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Appetite hormones

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691526/black-pepper-based-beverage-induced-appetite-suppressing-effects-without-altering-postprandial-glycaemia-gut-and-thyroid-hormones-or-gastrointestinal-well-being-a-randomized-crossover-study-in-healthy-subjects
#1
Yoghatama Cindya Zanzer, Merichel Plaza, Anestis Dougkas, Charlotta Turner, Elin Östman
Pleiotropic effects of spices on health, particularly on glucose metabolism and energy regulation, deserve further clinical investigation into their efficacy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether consumption of a black pepper-based beverage (BPB) preload containing 20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) would exert any effect on postprandial glycaemia, appetite sensations, gut hormones, thyroid function, and gastrointestinal well-being after a white wheat bread (WWB) challenge meal containing 50 g available carbohydrates (CHO) compared to a control beverage...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687649/neural-food-reward-processing-in-successful-and-unsuccessful-weight-maintenance
#2
Joe J Simon, Alexandra Becker, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss maintenance is one of the biggest challenges in behavioral weight loss programs. The present study aimed to examine metabolic influences on the mesolimbic reward system in people with successful and unsuccessful long-term weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Thirty-three women with obesity at least 6 months after the completion of a diet were recruited: seventeen women were able to maintain their weight loss, whereas sixteen showed weight regain...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682217/leptin-signaling-axis-specifically-associates-with-clinical-prognosis-and-is-multifunctional-in-regulating-cancer-progression
#3
REVIEW
Tsung-Chieh Lin, Kuan-Wei Huang, Chia-Wei Liu, Yu-Chan Chang, Wei-Ming Lin, Tse-Yen Yang, Michael Hsiao
Leptin is a peptide hormone that has been characterized as the ligand of leptin receptor ( LEPR ). The observation of leptin secretion and leptin receptor expression beyond the normal tissues suggests the potentially critical roles other than its physiological function. In addition to the original function in controlling appetite and energy expenditure, leptin-mediated signaling axis through leptin receptor is multifunctional which plays role in the regulation toward broad types of cancer. Emerging evidences has indicated leptin's function in promoting several processes which are relevant to cancer progression including cell proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug resistance...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680267/oxyntomodulin-analogue-increases-energy-expenditure-via-the-glucagon-receptor
#4
R Scott, J Minnion, T Tan, S R Bloom
The gut hormone oxyntomodulin (OXM) causes weight loss by reducing appetite and increasing energy expenditure. Several analogues are being developed to treat obesity. Exactly how oxyntomodulin works, however, remains controversial. OXM can activate both glucagon and GLP-1 receptors but no specific receptor has been identified. It is thought that the anorectic effect occurs predominantly through GLP-1 receptor activation but, to date, it has not been formally confirmed which receptor is responsible for the increased energy expenditure...
April 19, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674959/meal-sensing-signaling-pathways-in-functional-dyspepsia
#5
REVIEW
Amanda J Page, Hui Li
The upper gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in sensing the arrival, amount and chemical composition of a meal. Ingestion of a meal triggers a number of sensory signals in the gastrointestinal tract. These include the response to mechanical stimulation (e.g., gastric distension), from the presence of food in the gut, and the interaction of various dietary nutrients with specific "taste" receptors on specialized enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine culminating in the release of gut hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673244/changes-in-body-composition-blood-lipid-profile-and-growth-factor-hormone-in-a-patient-with-prader-willi-syndrome-during-24-weeks-of-complex-exercise-a-single-case-study
#6
Hee Joung Joung, In Soo Lim
PURPOSE: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive appetite with progressive obesity and growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Excessive eating causes progressive obesity with increased risk of morbidities and mortality. Although GH treatment has beneficial effects on patients with PWS, adverse events have occurred during GH treatment. Exercise potentially has a positive effect on obesity management. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of 24-week complex exercise program on changes in body composition, blood lipid profiles, and growth factor hormone levels in a patient with PWS...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670283/genetic-identification-of-leptin-neural-circuits-in-energy-and-glucose-homeostases
#7
Jie Xu, Christopher L Bartolome, Cho Shing Low, Xinchi Yi, Cheng-Hao Chien, Peng Wang, Dong Kong
