sunami, Megan A Nadzan
Some studies have demonstrated that heavier people perceive themselves as lacking social connections, whereas others have not. The current study investigated whether eating alters the link between body mass index (BMI) and perceived social connection, providing one explanation for inconsistencies across previous studies. Participants were instructed to refrain from eating or drinking anything except water after 9 p.m. the prior night. Upon arrival at the lab, participants were assigned to the food (n = 63) or no food (n = 110) condition...
January 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105335/detection-of-stanozolol-in-the-urine-of-athletes-at-a-pg-level-the-possibility-of-passive-exposure
#16
Christina Tsitsimpikou, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Demetrios A Spandidos, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Stanozolol is a synthetic heterocyclic steroid with anabolic and androgenic properties, which has been abused by several high-profile professional athletes. Stanozolol is also used in veterinary medicine to increase appetite, cause weight gain and treat certain types of anemia. The detection of stanozolol metabolites in human urine for doping control purposes depends on the analytical method applied. The most commonly applied methods in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)-accredited doping control laboratories are gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)...
December 2016: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099900/skeletal-muscle-aging-influence-of-oxidative-stress-and-physical-exercise
#17
REVIEW
Mariana Janini Gomes, Paula Felippe Martinez, Luana Urbano Pagan, Ricardo Luiz Damatto, Marcelo Diacardia Mariano Cezar, Aline Regina Ruiz Lima, Katashi Okoshi, Marina Politi Okoshi
Skeletal muscle abnormalities are responsible for significant disability in the elderly. Sarcopenia is the main alteration occurring during senescence and a key public health issue as it predicts frailty, poor quality of life, and mortality. Several factors such as reduced physical activity, hormonal changes, insulin resistance, genetic susceptibility, appetite loss, and nutritional deficiencies are involved in the physiopathology of muscle changes. Sarcopenia is characterized by structural, biochemical, molecular and functional muscle changes...
January 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#18
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097455/leptin-npy-melatonin-and-zinc-levels-in-experimental-hypothyroidism-and-hyperthyroidism-the-relation-to-zinc
#19
Abdulkerim Kasım Baltaci, Rasim Mogulkoc
Since zinc mediates the effects of many hormones or is found in the structure of numerous hormone receptors, zinc deficiency leads to various functional impairments in the hormone balance. And also thyroid hormones have important activity on metabolism and feeding. NPY and leptin are affective on food intake and regulation of appetite. The present study is conducted to determine how zinc supplementation and deficiency affect thyroid hormones (free and total T3 and T4), melatonin, leptin, and NPY levels in thyroid dysfunction in rats...
January 17, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090619/the-evolving-approach-to-management-of-cancer-cachexia
#20
REVIEW
Rony Dev, Angelique Wong, David Hui, Eduardo Bruera
Weight loss is distressing to cancer patients and caregivers. Anorexia/cachexia syndrome is characterized by lipolysis and the loss of lean body mass, and is not reversible by increasing caloric intake. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is complex and includes symptoms that impact caloric intake, as well as chronic inflammation, hypermetabolism, and hormonal alterations. Cancer patients require routine screening for cachexia and, ideally, interventions should be initiated in the early stages of weight loss...
January 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
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