Leptin, a hormone produced in white adipose tissue, acts in the brain to communicate fuel status, suppress appetite following a meal, promote energy expenditure and maintain blood glucose stability1,2 . Dysregulation of leptin or its receptors (LEPR) results in severe obesity and diabetes3-5 . Although intensive studies on leptin have transformed obesity and diabetes research2,6 , clinical applications of the molecule are still limited 7 , at least in part owing to the complexity and our incomplete understanding of the underlying neural circuits...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659969/aspartame-consumption-for-12-weeks-does-not-affect-glycemia-appetite-or-body-weight-of-healthy-lean-adults-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Kelly A Higgins, Robert V Considine, Richard D Mattes
Background: Low-calorie sweeteners are often used to moderate energy intake and postprandial glycemia, but some evidence indicates that they may exacerbate these aims. Objective: The trial's primary aim was to assess the effect of daily aspartame ingestion for 12 wk on glycemia. Effects on appetite and body weight were secondary aims. Methods: One hundred lean [body mass index (kg/m2): 18-25] adults aged 18-60 y were randomly assigned to consume 0, 350, or 1050 mg aspartame/d (ASP groups) in a beverage for 12 wk in a parallel-arm design...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656109/bile-acids-are-important-direct-and-indirect-regulators-of-the-secretion-of-appetite-and-metabolism-regulating-hormones-from-the-gut-and-pancreas
#9
Rune E Kuhre, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Olav Larsen, Sara L Jepsen, Emilie Balk-Møller, Daniel B Andersen, Carolyn F Deacon, Kristina Schoonjans, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Reidar Albrechtsen, Bolette Hartmann, Mette M Rosenkilde, Jens J Holst
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids (BAs) facilitate fat absorption and may play a role in glucose and metabolism regulation, stimulating the secretion of gut hormones. The relative importance and mechanisms involved in BA-stimulated secretion of appetite and metabolism regulating hormones from the gut and pancreas is not well described and was the purpose of this study. METHODS: The effects of bile acids on the secretion of gut and pancreatic hormones was studied in rats and compared to the most well described nutritional secretagogue: glucose...
March 17, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655655/hypothalamic-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-regulates-ghrelin-production-and-food-intake
#10
Qingjie Li, Quan Yu, Li Lin, Heng Zhang, Miao Peng, Chunxia Jing, Geyang Xu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and food intake. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. However, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production were examined in lean- or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and mHypoE-42 cells, a hypothalamic cell line. 3rd intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral-directed overexpression of PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ) reduced hypothalamic and plasma ghrelin, food intake in both lean C57BL/6J mice and diet-induced obese mice...
April 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642854/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-hypothalamus-regulated-feed-intake-induced-by-exogenous-visfatin-in-chicks
#11
Zhuanjian Li, Xuelian Liu, Panpan Zhang, Ruili Han, Guirong Sun, Ruirui Jiang, Yanbin Wang, Xiaojun Liu, Wenya Li, Xiangtao Kang, Yadong Tian
BACKGROUND: The intracerebroventricular injection of visfatin increases feed intake. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism in chicks. This study was conducted to assess the effect of visfatin on the feeding behavior of chicks and the associated molecular mechanism. RESULTS: In response to the intraventricular injection of 40 ng and 400 ng visfatin, feed intake in chicks was significantly increased, and the concentrations of glucose, insulin, TG, HDL and LDL were significantly altered...
April 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627377/fgf21-a-liver-hormone-that-inhibits-alcohol-intake-in-mice-increases-in-human-circulation-after-acute-alcohol-ingestion-and-sustained-binge-drinking-at-oktoberfest
#12
Susanna Søberg, Emilie S Andersen, Niels B Dalgaard, Ida Jarlhelt, Nina L Hansen, Nina Hoffmann, Tina Vilsbøll, Anne Chenchar, Michal Jensen, Trisha J Grevengoed, Sam A J Trammell, Filip K Knop, Matthew P Gillum
OBJECTIVE: Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. However, knowledge of the biological factors that influence ad libitum alcohol intake may be incomplete. Two large studies recently linked variants in the KLB locus with levels of alcohol intake in humans. KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers...
March 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607741/intragastric-quinine-administration-decreases-hedonic-eating-in-healthy-women-through-peptide-mediated-gut-brain-signaling-mechanisms
#13
Julie Iven, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Dongxing Zhao, Eveline Deloose, Owen G O'Daly, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove
OBJECTIVES: Intragastric bitter tastants may decrease appetite and food intake. We aimed to investigate the gut-brain signaling and brain mechanisms underlying these effects. METHODS: Brain responses to intragastric quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl, 10 µmol/kg) or placebo infusion were recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 15 healthy women. Appetite-related sensations, plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones and hedonic food intake (ad libitum drink test) were assessed...
April 2, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603098/dna-methylation-of-genes-regulating-appetite-and-prediction-of-weight-loss-after-bariatric-surgery-in-obese-individuals
#14
F Coppedè, M Seghieri, A Stoccoro, E Santini, L Giannini, C Rossi, L Migliore, A Solini
PURPOSE: Epigenetic traits are influenced by clinical variables; interaction between DNA methylation (DNAmeth) and bariatric surgery-induced weight loss has been scarcely explored. We investigated whether DNAmeth of genes encoding for molecules/hormones regulating appetite, food intake or obesity could predict successful weight outcome following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Forty-five obese individuals with no known comorbidities were stratified accordingly to weight decrease one-year after RYGB (excess weight loss, EWL ≥ 50%: good responders, GR; EWL < 50%: worse responders, WR)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601831/enhanced-amphetamine-induced-motor-impulsivity-and-mild-attentional-impairment-in-the-leptin-deficient-rat-model-of-obesity
#15
Wendy K Adams, Anna M D'souza, Jacob L Sussman, Sukhbir Kaur, Timothy J Kieffer, Catharine A Winstanley
Evidence suggests that impulse control deficits contribute to excessive food intake in some individuals with obesity. In addition to its known role in regulating appetite and glucose metabolism, the hormone leptin also directly modulates the activity of central dopamine systems. Although dopamine is involved in regulating impulsivity, the influence of leptin per se on this cognitive domain remains unclear. This study explored the performance of male leptin knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) rats in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time task (5CSRTT) of motor impulsivity and visuospatial attention...
March 27, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598932/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-likes-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Utku Erdem Soyaltin, Sevki Cetinkalp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone derived from the proglucagon gene and secreted in the distal small intestine when food enters the duodenum. GLP-1 is also produced in the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in the brainstem, and subsequently transported to a large number of regions in the CNS. Neuronal cells in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) can synthesize GLP-1 and extends to hypothalamus, some thalamic and cortical areas. A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) provides the majority of GLP-1 actions...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590534/the-role-of-il-6-in-exercise-induced-anorexia-in-normal-weight-boys
#17
Sascha Hunschede, Alexander Schwartz, Ruslan Kubant, Scott G Thomas, G Harvey Anderson
BACKGROUND: Our previous study showed that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is associated with a suppression of appetite after high-intensity exercise (HIEX), but an independent role within food intake (FI) was not defined. HYPOTHESIS: IL-6 after HIEX (75% VO2peak) is independent of appetite-hormones in suppressing appetite and FI in normal-weight (NW) boys. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of HIEX, with and without the inflammation inhibitor, ibuprofen (IBU), on IL-6 and selective biomarkers of inflammation and appetite on FI and ratings of appetite in NW boys...
March 28, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580839/the-now-and-then-of-gut-brain-signaling
#18
Melanie M Kaelberer, Diego V Bohórquez
Since their very beginnings, animals had gut sensory epithelial cells. In one of the first multicellular animals, Trichoplax - a literal wandering gut - food sensing and feeding was coordinated by specialized ventral sensor cells. In mammals, including humans, gut epithelial sensor cells (a.k.a enteroendocrine cells) have been recognized for an array of neuropeptides, like ghrelin and cholecystokinin, that modulate hunger or satiety. Indeed, since first described as "clear cells" by Rudfolf Heidenhain (1868), research efforts increasingly focused on their hormone neuropeptides leading to the alphabetical classification of one cell-one hormone (e...
March 23, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574428/thyrotoxic-crisis-as-an-acute-clinical-presentation-in-a-child
#19
Adam Bonfield, Savitha Shenoy
A previously well, 4-year-old girl presented with a 4-6 weeks' history of increased appetite, weight loss, tiredness, sleep difficulty, excessive sweating, swelling in the neck and new-onset 'prominent, protruding eyes.' Family history revealed paternal grandmother receiving treatment for hyperthyroidism. Clinical assessment demonstrated features of thyrotoxicosis (tachycardia, warm peripheries, small smooth goitre with no nodules, exophthalmos). TFT (Free T4=101 pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone <0...
March 23, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566366/psychosocial-stress-liver-regeneration-and-weight-gain-a-conspicuous-pathophysiological-triad
#20
Syeda Momna Ishtiaq, Junaid Ali Khan, Muhammad Imran Arshad
Psychosocial stress alters several physiological parameters resulting in multiple disorders, particularly compromising the immune system thereby provoking various diseases including liver disorders. However, the plausible underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recent literature provides mechanistic evidences of detrimental effects of psychosocial stress on physiology of different body organs including liver. The data of stress-induced pathophysiological changes in liver functions and obesity were systematically collected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and the Web of Science Databases published in English...
March 20, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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